Скачать презентацию Computers Information Technology in Perspective 11 e Larry Скачать презентацию Computers Information Technology in Perspective 11 e Larry

fc35b5e771a2e5d6365cf43c846a38c7.ppt

  • Количество слайдов: 25

Computers: Information Technology in Perspective, 11 e Larry Long and Nancy Long Chapter 10 Computers: Information Technology in Perspective, 11 e Larry Long and Nancy Long Chapter 10 Information Systems Copyright Prentice Hall, Inc. 1

Objectives n Once you have read and studied this chapter, you will have learned: Objectives n Once you have read and studied this chapter, you will have learned: ¨ ¨ ¨ ¨ How the use of computers and information technology can result in a competitive advantage. The qualities of information and how information needs and decision making vary at each level of an organization. The elements, scope, and capabilities of an information system. The capabilities of a data processing system and a management information system (MIS). The tools and capabilities of a decision support system (DSS). The concepts and applications of an expert system. The concepts and applications of intelligent agents. Copyright Prentice Hall, Inc. 2

Why this chapter is important to you! n n n Learning about information systems Why this chapter is important to you! n n n Learning about information systems will help you participate in key office decisions no matter what the organization Learning about information systems will help you to understand where you and your company fit in the system Understanding will help you to use the right information system at the right time and in the right place Copyright Prentice Hall, Inc. 3

Information Technology as a Competitive Strategy n n Available technology can determine if you Information Technology as a Competitive Strategy n n Available technology can determine if you are profitable or not Information Technology can: ¨ ¨ ¨ Give access to a world market Improve product & service quality Aid communication between employees Reduce costs Increase productivity Improve company morale Copyright Prentice Hall, Inc. 4

Cost, Risk, and Change n n n IT solutions can be expensive and time Cost, Risk, and Change n n n IT solutions can be expensive and time consuming Element of risk in the implantation of IT Implementing IT means change Copyright Prentice Hall, Inc. 5

Leveraging Information Technology n n n Increasing sales Increasing market share Creating new business Leveraging Information Technology n n n Increasing sales Increasing market share Creating new business Collecting data at the source Eliminating the intermediary Improving customer service Copyright Prentice Hall, Inc. 6

Information and Decision Making n n n Qualities of information Completeness of information Timeliness Information and Decision Making n n n Qualities of information Completeness of information Timeliness of information Relevance of information Accessibility of information Copyright Prentice Hall, Inc. 7

Making Decisions to Produce Products and Services Plan Organize Lead Control Strategic Management Tactical Making Decisions to Produce Products and Services Plan Organize Lead Control Strategic Management Tactical Management Operational Management Resources Employees Managers Products & Services Functions Government Customers Stockholders Copyright Prentice Hall, Inc. Financial Institutions Colleges/ Agencies Media 8

Filtering Information n Results in the right information reaching the right decision maker at Filtering Information n Results in the right information reaching the right decision maker at the right time in the right form ¨ Clerical Level n ¨ Operational Level n ¨ Exception Reports Tactical Level n ¨ Transaction Handling What-if Reports Strategic Level n Copyright Prentice Hall, Inc. One-time reports, what-if reports, and trend analysis 9

Types of Decisions n Programmed decisions ¨ Address well-defined problems n Information-based decisions ¨ Types of Decisions n Programmed decisions ¨ Address well-defined problems n Information-based decisions ¨ Unstructured decisions Copyright Prentice Hall, Inc. 10

What is an Information System Hardware Software n Information processing capabilities ¨ System’s ability What is an Information System Hardware Software n Information processing capabilities ¨ System’s ability to handle and process information People Procedures n Data Information to make better decisions ¨ System’s Copyright Prentice Hall, Inc. ability to produce on-demand information 11

What Can an Information System Do ¨ ¨ ¨ Input Source data Inquiry Response What Can an Information System Do ¨ ¨ ¨ Input Source data Inquiry Response to prompt Instruction Message Change Processing ¨ ¨ ¨ Retrieve Record Update Summarize Select Manipulate Output ¨ Hard copy ¨ Soft copy ¨ Control Copyright Prentice Hall, Inc. ¨ ¨ Storage Data Text Images Other digital information 12

