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Computers: A short history Computers: A short history

In the beginning…. The best place to begin is in the beginning… n Man In the beginning…. The best place to begin is in the beginning… n Man has been attempting to improve the accuracy and capability of it’s mathematical abilities since we learned to count…. . n

Computers: Early Attempts Computers: Early Attempts

Pascal n Blaine Pascal (1623 – 1662) n Created a machine that was able Pascal n Blaine Pascal (1623 – 1662) n Created a machine that was able to do addition and subtraction by means of gears and a hand crank. n n This was to aid his father, a French tax collector He built it when he was 19

Leibniz n Baron Gottfied Wilheml von Leibniz (1645 – 1716) n Created a machine Leibniz n Baron Gottfied Wilheml von Leibniz (1645 – 1716) n Created a machine that could also multiply and divide

Babbage n Charles Babbage (1792 – 1871) n Created a machine similar to Pascal’s Babbage n Charles Babbage (1792 – 1871) n Created a machine similar to Pascal’s n n It used one formula to create tables used for marine navigation and printed the results onto a copper engraver’s plate Babbage's “difference engine” could only add and subtract. He quickly desired to create a better machine

Babbage cont. n “analytical engine” n Had four components n The store (memory) n Babbage cont. n “analytical engine” n Had four components n The store (memory) n The mill (computation unit) n Input Section (punched card reader) n Output Section (punched and printed output) n Could store 1000 words of 50 decimal digits

Babbage cont. n Innovations from the invention Data could be loaded from memory, acted Babbage cont. n Innovations from the invention Data could be loaded from memory, acted upon and then stored back into memory n Decisions about what the “program” should do could be based on whether a certain value was positive or negative (“branching”) n Operated according to user created instructions (programmable) n

Babbage cont. n n Creation of first programming language First programmer n Lady Ada Babbage cont. n n Creation of first programming language First programmer n Lady Ada Lovelace n Daughter of British Poet Lord Byron

Opportune Conditions n “One has only to recall the lack of significant interest in Opportune Conditions n “One has only to recall the lack of significant interest in calculating machines in the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries to realize that a technology becomes important historically not when it is developed but when it is applied in a practical and cost-effective manner. ” -James W. Cortada Author

n Modern technologies tend to build on previous technologies. n Calculators and punch-card driven n Modern technologies tend to build on previous technologies. n Calculators and punch-card driven machines were growing in popularity from the late 1800’s into the early 1900’s

Electricity Electrical Power Production, 1920 40 (billions of kilowatt hours) Year 1920 1925 1930 Electricity Electrical Power Production, 1920 40 (billions of kilowatt hours) Year 1920 1925 1930 1935 U. S. Germany 30 15 55 20 90 29 98 36 France 6 11 17 18 Italy 5 7 11 14 U. K. 9 12 18 26 1940 140 24 21 38 62

Mathematical and Information Theory n Gottfried Wilhelm Leibniz (1646 1716) n Founded universal calculus Mathematical and Information Theory n Gottfried Wilhelm Leibniz (1646 1716) n Founded universal calculus n Leibniz notation n George Boole (1815 1864) n “…made the critical leap forward in mathematics that would directly influence the evolution of any computer that used electricity. ”

Advances in technology n Vacuum tubes, relays, switches n We will discuss these in Advances in technology n Vacuum tubes, relays, switches n We will discuss these in more detail shortly

Modern Computers Modern Computers

Generation 1 Vacuum Tubes Generation 1 Vacuum Tubes

COLOSSUS 1 st Electronic computer n Built by Britain to crack the ENIGMA encoding COLOSSUS 1 st Electronic computer n Built by Britain to crack the ENIGMA encoding system used by the Nazi’s in WWII n Was classified for 30 years n n No affect on the computer industry

ENIAC n n 1 st American Computer Built to calculate artillery trajectory tables n ENIAC n n 1 st American Computer Built to calculate artillery trajectory tables n n n This task was currently being done by hundreds of women hired by the government Weighed 30 tons and consumed 140 kilowatts Programmed by 6000 multi-position switches

EDSAC n Maurice Wilkes, University of Chicago n Wilkes came up with the idea EDSAC n Maurice Wilkes, University of Chicago n Wilkes came up with the idea of having a separate language to write code in and then creating a way to break that down into machine usable code

