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Communications management Prof. V. E. Momot
Topic One INTRO. DEFINITION. BASIC RULES
What is communications management? Communications management is • the planning, implementing, monitoring, and revision of all channels of organizations within an organization/company • It also has a clear role within the communication arena that takes place between organizations and includes the dissemination of new communication plans connected with a company, network, or communications technology Communications management has many different avenues. These include: • developing corporate communication strategies • designing internal and external communications directives • managing the flow of information, which frequently includes online communication
Three Basic Rules for Management Communication Tell bad news in advance • Anytime you as a manager need to make a decision that affects peoples lives, tell them well in advance of the event taking place Explain your message • A second rule of communication then, for those in authority, is to provide sufficient information for the employee to answer, “Why? ” Lack of information often causes more problems than divulging those deep, dark company secrets. Communicate congruently
Some communication maxims If communication can fail, it will If a message can be understood in different ways, it will be understood in just that way which does the most harm There is always somebody who knows better than you what you meant by your message The more communication there is, the more difficult it is for communication to succeed
Topic Two ORGANIZATIONAL COMMUNICATION
History of Organizational Communication Organizational communication 1990 till now Mass communication 1950 1980 Business communication 1940 1950 Early 1930 Business information
Assumptions underlying early organizational communication Humans act rationally • Some people do not behave in rational ways, they generally have no access to all of the information needed to make rational decisions they could articulate, and therefore will make unrational decisions, unless there is some breakdown in the communication process—which is common. Unrational people rationalize how they will rationalize their communication measures whether or not it is rational. Formal logic and empirically verifiable data • ought to be the foundation upon which any theory should rest. All we really need to understand communication in organizations is (a) observable and replicable behaviors that can be transformed into variables by some form of measurement, and (b) formally replicable syllogisms that can extend theory from observed data to other groups and settings
Assumptions underlying early organizational communication Communication is primarily a mechanical process, • in which a message is constructed and encoded by a sender, transmitted through some channel, then received and decoded by a receiver. Distortion, represented as any differences between the original and the received messages, can and ought to be identified and reduced or eliminated. Organizations are mechanical things, • in which the parts (including employees functioning in defined roles) are interchangeable. What works in one organization will work in another similar organization. Individual differences can be minimized or even eliminated with careful management techniques.
Bounded rationality Concept which challenged assumptions about the perfect rationality of communication participants People making decisions in organizations seldom had complete information, and that even if more information was available, they tended to pick the first acceptable option, rather than exploring further to pick the optimal solution
Treatment of organizational communication How to make people understand what I am saying? How does the act of communicating change, or even define, who I am? Why do organizations that seem to be saying similar things achieve very different results? To what extent are my relationships with others affected by our various organizational contexts?
Communication networks Communication patterns, or networks, influence groups in several important ways • Communication networks may affect the group's completion of the assigned task on time, the position of the de facto leader in the group, or they may affect the group members' satisfaction from occupying certain positions in the network
Patterns of communication Chain Wheel Star All Channel Circle
Patterns of communication The Chain • can readily be seen to represent the hierarchical pattern that characterizes strictly formal information flow, "from the top down, " in military and some types of business organizations The Wheel • can be compared with a typical autocratic organization, meaning one man rule and limited employee participation The Star • is similar to the basic formal structure of many organizations
Patterns of communication The All Channel network • is analogous to the free flow of communication in a group that encourages all of its members to become involved in group decision processes • The All Channel network may also be compared to some of the informal communication networks The Circle • free flow of communication all around the organization in decentralized manner
Some conclusions about patterns efficiency In patterns with positions located centrally, such as the Wheel and the Star, an organization quickly develops around the people occupying these central positions In such patterns, the organization is more stable and errors in performance are lower than in patterns having a lower degree of centrality, such as the Circle However the morale of members in high centrality patterns is relatively low, this lower morale could, in the long run, lower the accuracy and speed of such networks
Some conclusions about patterns efficiency In problem solving requiring the pooling of data and judgments, or "insight" the ability to evaluate partial results, to look at alternatives, and to restructure problems fell off rapidly when one person was able to assume a more central (that is, more controlling) position in the information flow Insight into a problem requiring change would be less in the Wheel and the Star than in the Circle or the Chain because of the "bottlenecking" effect of data control by central members The structure of communications within an organization will have a significant influence on the accuracy of decisions, the speed with which they can be reached, and the satisfaction of the people involved. Consequently, in networks in which the responsibility for initiating and passing along messages is shared more evenly among the members, the better the group's morale in the long run
