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Computers: How They Work 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. Computers: How They Work 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. 14. 15. 16. 17. 18. 19. 20. 21. What is a Computer Components of Computer World’s First Computers 4004 – First single chip Microprocessor Transistors in integrated circuits (ICs) Review of MOSFET transistors (how they work and how they are made) Basic building blocks from transistors NANDS, NORS, Latches, Adders Simple components using basic building blocks Integrating the components to create a 4 -bit Microprocessor Scaling up and Moore’s Law Machine Code and the processor’s Instruction Set – Software Memory types (ROM, DRAM, SRAM, FLASH) Mother Board Hard Drive Keyboard Monitor The Mouse I/O DSL and connection to Internet File Compression

Demonstrations ► ► ► PC Mother Boards Plain and Etched Wafers Silicon Ingot ICs Demonstrations ► ► ► PC Mother Boards Plain and Etched Wafers Silicon Ingot ICs with lids removed Masks Memory § § ► ► Hard Drive Magnetic Tape Punch Cards CDs Cathode Ray Tube Monitor LCDs Keyboard CCD chips

What is a Computer? ►A machine that stores instructions and operates on information/data. ► What is a Computer? ►A machine that stores instructions and operates on information/data. ► A calculator that executes a stored program (sequence of instructions) http: //www. sscnet. ucla. edu

Jacquards Loom Circa 1804 Jacquards Loom Circa 1804

Charles Babbage’s first attempt at a Computer The Analytical Engine, c. 1822 ► Designed Charles Babbage’s first attempt at a Computer The Analytical Engine, c. 1822 ► Designed to use Jacquard punch cards to store and run a program ► Mathematician, Augusta Ada Lovelace, created programs ► Steam Powered ► 25, 000 parts ► 15 tons and 8 feet high ► Never completed http: //concise. britannica. com

Difference Engine II ► Designed to calculate polynomials and compute trig and log functions Difference Engine II ► Designed to calculate polynomials and compute trig and log functions ► C. 1847 ► Crank operated Now on Display at the Computer History Museum! http: //www. computerhistory. org/babbage/

Herman Hollerith’s Census Tabulator c. 1890 Census recording performed in six weeks in 1890 Herman Hollerith’s Census Tabulator c. 1890 Census recording performed in six weeks in 1890 ► Census recording took 7 years in 1880 ► Also on Display at the Computer History Museum!

Holerith’s Tabulator ► Data entered on punch cards ► Card reader used mercury to Holerith’s Tabulator ► Data entered on punch cards ► Card reader used mercury to close a circuit which would advance a dial by one ‘tick’ http: //www. columbia. edu/acis/history/census-tabulator. html

ENIAC in 1946 First electronic computer ► Designed for the Army ► $500, 000 ENIAC in 1946 First electronic computer ► Designed for the Army ► $500, 000 ► >17, 000 Vacuum Tubes ► 150 KW of power ► Filled multiple rooms (700 sq. ft) ► Soldered and constructed by hand by the University of Penn. ►

IBM’s Accounting Machine Introduced in 1949 Punch cards used to store Fortran programs up IBM’s Accounting Machine Introduced in 1949 Punch cards used to store Fortran programs up until about 1980.

► Individual Parts ► Manual hand wiring IBM 402 ► Individual Parts ► Manual hand wiring IBM 402

The birth of the integrated circuit (IC) 1947 - using silicon as a transistor The birth of the integrated circuit (IC) 1947 - using silicon as a transistor is discovered ► 1960 - TI put 10 transistors on one piece of silicon ► Used in Apollo Space Program – lower power and weight ►

Intel 4004 The World’s first Microprocessor, made in 1971 Computer on a chip! It Intel 4004 The World’s first Microprocessor, made in 1971 Computer on a chip! It had 2300 transistors and ran at 740 KHz. It could execute 45 instructions. Could execute 96, 000 instructions per second As powerful as the ENIAC

Where’s the chip? Where’s the chip?