EDVAC Better version of the ENIAC n Created by Mauchley and Eckert's new company EDVAC Better version of the ENIAC n Created by Mauchley and Eckert's new company n n n Later became Unisys Corp. Also was over-budget and late

Computers in print Calculators were first written about by Newsweek and Businessweek in 1945 Computers in print Calculators were first written about by Newsweek and Businessweek in 1945 n They, along with Time and Life, ran articles on calculators again in 1946 n

Computers go Prime Time n The UNIVAC I made it’s television debut on Nov. Computers go Prime Time n The UNIVAC I made it’s television debut on Nov. 4, 1952. n With only 27 states reporting and 3. 4 million votes out of an estimated 60 million the UNIVAC I predicted the outcome to within 4 electoral votes

1940’s – early 1950’s n Computers were primary the domain of theorists, engineers and 1940’s – early 1950’s n Computers were primary the domain of theorists, engineers and educational institutes n The vast majority of funding came from the government who had seem the benefits as related to defense use

John von Neumann n Genius n “. . was a genius in the same John von Neumann n Genius n “. . was a genius in the same league as Leonardo Da Vinci. He spoke many languages, was an expert in the physical sciences and mathematics, and had total recall of everything he ever heard, saw , or read. ” “…he was already the most eminent mathematician in the world”

von Neumann machine Memory Input Control Unit Arithmetic logic unit Output von Neumann machine Memory Input Control Unit Arithmetic logic unit Output

Generation 2 Transistors (1955 – 1965) Generation 2 Transistors (1955 – 1965)

Transistors Developed at Bell Labs in 1948 n John Bardeen, Walter Brattain, and William Transistors Developed at Bell Labs in 1948 n John Bardeen, Walter Brattain, and William Shockley were awarded the 1956 Nobel Prize in Physics for this invention n

Government dollars drive R&D n “As late as 1959, one government study suggested that Government dollars drive R&D n “As late as 1959, one government study suggested that 85% of research and development in electronics in the U. S. was being paid for by various government agencies” -Cortada p. 67

Late 1950’s – 1960’s New technologies have made it economically possible for companies to Late 1950’s – 1960’s New technologies have made it economically possible for companies to purchase a computer to do their large scale data processing. n The “industry” has started to drive the improvements in technology thereby taking some of the financial burden off of the government n

TX-0 n Developed at M. I. T. First computer to use transistors n Didn’t TX-0 n Developed at M. I. T. First computer to use transistors n Didn’t become very popular n A student that worked on the TX-0 founded DEC n

n PDP-1 n Was created by DEC which was founded by a former M. n PDP-1 n Was created by DEC which was founded by a former M. I. T. student. Created as a cheaper solution than the IBM 7090 which was the fastest computer in the world at the time n n n PDP-1 = $120, 000 7090 = $millions spacewars

PDP-8 n Followed the PDP-1 Sold 50, 000 units n Cost $16, 000 n PDP-8 n Followed the PDP-1 Sold 50, 000 units n Cost $16, 000 n

n n Released in 1964 Was 10 x faster than the 7094 when it n n Released in 1964 Was 10 x faster than the 7094 when it was released due to multiple processing units n n n Separate processors for addition and multiplication Separates systems tasks and computations Designed by Seymour Cray who went on to found Cray Super Computers which is still one of the premiere producers of super computers. 6600

Generation 3 Integrated Circuits (1965 – 1980) Generation 3 Integrated Circuits (1965 – 1980)

Silicon Integrated Circuit Developed by Robert Noyce in 1958 n “allowed dozens of transistors Silicon Integrated Circuit Developed by Robert Noyce in 1958 n “allowed dozens of transistors to be put on a single chip. ” n

IBM 360 series was the first “family” of computers n Shared arcitechture and language IBM 360 series was the first “family” of computers n Shared arcitechture and language n Provided scalability and a common interface for companies n

PDP-11 n n n Little brother to IBM’s 360 family just as PDP-1 was PDP-11 n n n Little brother to IBM’s 360 family just as PDP-1 was a little brother to the 7090 Sold well due to it’s lower cost Still popular amongst computer hardware collectors and hobbyists

1970’s We begin to see computer shrinking in size and growing in power n 1970’s We begin to see computer shrinking in size and growing in power n This enables companies to buy workstations which hook individual employees into the giant mainframes from their desks n