Direction of communication One way • the formal communication proceeds from superior to subordinate, and its content is presumably clear because it originates at a higher level of expertise and experience; • the superior is responsible for making his communication clear and understandable to his subordinates • there is little need for two way exchanges between organizational levels except as they are initiated by a higher level • communication channels, except for prescribed information flows, should not be cluttered by messages from subordinates but should remain open and free for messages moving down the chain of command Two way • management recognizes that prescribed information must flow both downward and upward
Comparison between communication types One way communication is faster than two way communication. Two way communication is more accurate than one way communication. Receivers are more sure of themselves and make more correct judgments of how right or wrong they are in the two way system. The sender feels psychologically under attack in the two way system, because his receivers pick up his mistakes and oversights and point them out to him. The two way method is relatively noisier and looks more disorderly. The one way method, on the other hand, appears neat and efficient to an outside observer. Thus, if speed is necessary, if a businesslike appearance is important, if a manager does not want his mistakes recognized, and if he wants to protect his power, then one way communication seems preferable. In contrast, if the manager wants to get his message across, or if he is concerned about his receivers' feeling that they are participating and are making a contribution, the two way system is better.
Four principles of interpersonal communications Interpersonal communication is inescapable • The very attempt not to communicates something. Through not only words, but through tone of voice and through gesture, posture, facial expression, etc. , we constantly communicate to those around us Interpersonal communication is irreversible • You can't really take back something once it has been said. The effect must inevitably remain.
Four principles of interpersonal communications Interpersonal communication is complicated • Because of the number of variables involved, even simple requests are extremely complex. Theorists note that whenever we communicate there are really at least six "people" involved: • 1) who you think you are; • 2) who you think the other person is; • 3) who you think the other person thinks you are; • 4) who the other person thinks /she is; • 5) who the other person thinks you are; and • 6) who the other person thinks you think s/he is
Four principles of interpersonal communications Interpersonal communication is contextual • In other words, communication does not happen in isolation. There is: • Psychological context which is who you are and what you bring to the interaction; • Relational context, which concerns your reactions to the other person – the "mix"; • Situational context deals with the psycho social "where" you are communicating; • Environmental context deals with the physical "where" you are communicating; • Cultural context includes all the learned behaviors and rules that affect the interaction
Communication Approaches in an Organization Informal communication • associated with interpersonal, horizontal communication • was primarily seen as a potential hindrance to effective organizational performance • has become more important to ensuring the effective conduct of work in modern organizations Formal communication • associated with roles which employees play in the organization
The importance of internal and external communication strategies External • The main reason that you have to have good external communication is that it is largely how you will establish your company's identity • External communication is also important because you will be dealing with a lot of people from outside of the company who will need to know what is going on with the company Internal • The biggest challenge here is that most communication is top down • One other issue that you are likely to face when you are communicating, either internally or externally is the need to do it in an efficient way
Topic Three MASS COMMUNICATION & MASS MEDIA
Basic classification of Mass Media Seven mass media • Print (books, pamphlets, newspapers, magazines, etc. ) from the late 15 th century • Recordings (gramophone records, magnetic tapes, cassettes, cartridges, CDs, DVDs) from the late 19 th century • Cinema from about 1900 • Radio from about 1910 • Television from about 1950 • Internet from about 1990 • Mobile phones from about 2000
Main theories of MM role Limited effects theory Class dominant theory Culturalist theory
Main theories explained Limited effects theory • because people generally choose what to watch or read based on what they already believe, media exerts a negligible influence • people relied more on personal experience, prior knowledge, and their own reasoning • media “experts” more likely swayed those who were less informed • theory ignores the media's role in framing and limiting the discussion and debate of issues • this theory came into existence when the availability and dominance of media was far less widespread
Main theories explained Class dominant theory • media reflects and projects the view of a minority elite, which controls it • people who own and control the corporations that produce media comprise this elite
Main theories explained Culturalist theory • combines the other two theories • claims that people interact with media to create their own meanings out of the images and messages they receive • sees audiences as playing an active rather than passive role in relation to mass media • while a few elite in large corporations may exert significant control over what information media produces and distributes, personal perspective plays a more powerful role in how the audience members interpret those messages
Theories of Communication Structural and functional theories Cognitive and behavioral theories Interactionist theories Interpretive theories Critical theories
