Compiled by I. A. Cheremisina Harrer 11 Lecture

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Compiled by I. A. Cheremisina Harrer 11 Lecture 1 Lexicology as a Science  Compiled by I. A. Cheremisina Harrer 11 Lecture 1 Lexicology as a Science

Compiled by I. A. Cheremisina Harrer 22 CONTENTS 1. 1. Definition of lexicology 2. 2. ApproachesCompiled by I. A. Cheremisina Harrer 22 CONTENTS 1. 1. Definition of lexicology 2. 2. Approaches to language study 3. 3. Links with other branches of linguistics 4. 4. Branches of lexicology

Compiled by I. A. Cheremisina Harrer 33 TEST (1) 1. How many words are there inCompiled by I. A. Cheremisina Harrer 33 TEST (1) 1. How many words are there in English? A)A) 10, 000 B)B) 100, 000 C)C) 250, 000 D)D) 500,

Compiled by I. A. Cheremisina Harrer 44 TEST (2) 22. .  Winston Churchill was famousCompiled by I. A. Cheremisina Harrer 44 TEST (2) 22. . Winston Churchill was famous for his particularly large vocabulary. How many words did he use in his writing? a)a) 10, 000 b)b) 60, 000 c)c) 100, 000 d)d) 120,

Compiled by I. A. Cheremisina Harrer 55 TEST (3) 3. How many words does the averageCompiled by I. A. Cheremisina Harrer 55 TEST (3) 3. How many words does the average native speaker use in his/her everyday speech? a)a) 2, 500 b)b) 5, 000 c)c) 7, 500 d)d) 10,

Compiled by I. A. Cheremisina Harrer 66 TEST (4) 4. How many words make up 45Compiled by I. A. Cheremisina Harrer 66 TEST (4) 4. How many words make up 45% of everything written in English? a)a) 5050 b)b) 250250 c)c) 1, 000 d)d) 2,

Compiled by I. A. Cheremisina Harrer 771. Definition of lexicology ‘‘ Lexis’ (of Greek origin) =Compiled by I. A. Cheremisina Harrer 771. Definition of lexicology ‘‘ Lexis’ (of Greek origin) = ‘word, phrase’ ‘‘ logos’ (of Greek origin) = ‘learning, branch of knowledge’ Lexicology – study of words

Compiled by I. A. Cheremisina Harrer 88 Lexicon (then) Appeared in the 17 thth century AtCompiled by I. A. Cheremisina Harrer 88 Lexicon (then) Appeared in the 17 thth century At that time it referred to a book containing a selection of language words and meanings, arranged in alphabetical order.

Compiled by I. A. Cheremisina Harrer 99 Lexicon (now) Keeps the original meaning Has also takenCompiled by I. A. Cheremisina Harrer 99 Lexicon (now) Keeps the original meaning Has also taken on a more abstract sense (within linguistics) – it refers to the total stock of meaningful units (morphemes, words, word groups, idioms)

Compiled by I. A. Cheremisina Harrer 1010 Study of English lexicon How words are formed HowCompiled by I. A. Cheremisina Harrer 1010 Study of English lexicon How words are formed How they have developed over time How they are used now How they relate in meaning to each other How they are handled in dictionaries and other word books

Compiled by I. A. Cheremisina Harrer 1111 Lexicology (aims and methods) Study and systematic description ofCompiled by I. A. Cheremisina Harrer 1111 Lexicology (aims and methods) Study and systematic description of vocabulary in respect to its origin, development and current use.

Compiled by I. A. Cheremisina Harrer 1212 General lexicology The general study of words and vocabulary,Compiled by I. A. Cheremisina Harrer 1212 General lexicology The general study of words and vocabulary, irrespective of the specific features of any particular language, is known as general lexicology. . General theory of vocabulary.

Compiled by I. A. Cheremisina Harrer 1313 Special lexicology Devotes its attention to the description ofCompiled by I. A. Cheremisina Harrer 1313 Special lexicology Devotes its attention to the description of the characteristic peculiarities in the vocabulary of a given language (e. g. English, Russian).

Compiled by I. A. Cheremisina Harrer 14142. Approaches to language study Synchronic approach Greek synsyn ‘together,Compiled by I. A. Cheremisina Harrer 14142. Approaches to language study Synchronic approach Greek synsyn ‘together, with’ and chronos ‘time’ Diachronic approach Greek diadia ‘through’

Compiled by I. A. Cheremisina Harrer 1515 The synchronic approach is concerned with the vocabulary ofCompiled by I. A. Cheremisina Harrer 1515 The synchronic approach is concerned with the vocabulary of a language as it exists at a given time, for instance, at the present time. It is special descriptive lexicology that deals with the vocabulary and vocabulary units of a particular language at a certain time.