Email - 1972 “Ray Tomlinson of BBN develops a program to send messages across Email - 1972 “Ray Tomlinson of BBN develops a program to send messages across ARPANET. His program uses the "@" sign to separate email users' names from their machines. ” –History Channel n Three days later Ray is the first person to received Spam n

Phreaking n Tech savy nerds were able to build “little blue boxes” which allowed Phreaking n Tech savy nerds were able to build “little blue boxes” which allowed them to control the phone switching systems by setting the boxes to produce certain tones n The phone companies beat this by sending the switching signals and the callers voice on separate lines

The Social Side of Computing Computers and the computing industry was in an interesting The Social Side of Computing Computers and the computing industry was in an interesting phase as the industry was beginning to be driven by the elite who were breaking ground daily. n Companies where now beginning to try and harness these geniuses but they really didn’t care (for the most part) about the money n

Problems in Paradise n First document network plague n In 1972 a computer had Problems in Paradise n First document network plague n In 1972 a computer had an error telling other email servers that it could deliver mail for a negative cost n All mail on the “internet” at the time was routed to this computer and was subsequently lost Happened again Oct 27, 1980 n Jan 15, 1990 n

Generation 4 Very Large Scale Circuits (VLSI) 1980 - present Generation 4 Very Large Scale Circuits (VLSI) 1980 - present

VLSI n VLSI allowed for thousands, then hundreds of thousands and now millions of VLSI n VLSI allowed for thousands, then hundreds of thousands and now millions of transistors to be put onto a chip

1980’s Continual improvements in technology have made it feasible for individual employees to actually 1980’s Continual improvements in technology have made it feasible for individual employees to actually have their own computer that they alone work on n Centralized computer still exist and done large tasks but also serve as a data repository for the smaller, independent machines n

“Own one today” Computers were beginning to come home and as such were becoming “Own one today” Computers were beginning to come home and as such were becoming less ominous n The software and hardware really weren’t built for the average consumer and still required a good deal of technical knowledge to use well n

Tragedy in technology n Computer Horror Story: the Therac-25 Late 1980’s n Was the Tragedy in technology n Computer Horror Story: the Therac-25 Late 1980’s n Was the “newest” in a line of cancer treatments which used a focused pulse of radiation to kill cancer cells n The machine was not properly designed and as a result several patients were literally “cooked” by the supposedly helpful radiation beams n

Birth of the PC In the early 80 s IBM, now the king of Birth of the PC In the early 80 s IBM, now the king of high-end computers, decides that they want to enter the consumer market n Give a lone engineer a bag of money and instruct him to build a computer n He returns with a reasonably prices computer built from parts he bought from a local electronics store n

PC cont. The new computer was sold as a kit that one would assemble PC cont. The new computer was sold as a kit that one would assemble n Along with the kit IBM sold the manual that the engineer had assembled when he built the first computer n

New Type of Millionaire n Computer companies started creating a new class of 20 New Type of Millionaire n Computer companies started creating a new class of 20 -something millionaire’s “overnight” n Apple’s stock went public in 1980. It went from $7 to $29 in one day making both of its founders millionaires “The Steves” (Wozniak and Jobs) Founders of Apple Computers

Millionaires cont. n Most of the “techies” that drove the computer revolution didn’t end Millionaires cont. n Most of the “techies” that drove the computer revolution didn’t end up making a lot of money Some had not cared about the business end at all or had fell victim to “aggressive” business partners n Some reinvested their earned money into starting their own companies which subsequently flopped n Some did it for the love of the game and still do(i. e. The Woz) n

GUI’s, Mice and networks n n As computers worked their way into homes users GUI’s, Mice and networks n n As computers worked their way into homes users demanded more usability. All three of these were actually developed by XEROX at their PARC facility but XEROX executives decided that the copier market was more lucrative

More problems n Feb 25, 1991 n US Patriot Anti-missle had an error in More problems n Feb 25, 1991 n US Patriot Anti-missle had an error in the code resulting in a loss of accuracy of 1/100, 000 of a second every second n This was acceptable as these batteries were made to run for a maximum length of 14 hrs. at a time but on this day the battery had been going for 4 days

Economic Reasoning n Computers were an economic anomaly in that as the technology matured, Economic Reasoning n Computers were an economic anomaly in that as the technology matured, the production cost went down and not up n The dollar cost for computing “horsepower” has been dropping rates between 22% and 26% per year since the 1950’s