Information System Types n Manual system No hardware ¨ No software ¨ n Function-based Information System Types n Manual system No hardware ¨ No software ¨ n Function-based information system ¨ n Independent of other systems Integrated information system ¨ Common databases Copyright Prentice Hall, Inc. 13

Getting Data into the System n n Online vs. Offline Source Data Source Documents Getting Data into the System n n Online vs. Offline Source Data Source Documents Methods ¨ Batch Processing ¨ Transaction-Oriented Processing Copyright Prentice Hall, Inc. 14

Data Processing System n Activities: Transaction handling ¨ Recordkeeping ¨ n n n Action Data Processing System n Activities: Transaction handling ¨ Recordkeeping ¨ n n n Action documents Scheduled reports Primarily support: Clerical personnel ¨ Operational-level managers ¨ n Inflexible Copyright Prentice Hall, Inc. 15

What is MIS? n An MIS is a computerbased system that: Optimizes the collection, What is MIS? n An MIS is a computerbased system that: Optimizes the collection, transfer, and presentation of information throughout an organization ¨ Uses an integrated structure of databases and information flow ¨ Copyright Prentice Hall, Inc. 16

Decisions Support Systems n n n DSS are interactive information systems DSS rely on Decisions Support Systems n n n DSS are interactive information systems DSS rely on an integrated set of user-friendly hardware and software tools These tools produce information to support management in the decision-making process Copyright Prentice Hall, Inc. 17

The DSS Versus the MIS n n MIS supports structured problems DSS supports semistructured The DSS Versus the MIS n n MIS supports structured problems DSS supports semistructured and unstructured problems MIS is designed and created to support a set of applications DSS can be adapted to any decision environment Copyright Prentice Hall, Inc. 18

Characteristics of DSS n n n n Helps decision maker Semistructured & unstructured problems Characteristics of DSS n n n n Helps decision maker Semistructured & unstructured problems Most effective for tactical & strategic management levels Interactive and user-friendly Uses models, simulations, & analytical tools Readily adaptable to any decision environment Interacts with a corporate database Not used for pre-established production schedule Copyright Prentice Hall, Inc. 19

The DSS Tool Box n Data Management n Data warehousing ¨ Data mining Throwaway The DSS Tool Box n Data Management n Data warehousing ¨ Data mining Throwaway systems ¨ Support a one-time decision ¨ Modeling n Decisions involve many factors ¨ Uncertainty and risk present ¨ Statistical Analysis n Risk analysis ¨ Trend analysis n ¨ Planning What-if ¨ Goal seeking ¨ n Applications Development n n Inquiry Graphics Consolidations Application-specific Copyright Prentice Hall, Inc. 20

Executive Information Systems n n The EIS supposedly offer the same decision support tools Executive Information Systems n n The EIS supposedly offer the same decision support tools as the DSS However, each tool is designed specifically to support decision making at the executive levels of management ¨ Primarily the tactical and strategic levels Copyright Prentice Hall, Inc. 21

Expert Systems n An Expert System is an interactive system ¨ ¨ Asks for Expert Systems n An Expert System is an interactive system ¨ ¨ Asks for clarification ¨ Makes recommendations ¨ n Responds to questions Helps the user in the decision-making process Simulates human thought process ¨ n n Reasons, draws inferences & makes judgments (heuristic knowledge) Information acquired from live domain experts Highest form of knowledge-based systems, not an assistant system Copyright Prentice Hall, Inc. 22

Expert System Example- Printer n n Replace technical support people Knowledge base contains: ¨ Expert System Example- Printer n n Replace technical support people Knowledge base contains: ¨ Means of identifying problem n n Copyright Prentice Hall, Inc. Possible solutions How to progress from problem to solution 23

Intelligent Agents and BOTS n n Type of artificial intelligence Can act on our Intelligent Agents and BOTS n n Type of artificial intelligence Can act on our behalf We set its goals Agent may work on: ¨ An ongoing goal n Sort e-mail An action triggered by an event ¨ A one-time goal ¨ n n n Send an e-mail Deliver a present Internet intelligent agents growing Copyright Prentice Hall, Inc. 24

Summary n n n n Information Technology as a Competitive Strategy Information and Decision Summary n n n n Information Technology as a Competitive Strategy Information and Decision Making All About Information Systems The DP System and the MIS Decision Support Systems Expert Systems Intelligent Agents and Bots Copyright Prentice Hall, Inc. 25