Compiled by I. A. Cheremisina Harrer 1616 A course in modern English lexicology is therefore aCompiled by I. A. Cheremisina Harrer 1616 A course in modern English lexicology is therefore a course in special descriptive lexicology, its object of study being the English vocabulary as it exists at the present time.

Compiled by I. A. Cheremisina Harrer 1717 The diachronic approach in terms of special lexicology dealsCompiled by I. A. Cheremisina Harrer 1717 The diachronic approach in terms of special lexicology deals with the changes and the development of vocabulary in the course of time.

Compiled by I. A. Cheremisina Harrer 1818 The English historical lexicology is concerned with the originCompiled by I. A. Cheremisina Harrer 1818 The English historical lexicology is concerned with the origin of English vocabulary units, their change and development, the linguistic and extralinguistic factors modifying their structure, meaning and usage within the history of English.

Compiled by I. A. Cheremisina Harrer 1919 Distinction between 2 approaches Serves the purpose of investigationCompiled by I. A. Cheremisina Harrer 1919 Distinction between 2 approaches Serves the purpose of investigation what in real language is inseparable. So the vocabulary can be studied synchronically, i. e. in the context of the processes through which it grew, developed and acquired its modern form.

Compiled by I. A. Cheremisina Harrer 2020 The opposition of 2 approaches is disputable as theCompiled by I. A. Cheremisina Harrer 2020 The opposition of 2 approaches is disputable as the vocabulary (as well as the word) is NOT only what it is NOW, at this particular stage of the language development, but, also, what it WAS centuries ago and HAS BEEN throughout the history.

Compiled by I. A. Cheremisina Harrer 2121 Modern English lexicology Aims at giving a systematic descriptionCompiled by I. A. Cheremisina Harrer 2121 Modern English lexicology Aims at giving a systematic description of the word-stock of Modern English.

Compiled by I. A. Cheremisina Harrer 2222 Modern English lexicology (2)(2) Investigates the problems of wordCompiled by I. A. Cheremisina Harrer 2222 Modern English lexicology (2)(2) Investigates the problems of word structure and word formation in Modern English, the semantic structure of English words, principles of classifying words and ways of replenishment of the vocabulary.

Compiled by I. A. Cheremisina Harrer 23233. Links with other branches of linguistics Linguistic stylistics SocialCompiled by I. A. Cheremisina Harrer 23233. Links with other branches of linguistics Linguistic stylistics Social linguistics

Compiled by I. A. Cheremisina Harrer 2424 Linguistic stylistics Deals with the study of the nature,Compiled by I. A. Cheremisina Harrer 2424 Linguistic stylistics Deals with the study of the nature, functions and structure of stylistic devices And with the investigation of each style of language, or register (its features and effect produced)

Compiled by I. A. Cheremisina Harrer 25 Girl-maiden-lass-chick-ba by-young lady Girl –stylistically neutral,  dominates theCompiled by I. A. Cheremisina Harrer 25 Girl-maiden-lass-chick-ba by-young lady Girl –stylistically neutral, dominates the row Maiden – archaic and poetical word Lass (ie) – dialectal word Chick & baby – slang words Baby – colloquial word Young lady – ironical sense

Compiled by I. A. Cheremisina Harrer 26 Social linguistics The vocabulary of a language is neverCompiled by I. A. Cheremisina Harrer 26 Social linguistics The vocabulary of a language is never stable, never static, but is constantly changing, growing and decaying. The changes in the vocabulary of a language are due both to linguistic and extralinguistic causes or to a combination of both.

Compiled by I. A. Cheremisina Harrer 27 The extralinguistic causes Are determined by the social natureCompiled by I. A. Cheremisina Harrer 27 The extralinguistic causes Are determined by the social nature of the language. Changes in social life and developments in science and technology are reflected in the language.