Theories of Communication Explained Structural and functional theories • believe that social structures are real and function in ways that can be observed objectively Cognitive and behavioral theories • tend to focus on psychology of individuals Interactionist theories • view social life as a process of interaction Interpretive theories • uncover the ways people actually understand their own experience Critical theories • theories are concerned with the conflict of interests in society and the way communication perpetuates domination of one group over another
Classical theories Authoritarian Theory Libertarianism or Free Press Theory Social Responsibility Theory Soviet Media/Communist Theory Development Communication Theory Democratization/Democratic Participant Media Theory
Classical theories explained Authoritarian Theory • mass media, though not under the direct control of the State, had to follow its bidding. Freedom of thought was jealously guarded by a few people (ruling classes), who were concerned with the emergence of a new middle class and were worried about the effects of printed matter on their thought process. Censorship of the press was justified on the ground that the State always took precedence over the individual's right to freedom of expression. Libertarianism or Free Press Theory • the idea of a "free marketplace of ideas“ allowing people to say things you do not want to hear. What theory offers is power without social responsibility Social Responsibility Theory • the free market approach to press freedom had only increased the power of a single class and has not served the interests of the less well off classes. The emergence of radio, TV and film suggested the need for some means of accountability. Thus theory advocated some obligation on the part of the media to society. A judicial mix of self regulation and state regulation and high professional standards were imperative
Classical theories explained Soviet Media/Communist Theory • the ideas of the ruling classes are the ruling ideas. The sole purpose of mass media was to educate the great masses of workers and not to give out information. The public was encouraged to give feedback as it was the only way the media would be able to cater to its interests Development Communication Theory • there can be no development without communication. The media undertook the role of carrying out positive developmental programs, accepting restrictions and instructions from the State. he media subordinated themselves to political, economic, social and cultural needs. Democratization/Democratic Participant Media Theory • vehemently opposes the commercialization of modern media and its top down non participant character. The need for access and right to communicate is stressed. Bureaucratic control of media is decried
Magic bullet / Hypodermic needle / Stimulus response theory Main idea • the mass media had a powerful influence on the mass audience and could deliberately alter or control peoples' behavior Factors responsible for the effects of mass communications • selective exposure i. e. , people's tendency to expose themselves to those mass communications which are in agreement with their attitudes and interests • selective perception and retention i. e. , people's inclination to organize the meaning of mass communication messages into accord with their already existing views
Two step flow theory Informal social relationships had played a part in modifying the manner in which individuals selected content from the media campaign Ideas often flowed from the radio and newspapers to opinion leaders and from them to the less active sections of society Thus, informal social groups have some degree of influence on people and mould the way they select media content and act on it
One and multi step flow theory One step flow theory • mass communication media channels communicate directly to the mass audience without the message being filtered by opinion leaders Multi step flow theory • there a number of relays in the communication flow from a source to a large audience
Uses and gratification theory People use media for many purposes In general researchers have found four kinds of gratifications: • Information we want to find out about society and the world we want to satisfy our curiosity. • Personal Identity we may watch the television in order to look for models for our behaviour • Integration and Social Interaction we use the media in order to find out more about the circumstances of other people • Entertainment sometimes we simply use the media for enjoyment, relaxation or just to fill time
Uses and gratification theory Media are used by individuals to meet the following specific needs • Cognitive needs (acquiring information, knowledge and understanding) • Affective needs (emotional, pleasurable experience) • Personal integrative needs (strengthening self image) • Social integrative needs (strengthening self image) • Tension release needs (escape and diversion)
Uses and gratification theory Individual needs categories • Diversion (emotional release) • Personal Relationships (substitute of media for companionship). • Personal identity or individual psychology (value reinforcement, self understanding. ) • Surveillance (information that may help an individual accomplish tasks. )
Topic Four CRM
Benefits of Customer Relationship Management A Customer Relationship Management system may be chosen because it is thought to provide the following advantages • Quality and efficiency • Decrease in overall costs • Increase Profitability
Challenges of Customer Relationship Management Successful development, implementation, use and support of customer relationship management systems can provide a significant advantage to the user, but often there are obstacles that obstruct the user from using the system to its full potential. The challenges faced by the company will last longer for the convenience of their customers An interface that is difficult to navigate or understand can hinder the CRM’s effectiveness, causing users to pick and choose which areas of the system to be used, while others may be pushed aside. This fragmented implementation cause inherent challenges, as only certain parts are used and the system is not fully functional. The increased use of customer relationship management software has also led to an industry wide shift in evaluating the role of the developer in designing and maintaining its software.