1990’s - today n n n The personal computer now can be found in 1990’s - today n n n The personal computer now can be found in the home, the dorm, the office, the park and most every where else. Families now own multiple computers Consumers are able to purchase parts and build their own

Technology Drivers n The uber-nerd has given up control of the industry now and Technology Drivers n The uber-nerd has given up control of the industry now and it is driven by the consumer n n Companies will include technology that isn’t even useful in order to make their product look more attarctiv Standardization n There are now far less computer manufacturers than there used to be and even fewer operating systems n Standardization has given the end user a simpler product but has also limited their options

Moore’s Law n Gordon Moore published a paper in the mid 60’s which stated Moore’s Law n Gordon Moore published a paper in the mid 60’s which stated the one could expect technology to double every one to two years.

New Worries n n Viruses n New Viruses are constantly being written/found. These can New Worries n n Viruses n New Viruses are constantly being written/found. These can bring entire companies to there knees and are a very real fear for most Hackers n Many fear entry by an individual seeking to do harm to their company n Whitehats n Individuals who “hack in” and then fix the holes they used to get in

Moore’s Law cont. n Can we maintain this rate of advancement indefinately? Moore’s Law cont. n Can we maintain this rate of advancement indefinately?

Computers as we know them… Looking at the table which gives an idea of Computers as we know them… Looking at the table which gives an idea of where Moore’s law will take us in the future we can see that around 2020 the width of the circuitry will be in the 1 molecule range which will be too unstable for normal usage. n Other options, such as bio-computers, are the topic of current research n

The future… n “the choice between alternatives ultimately depends neither on technical nor economic The future… n “the choice between alternatives ultimately depends neither on technical nor economic efficiency, but on the ‘fit’ between devices and the interests and beliefs of the various social groups that influence the design process. What singles out an artifact is its relationships to the social environment, not some intrinsic property” -Feenberg 1999, 79

Some numbers to consider… n Sixty million transistors were manufactured last year for every Some numbers to consider… n Sixty million transistors were manufactured last year for every man, woman, and child on Earth. By 2010, that figure will reach 1 billion transistors a year

W. says…. . n I was interested to read that our government plans to W. says…. . n I was interested to read that our government plans to spend $53 billion on information technology next year. Now, if you're one of the recipients of that $53 billion, make sure that the product actually works, please. (Laughter and applause. ) It is important. It's important to make sure government functions better, but more importantly, it will help our taxpayers have better response to democracy and get better information more quickly. And so I'm pleased that we're working on egovernment. I just urge people to focus on results and not process. -www. whitehouse. gov

Sources n n n n Works Cited Cortada, James W. The Computer in the Sources n n n n Works Cited Cortada, James W. The Computer in the United States: 1930 - 1960. N. p. : M. E. Sharpe, 1993. Feenberg, Nadrew. 1999, Questioning Technology, London: Routledge. Groeger, Martin. Overnight Millionaires. 8 July 2002. 4 Dec. 2002 . History Channel Technology Timeline. The History Channel. 04 Dec. 2002 . Lazere, Cathy, and Dennis Shasha. Out of thier minds. N. p. : Copernicus, 1995. Mc. Cartney, Scott. "ENIAC: The Triumphs and Tragedies of the World’s First Computer. " History Computer Review. Aug. 2000: 107 -108. Info. Trac. 5 Nov. 2002. Keyword: computer history. President Discusses the Future Technology at White House Forum. 13 June 2002. U. S. Govnerment. 20 Nov. 2002 . Rawlins, Gregory J. Moths to the Flame. Cambridge, Massachusetts: The MIT press, 1996. "Reverting to the bad old days. " History Computer Review. 7. Infotrac. June 2002. Rhey, Erick. PCMagazine. 3 Sept. 2002. 8 Nov. 2002 . Tanenbaum, Andrew S. Structured Computer Organization. 4 th ed. N. p. : Prentice Hall, 1999. Turley, Jim. PCMagazine. 3 Sept. 2002. 15 Nov. 2002 . Wertheim, Margaret. "The Pearly Gates of Cyberspace: A History of Space from Dante to the Internet. " History Computer Review. Aug. 2000: 109 -112. Info. Trac. 1 Nov. 2002.

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