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Complementation test: a way to define, what a gene is. (“A gene is a unit of genetic complementation”) If two recessive mutations that exhibit the same phenotype FAIL to complement each other, then they are in the same gene (note that this defines what a “gene” is – it’s the entire entity, recessive mutations in which do not complement each other). If two recessive mutations that exhibit the same phenotype DO complement each other, they are in different genes (by definition). What, exactly, is “complementation”?
XY XX+Sry transgene
Baur et al. Nature 444: 337. Lagouge et al. Cell 127: 1109.
“If you belong to a certain extended family in Seattle, you're probably an entrepreneur. It seems to be about the only career many of the members ever considered. ''It's in our blood'' said Brian Jacobsen, president of Madison Park Greetings, a stationery and gifts company. Mr. Jacobsen's brother, mother, grandfather, two uncles, two cousins and an aunt all started and ran their own companies and say they cannot imagine any other livelihood. Why are so many people in the same clan hooked? Some of them have a theory. They believe that somewhere in their chromosomes lurks an actual entrepreneurial gene -that their bent for business really is in their blood. ”
“The index case for the present study was a tenyear-old child, well known to the medical service after regularly performing 'street theatre'. He placed knives through his arms and walked on burning coals, but experienced no pain. He died before being seen on his fourteenth birthday, after jumping off a house roof. ”
“Patients who are homozygous for the sickle hemoglobin mutation can present with remarkably different clinical courses, varying from death in childhood, to recurrent painful vasoocclusive crises and multiple organ damage in adults, to being relatively well even until old age. Increasing numbers of genetic loci have now been identified that can modulate sickle cell disease phenotype, from nucleotide motifs within the beta-globin gene cluster, to genes located on different chromosomes. With recent success of the human genome project, it is anticipated that many more genetic modifiers of sickle cell disease will be discovered that can lead to the development of more effective therapeutic approaches. The multigenic origin of the variable phenotype in sickle cell disease will serve as a paradigm for the study of variation in phenotypes of all single gene disorders in man. ” Curr Opin Pediatr. 2001 Feb; 13(1): 22 -7.
Take 7 yarrow plants, grow cuttings from each one at different elevations. Measure each “child” at each elevation.
People with insufficient education in genetics AND statistics and not enough time to look at the primary data