Complexity of Customer Relationship Management Tools and workflows can be complex, especially for large businesses. Previously these tools were generally limited to simple CRM solutions which focused on monitoring and recording interactions and communications. Software solutions then expanded to embrace deal tracking, territories, opportunities, and the sales pipeline itself. Next came the advent of tools for other client interface business functions, as described below. These tools have been, and still are, offered as on premises software that companies purchase and run on their own IT infrastructure
Poor usability With a difficult interface for a user to navigate, implementation can be fragmented or not entirely complete • Customers are likely not as patient to work through malfunctions or gaps in user safety, and there is an expectation that the usability of systems should be somewhat intuitive • An intuitive design can prove most effective in developing the content and layout of a customer relationship management system In many cases, the growth of capabilities and complexities of systems hampered the usability of a customer relationship management system. An overly complex computer system can result in an equally complex and non friendly user interface, thus not allowing the system to work as fully intended
Fragmentation Often, poor usability can lead to implementations that are fragmented — isolated initiatives by individual departments to address their own needs. Systems that start disunited usually stay that way: CRM and decision processes frequently lead to separate and incompatible systems, and dysfunctional processes A fragmented implementation can negate any financial benefit associated with a customer relationship management system, as companies choose not to use all the associated features factored when justifying the investment
Business reputation Building and maintaining a strong business reputation has become now increasingly challenging. The outcome of internal fragmentation that is observed and commented upon by customers is now visible to the rest of the world in the era of the social customer; in the past, only employees or partners were aware of it Addressing the fragmentation requires a shift in philosophy and mindset in an organization so that everyone considers the impact to the customer of policy, decisions and actions. Human response at all levels of the organization can affect the customer experience for good or ill. Even one unhappy customer can deliver a body blow to a business CRM systems face the challenge of producing viable financial profits, with a 2002 study suggesting that less than half of CRM projects are expected to provide a significant return on investment
Security, privacy and data security concerns A large challenge faced by developers and users is found in striking a balance between ease of use in the CRM interface and suitable and acceptable security measures and features. Corporations investing in CRM software do so expecting a relative ease of use while also requiring that customer and other sensitive data remain secure. This balance can be difficult, as many believe that improvements in security come at the expense of system usability • Research and study show the importance of designing and developing technology that balances a positive user interface with security features that meet industry and corporate standards • Researchers have argued that, in most cases, security breaches are the result of user error (such as unintentionally downloading and executing a computer virus) • Researchers argue that a more usable system creates less confusion and lessens the amount of potentially harmful errors, in turn creating a more secure and stable CRM system
Types/variations of CRM Sales force automation • involves using software to streamline all phases of the sales process, minimizing the time that sales representatives need to spend on each phase • This allows a business to use fewer sales representatives to manage their clients. • At the core of SFA is a contact management system for tracking and recording every stage in the sales process for each prospective client, from initial contact to final disposition. • Many SFA applications also include insights into opportunities, territories, sales forecasts and workflow automation
Types/variations of CRM Marketing • CRM systems for marketing help the enterprise identify and target potential clients and generate leads for the sales team • A key marketing capability is tracking and measuring multichannel campaigns, including email, search, social media, telephone and direct mail • Metrics monitored include clicks, responses, leads, deals, and revenue. Alternatively, Prospect Relationship Management (PRM) solutions offer to track customer behaviour and nurture them from first contact to sale, often cutting out the active sales process altogether • In a web focused marketing CRM solution, organizations create and track specific web activities that help develop the client relationship. These activities may include such activities as free downloads, online video content, and online web presentations
Types/variations of CRM Customer service and support • CRM software provides a business with the ability to create, assign and manage requests made by customers. An example would be Call Center software which helps to direct a customer to the agent who can best help them with their current problem. Recognizing that this type of service is an important factor in attracting and retaining customers, organizations are increasingly turning to technology to help them improve their clients’ experience while aiming to increase efficiency and minimize costs • CRM software can also be used to identify and reward loyal customers which in turn will help customer retention