Microprocessor ►A logic machine that can execute a computer program. ► A Central Processing Microprocessor ►A logic machine that can execute a computer program. ► A Central Processing Unit (CPU) integrated into a single chip (i. e. constructed as an integrated circuit or IC on a single piece of Silicon) http: //en. wikipedia. org/wiki/Central_processing_unit

Busicom Busicom

In 1965 Gordon Moore predicted that the number of transistors on a chip would In 1965 Gordon Moore predicted that the number of transistors on a chip would double every two years. Moore’s Law

http: //www. computerhistory. org/semiconductor/ http: //www. computerhistory. org/semiconductor/

Wikipedia micron = 10 -6 meters The feature size of an integrated circuit is Wikipedia micron = 10 -6 meters The feature size of an integrated circuit is indicated by the width of a "wire, " measured in microns (one micron is one millionth of a meter). Analysis and Design of Analog Integrated Circuits (4 th Edition)

Components of a Computer ► Processor ► Memory ► Input/Output Processor Memory (ROM, RAM, Components of a Computer ► Processor ► Memory ► Input/Output Processor Memory (ROM, RAM, Registers, Cache) Output (Monitor, speakers, USB Drive, Printer, DSL, Hard Drive) USB – Universal Serial Bus Input (Keyboard, Mouse USB Drive, DSL, Touchscreen, Microphone, Hard Drive) DSL – Digital Subscriber Line

4004 Processor http: //en. wikipedia. org 4004 Processor http: //en. wikipedia. org

What’s Inside a basic CPU? (Central Processing Unit) ► ALU (Arithmetic Logic Unit) ► What’s Inside a basic CPU? (Central Processing Unit) ► ALU (Arithmetic Logic Unit) ► Instruction Decoder ► Program Counter ► Instruction Register ► Data Registers ► Accumulator (place for storing a sum) ► Clock for sequencing operations

CPUs are made from Transistors are tiny switches that can open and close very CPUs are made from Transistors are tiny switches that can open and close very quickly. A negative voltage will turn this transistor ‘on’. http: //www. answers. com

n. MOS Transistor (n-channel) A positive voltage will turn this transistor ‘on’. http: //www. n. MOS Transistor (n-channel) A positive voltage will turn this transistor ‘on’. http: //www. ugrad. cs. ubc. ca

Chips can have millions of transistors built on a small piece of silicon. CMOS Chips can have millions of transistors built on a small piece of silicon. CMOS stands for ‘Complimentary Metal Oxide Semiconductor’. This means CMOS chips contain both p. MOS and n. MOS transistors. http: //www. britannica. com

Transistors are used to make logic gates http: //www. iclayoutonline. com Transistors are used to make logic gates http: //www. iclayoutonline. com

Making the Inverter Logic Gate Making the Inverter Logic Gate

Making the Exclusive OR gate (XOR) http: //www. ibiblio. org/obp/electric. Circuits Making the Exclusive OR gate (XOR) http: //www. ibiblio. org/obp/electric. Circuits

Now what can be made with NAND, NOR, & XOR gates? 1 -bit adder Now what can be made with NAND, NOR, & XOR gates? 1 -bit adder (Full Adder)

Multiplexer http: //users. ece. gatech. edu A multiplexer selects one of many sources to Multiplexer http: //users. ece. gatech. edu A multiplexer selects one of many sources to send to the output.

1 -Bit ALU (Arithmetic Logic Unit) Coming from the Instructions http: //www. cs. umd. 1 -Bit ALU (Arithmetic Logic Unit) Coming from the Instructions http: //www. cs. umd. edu/

4004 Processor http: //en. wikipedia. org 4004 Processor http: //en. wikipedia. org

Cascading 1 -bit ALU to get a 3 -bit ALU http: //www. cs. umd. Cascading 1 -bit ALU to get a 3 -bit ALU http: //www. cs. umd. edu/class/spring 2003/cmsc 311

Memory – A Device that “remembers” a previous input. Registers are the high speed Memory – A Device that “remembers” a previous input. Registers are the high speed memory on the CPU chip. These registers are used for storing data that is frequently needed. Instructions are pre-fetched and stored in registers too so that they are ready when needed.