Compiled by I. A. Cheremisina Harrer 28 Examples Jumbo jet Supersonic airliner ACV – air cushionCompiled by I. A. Cheremisina Harrer 28 Examples Jumbo jet Supersonic airliner ACV – air cushion vehicle CEO – chief executive officer OO 22 – phones 4 u Box, idiot box (coll. ) Couch potato, mouse potato

Compiled by I. A. Cheremisina Harrer 294. Branches of lexicology Etymology - the study of lexicalCompiled by I. A. Cheremisina Harrer 294. Branches of lexicology Etymology — the study of lexical history. It investigates the origins of individual lexemes, the affinities they have had to each other, and how they have changed in meaning and in form to reach their present state.

Compiled by I. A. Cheremisina Harrer 30 Examples of etymology:  slysly Sly – the wordCompiled by I. A. Cheremisina Harrer 30 Examples of etymology: slysly Sly – the word came into Middle English from Scandinavian, where the dominant meaning was ‘cunning’, with its implication of special knowledge of wisdom. Sly is also referred to sleight ‘dexterity’ and slay originally meant ‘dexterous with hammer’

Compiled by I. A. Cheremisina Harrer 31 Salary and sausage  (origin) Salary came into EnglishCompiled by I. A. Cheremisina Harrer 31 Salary and sausage (origin) Salary came into English via French from Latin, where salarium meant ‘salt-money’ (given to the soldiers to buy salt) Sausage also came via French from Latin, where salsicium was smth made from salted meat. Salt is the common element, seen also in sauce and salad. .

Compiled by I. A. Cheremisina Harrer 32 Morphology – study of the structure of words. Compiled by I. A. Cheremisina Harrer 32 Morphology – study of the structure of words. Morphology is divided into 2 domains: lexical (or derivational) morphology and inflectional (or grammatical morphology).

Compiled by I. A. Cheremisina Harrer 33 Lexical morphology Studies the way in which new itemsCompiled by I. A. Cheremisina Harrer 33 Lexical morphology Studies the way in which new items of vocabulary can be built up out of combinations of elements as in in-describ-able un-forgett-able tele-scop-ic

Compiled by I. A. Cheremisina Harrer 34 Inflectional morphology studies the way words vary in theirCompiled by I. A. Cheremisina Harrer 34 Inflectional morphology studies the way words vary in their form in order to express a grammatical contrast (as in the case of horse s s where the ending marks plurality) or where the ending marks the 3 rdrd person singular form of the verb e. g. do-do eses , speak-speak ss

Compiled by I. A. Cheremisina Harrer 35 Semantics – the study of meaning. Modern approaches areCompiled by I. A. Cheremisina Harrer 35 Semantics – the study of meaning. Modern approaches are characterized by 2 different levels of study: syntagmatic and paradigmatic.

Compiled by I. A. Cheremisina Harrer 36 On the syntagmatic level The semantic structure of theCompiled by I. A. Cheremisina Harrer 36 On the syntagmatic level The semantic structure of the word is analyzed in its linear relationships with neighboring words in connected speech. Therefore, the semantic characteristics of the word are observed, described and studied on the basis of its typical contexts, i. e. semantics studies combinability or collocability of words.

Compiled by I. A. Cheremisina Harrer 37 On the paradigmatic level the word is studied inCompiled by I. A. Cheremisina Harrer 37 On the paradigmatic level the word is studied in its relationships with other words in the vocabulary system. So, a word may be studied in comparison with other words of similar meaning, of opposite meaning, of different stylistic characteristics.

Compiled by I. A. Cheremisina Harrer 38 Syntagmatic level The clock on the wall had justCompiled by I. A. Cheremisina Harrer 38 Syntagmatic level The clock on the wall had just chimed midnight when the portrait hole burst open. The kick-off meeting went smoothly. MPs are likely to express extreme views. Check properly what you have written and then send it off.

Compiled by I. A. Cheremisina Harrer 39 Phraseology is the branch of lexicology specializing in wordCompiled by I. A. Cheremisina Harrer 39 Phraseology is the branch of lexicology specializing in word groups which are characterized by stability of structure and transferred meaning. e. g. To show the white feather (струсить) To hit the headlines (оказаться в новостях) at first hand (из первых рук)

Compiled by I. A. Cheremisina Harrer 40 Lexicography is the science and art of dictionary-compiling. LexicographyCompiled by I. A. Cheremisina Harrer 40 Lexicography is the science and art of dictionary-compiling. Lexicography is a practical application of lexicology so that the dictionary-maker is guided in his work by the principles laid down by the lexicologist as a result of his investigations.

Compiled by I. A. Cheremisina Harrer 4141 Thank you for your attention! Any questions? ! Compiled by I. A. Cheremisina Harrer 4141 Thank you for your attention! Any questions? !