Types/variations of CRM Appointment • Creating and scheduling appointments with customers is a central activity of most customer oriented businesses. Sales, customer support, and service personnel regularly spend a portion of their time getting in touch with customers and prospects through a variety of means to agree on a time and place for meeting for a sales conversation or to deliver customer service. • Appointment CRM is a relatively new CRM platform category in which an automated system is used to offer a suite of suitable appointment times to a customer via e mail or through a web site. An automated process is used to schedule and confirm the appointment, and place it on the appropriate person's calendar. • Appointment CRM systems can be an origination point for a sales lead and are generally integrated with sales and marketing CRM systems to capture and store the interaction
Types/variations of CRM Analytics • Relevant analytics are often interwoven into applications for sales, marketing, and service. These features can be complemented and augmented with links to separate, purpose built applications for analytics and business intelligence. Sales analytics let companies monitor and understand client actions and preferences, through sales forecasting and data quality • Marketing applications generally come with predictive analytics to improve segmentation and targeting, and features for measuring the effectiveness of online, offline, and search marketing campaigns. Web analytics have evolved significantly from their starting point of merely tracking mouse clicks on Web sites. By evaluating “buy signals, ” marketers can see which prospects are most likely to transact and also identify those who are bogged down in a sales process and need assistance. Marketing and finance personnel also use analytics to assess the value of multi faceted programs as a whole • These types of analytics are increasing in popularity as companies demand greater visibility into the performance of call centers and other service and support channels, in order to correct problems before they affect satisfaction levels. Support focused applications typically include dashboards similar to those for sales, plus capabilities to measure and analyze response times, service quality, agent performance, and the frequency of various issues
Types/variations of CRM Integrated/collaborative • Departments within enterprises — especially large enterprises — tend to function with little collaboration. More recently, the development and adoption of these tools and services have fostered greater fluidity and cooperation among sales, service, and marketing. This finds expression in the concept of collaborative systems that use technology to build bridges between departments. For example, feedback from a technical support center can enlighten marketers about specific services and product features clients are asking for. Reps, in their turn, want to be able to pursue these opportunities without the burden of re entering records and contact data into a separate SFA system. Small business • For small business, basic client service can be accomplished by a contact manager system: an integrated solution that lets organizations and individuals efficiently track and record interactions, including emails, documents, jobs, faxes, scheduling, and more. These tools usually focus on accounts rather than on individual contacts. They also generally include opportunity insight for tracking sales pipelines plus added functionality for marketing and service. As with larger enterprises, small businesses may find value in online solutions, especially for mobile and telecommuting workers
Types/variations of CRM Social media • Social media are amplifying the voice of people in the marketplace and are having profound and far reaching effects on the ways in which people buy. Customers can now research companies online and then ask for recommendations through social media channels, as well as share opinions and experiences on companies, products and services. As social media is not as widely moderated or censored as mainstream media, individuals can say anything they want about a company or brand, positive or negative. • Increasingly, companies are looking to gain access to these conversations and take part in the dialogue. More than a few systems are now integrating to social networking sites. Social media promoters cite a number of business advantages, such as using online communities as a source of high quality leads and a vehicle for crowd sourcing solutions to client support problems. Companies can also leverage client stated habits and preferences to "Hypertargeting" their sales and marketing communications. • Some analysts take the view that business to business marketers should proceed cautiously when weaving social media into their business processes. These observers recommend careful market research to determine if and where the phenomenon can provide measurable benefits for client interactions, sales and support. Non-profit and membership-based • Systems for non profit and membership based organizations help track constituents and their involvement in the organization. Capabilities typically include tracking the following: fund raising, demographics, membership levels, membership directories, volunteering and communications with individuals.