Registers Registers

1 -bit Latch (Flip Flop) Static Ram and registers are constructed with this logic. 1 -bit Latch (Flip Flop) Static Ram and registers are constructed with this logic. The state of Q is retained as long as power is on.

http: //www. cise. ufl. edu Clocked Latch Also known as a D-Flip Flop http: //www. cise. ufl. edu Clocked Latch Also known as a D-Flip Flop

Cascading Flip Flops to build an N-bit register Cascading Flip Flops to build an N-bit register

Now we know how to add binary numbers and store binary data ► Use Now we know how to add binary numbers and store binary data ► Use Flip Flops to store instructions which are coded as binary (base-2) numbers ► Use an ALU to add numbers together ► Scale this concept up to accommodate larger numbers ► Add more functionality to the ALU

Microinstructions are coded and stored as binary data ► Microinstructions are the controls that Microinstructions are coded and stored as binary data ► Microinstructions are the controls that make the hardware operate ► Microinstructions are coded in 1’s and 0’s ► Microinstructions are unique to the processor (each processor has it’s own instruction set) ► The clock sequences operations and keeps operations in lock step

00011011 Add C, #1 To Registers A, B, C, and D To avoid large 00011011 Add C, #1 To Registers A, B, C, and D To avoid large decoder circuits, the codes are broken up into fields. In this example there are three fields, each field has dedicated decoding circuitry: 1. The command 2. The data to be used http: //webster. cs. ucr. edu

2 to 4 decoders http: //users. ece. gatech. edu 2 to 4 decoders http: //users. ece. gatech. edu

Software commands Hardware C++ high level codes gets compiled/translated into low level machine codes Software commands Hardware C++ high level codes gets compiled/translated into low level machine codes while (amt 2 <= amt 1) { amt 1 = amt 1 + 100; amt 2 = amt 2 + 0. 05*amt 2; year++; } 14: while (amt 2 <= amt 1) 004015 BB fld dword ptr [ebp-8] 004015 BE fcomp dword ptr [ebp-4] 004015 C 1 fnstsw ax 004015 C 3 test ah, 41 h 004015 C 6 je main+70 h (004015 f 0) 15: { 16: amt 1 = amt 1 + 100; 004015 C 8 fld dword ptr [ebp-4] 004015 CB fadd dword ptr [[email protected]@4005 c 80000000 (0046 f 0 a 4)] 004015 D 1 fstp dword ptr [ebp-4] 17: amt 2 = amt 2 + 0. 05*amt 2; 004015 D 4 fld dword ptr [ebp-8] 004015 D 7 fld dword ptr [ebp-8] 004015 DA fmul qword ptr [[email protected]@3 ffaccccccd 000 (0046 f 098)] 004015 E 0 faddp st(1), st 004015 E 2 fstp dword ptr [ebp-8] 18: year++; 004015 E 5 mov eax, dword ptr [ebp-14 h] 004015 E 8 add eax, 1 004015 EB mov dword ptr [ebp-14 h], eax 19: }

Fetch-Decode-Execute Cycle ► Fetch an Instruction: § Fetch instruction at address stored in address Fetch-Decode-Execute Cycle ► Fetch an Instruction: § Fetch instruction at address stored in address register § Increment Program Counter § Load the Instruction Register with this Instruction

► Decode § Decode the Instruction § Fetch the operands ► Execute § ALU ► Decode § Decode the Instruction § Fetch the operands ► Execute § ALU or other logic performs the operation § The result is then written to memory or to a register.

Memory Hierarchy http: //www. surriel. com/lectures/hierarchy. gif Memory Hierarchy http: //www. surriel. com/lectures/hierarchy. gif

Cache Memory http: //content. answers. com Cache Memory http: //content. answers. com

SRAM ► Static Random Access Memory ► Retains data in memory as long as SRAM ► Static Random Access Memory ► Retains data in memory as long as power is on ► Uses flip flops (4 -6 transistors each) ► Fast but more expensive due to more chip realestate needed for each memory location compared to DRAM ► Used for cache memory ► Access time 10 nanoseconds

DRAM and SDRAM ► Dynamic RAM § Dynamic refers to the need to refresh DRAM and SDRAM ► Dynamic RAM § Dynamic refers to the need to refresh the data ► Synchronous DRAM § (Timing of memory chip is synchronized with CPU clock) Data is stored as electrical charge in a capacitors ► Capacitors will discharge requiring that memory be refreshed every few milliseconds. This slows down the DRAM ► Dense therefore least expensive form of memory ► http: //www. electronics. dit. ie/staff/tscarff/memory/ram. htm