Strategy of CRM Processes • Though these systems have many technological components, business processes lie at its core. It can be seen as a more client centric way of doing business, enabled by technology that consolidates and intelligently distributes pertinent information about clients, sales, marketing effectiveness, responsiveness, and market trends. Therefore, a company must analyze its business workflows and processes before choosing a technology platform; some will likely need re engineering to better serve the overall goal of winning and satisfying clients. Moreover, planners need to determine the types of client information that are most relevant, and how best to employ them
Strategy of CRM People • For an initiative to be effective, an organization must convince its staff that the new technology and workflows will benefit employees as well as clients. Senior executives need to be strong and visible advocates who can clearly state and support the case for change. Collaboration, teamwork, and two way communication should be encouraged across hierarchical boundaries, especially with respect to process improvement.
Strategy of CRM Technology • include alignment with the company’s business process strategy and goals, including the ability to deliver the right data to the right employees and sufficient ease of adoption and use. Platform selection is best undertaken by a carefully chosen group of executives who understand the business processes to be automated as well as the software issues. Depending upon the size of the company and the breadth of data, choosing an application can take anywhere from a few weeks to a year or more
Implementation issues Poor planning • Initiatives can easily fail when efforts are limited to choosing and deploying software, without an accompanying rationale, context, and support for the workforce. In other instances, enterprises simply automate flawed client facing processes rather than redesign them according to best practices. Poor integration • For many companies, integrations are piecemeal initiatives that address a glaring need: improving a particular client facing process or two or automating a favored sales or client support channel.  Such “point solutions” offer little or no integration or alignment with a company’s overall strategy. They offer a less than complete client view and often lead to unsatisfactory user experiences Toward a solution: • overcoming siloed thinking. Experts advise organizations to recognize the immense value of integrating their client facing operations. In this view, internally focused, department centric views should be discarded in favor of reorienting processes toward information sharing across marketing, sales, and service. For example, sales representatives need to know about current issues and relevant marketing promotions before attempting to cross sell to a specific client. Marketing staff should be able to leverage client information from sales and service to better target campaigns and offers. And support agents require quick and complete access to a client’s sales and service history
Adoption issues Historically, the landscape is littered with instances of low adoption rates. Many of the challenges listed above offer a glimpse into some of the obstacles that corporations implementing a CRM suite face; in many cases time, resources and staffing do not allow for the troubleshooting necessary to tackle an issue and the system is shelved or sidestepped instead. Why is it so difficult sometimes to get employees up to date on rapidly developing new technology? Essentially, your employees need to understand how the system works, as well as understand the clients and their needs. No doubt this process is time consuming, but it is well worth the time and effort, as you will be better able to understand meet the needs of your clients. CRM training needs to cover two types of information: relational knowledge and technological knowledge.