10 byte DRAM The word “random” means bytes can be accessed randomly. Data access 10 byte DRAM The word “random” means bytes can be accessed randomly. Data access is not sequential like a magnetic tape. http: //www. cse. scu. edu

SIMM & DIMM ► Single In-line memory module ► Dual In-line memory module ► SIMM & DIMM ► Single In-line memory module ► Dual In-line memory module ► These cards are DRAMS http: //en. wikipedia. org/wiki/DIMM

ROM of three memory locations, Diodes each ‘word’ of memory is 3 bits ► ROM of three memory locations, Diodes each ‘word’ of memory is 3 bits ► Read Only Memory ► Data contents can not be changed ► Data retained even when power is off ► Manufactured with the data ► Used for booting up computer and loading Operating System ► Device Driver software http: //www. compeng. dit. ie

Flash Memory Type of EEPROM (Electrically Eraseable Programmable Read Only Memory) ► Using Floating Flash Memory Type of EEPROM (Electrically Eraseable Programmable Read Only Memory) ► Using Floating Gate Transistors to store bits ► Non-volatile (power not needed to maintain data) ► MP 3 Players are flash drives with extra circuitry to decode data to analog music signals ► http: //electronicdesign. com/Articles/Article. ID/16383. html

Hard Drive 50 -80 GBytes ► Data http: //www. metallurgy. utah. edu/ stored magnetically Hard Drive 50 -80 GBytes ► Data http: //www. metallurgy. utah. edu/ stored magnetically ► Permanent Storage, Non-volatile memory ► Fast - Spins 4, 500 to 12, 000 rpm ► Dense and Inexpensive ► Data easily erased and rewritten ► Iron Oxide or very thin magnetic film applied with a sputtering process stores magnetic data

Actuator Arm Spindle Platter Read/Write head Actuator Arm Spindle Platter Read/Write head

Multiple Platters Head 20 -50 nm from platter surface A human hair is 100 Multiple Platters Head 20 -50 nm from platter surface A human hair is 100 nm Read-Write Head How Stuff Works wikipedia www. hddtech. co. uk

The voice-coil actuator controls the movement of the actuator arm ► ► ► Positions The voice-coil actuator controls the movement of the actuator arm ► ► ► Positions the read/write heads Similar to a speaker! Uses a coil and permanent magnet Converts electrical signals into mechanical movement In this picture, magnet has been moved to the left during disassembly to expose the coil Coil moves freely under the magnet http: //www. storagereview. com/guide 2000/ref/hdd/op/over. html

Small Tolerances ► 5 -80 Mbytes/sec media transfer rate ► Scaled up to size Small Tolerances ► 5 -80 Mbytes/sec media transfer rate ► Scaled up to size of Boeing, tolerances are equivalent to traveling at 65 mph at an altitude of 1. 5 mm As an analogy, a magnetic head slider flying over a disk surface with a flying height of 25 nm with a relative speed of 20 meters/second is equivalent to an aircraft flying at a physical spacing of 0. 2 µm at 900 kilometers/hour. This is what a disk drive experiences during its operation. ” —Magnetic Storage Systems Beyond 2000, George C. Hadjipanayis

…. A Computer is much more than a processor Processor Intel® Core™ 2 Q …. A Computer is much more than a processor Processor Intel® Core™ 2 Q 6600 Quad-Core (8 MB L 2 cache, 2. 4 GHz, 1066 FSB) ► Video Cards 768 MB n. Vidia Ge. Force 8800 GTX ► Memory 2 GB* Dual Channel DDR 2 SDRAM at 667 MHz - 2 DIMMs ► Hard Drive: 500 GB* 7200 RPM, SATA 3. 0 Gb/s, 16 MB Cache ► Optical Drive Single Drive: Bluray Disc Drive (BD/DVD/CD burner w/double layer BD write ► Monitors 20 inch E 207 WFP Widescreen Digital Flat Panel ► http: //www. dell. com