Development of CRM system Clarity • One of the largest issues in developing a usable customer relationship management system comes in the form of clear and concise presentation Test users • These users offer software developers an outside perspective of the project, often helping developers gain insight into potential areas of trouble that might have been overlooked or passed over because of familiarity with the system • test users can prove to be most effective in providing developers a structured overview of the software creation • involving too many test users can prove cumbersome and delay the development of a CRM system
Topic Five COMMUNICATIONS IN HRM
What is HRM Communication? HRM communication refers to purposive interchange of ideas, opinions, information, instructions and the like, presented personally or interpersonally by symbols or signals as to attain the goals of HRM
Basic elements in the concept of HRM communication Purposive • HRM communication must have predetermined objective in line with attaining the goals of HRM. Interchange • HRM communication always involves at least two or more people including the sender and the receiver. The sender will be HR department, and the receivers may be all the other members of the organization. The sender and the receiver are interdependent (never independent); each exists in relation to the others. There can be no sender without a receiver; there can be no message without a sender, and there can be no feedback without a receiver. Ideas, opinions, information, instructions and the like • Content of all these messages depends on HRM purposes and circumstances. Symbols or signals • Any device or method that can be adopted to convey a message about HRM may be employed. Symbols may be positive or abstract; signals may be verbal or nonverbal
The importance of HRM communication to an organization A role of counselor • In an organization, when employees desire to discuss personal matters with a company representative, HR manager is usually the one whom employees frequently turn to. Marital, health, financial, mental, and career problems comprise the bulk of the personal subject matter discussed between an employee and an HR manager. An effective advisor • HR executive is called on to give advice. For example, it is HR executive who screens and recommends candidates for working positions, suggests performance evaluation methods to supervisors, and informs higher management about employee compensation preferences, etc.
The importance of HRM communication to an organization A role of mediator • A typical part of an HR manager's job is to act as a peacemaker between individuals and groups, employees and management levels. When differences occur between individuals or between groups, HR department is always the one to deals with these divergences. It is in this sense that HR department is always identified as an intermediary to bring about a settlement between disputing parties. A role of a problem solver • An HR manager must also serve as a problem solver with respect to the knotty issues and dilemmas an organization encounter. Along with being the main decision maker in regard to HR matters, the personnel administrator also frequently helps to solve problems related to overall long range organizational planning.
The importance of HRM communication to an organization A role of an administrator • Matters such as absenteeism, tardiness, discipline, health problems and performance appraisal need to be dealt with by HRM department. HRM manager is often also the key administrator involved in the implementation of training and development, carrying out benefits and services programs and personnel research matters. All these matters maintain an organization's sound operation. A role of a company spokesman • Since he deals so intimately with so many key organizational activities and functions, the HR manager commonly has a better overall total picture of a company’s operation. Thus the personnel manager has always been a frequent spokesman or representative of the company
The importance of HRM communication to an organization A role of a rear service department • It is usually on the shoulder of HRM department to coordinate various recreational programs like the annual Christmas party and plan various company social functions. A role of a change agent • When some physical procedural or technological changes occur, major organizational adjustments must be made. At this time, HRM department is responsible for handling the manpower adjustments and institutional changes. • HRM communication runs through the whole processes of HR department’s playing the above mentioned roles to exert influences on the organization. HRM communication is HR departments’ inherent concern
A four C standard to evaluate HRM communication of an organization High commitment • High commitment means better understanding between employees and managers. With better understanding, mutual trust is enhanced, and all management staff are responsive to each other’s needs and concerns whenever changes in environmental demands occur. High competence • High competence means that employees are versatile in their skills and can take on new roles and jobs as needed; they are better able to respond to changes in environmental demands. Cost effectiveness • Cost effectiveness means that HR costs, such as wages, benefits, strikes, have been kept equal to or less than the organization’s competitors; all stakeholders have undoubtedly faced the realities of the business. High congruence • High congruence means that all stakeholders share a common purpose and collaborate in solving problems prompted by external changes in environmental demands.
Forms of HRM Communication in HRM Verbal HRM communication Oral HRM communication Written HRM communication Nonverbal HRM communication
Written HRM communication Types of HRM writings • informational, • administrative, or • progress Styles of the HRM writings • • • Frozen style Formal style Consultative style Casual style Intimate style
Frozen style Characteristics • Impersonality • Objectivity • Standard language
Formal style Characteristics • Less impersonal • Less objective • Less formal language
A theoretical approach to a good HRM writing Revising Drafting Planning Rhetorical shaping Linguistic shaping
Planning The planning activities involve • Analyzing the purpose or goal of the writing task (whether self assigned or assigned by another person, such as an employer or and instructor), • Determining the characteristics of the audience or potential audience and the writer’s relationship with them, • Gathering information necessary to complete the writing task, either through introspection or through formal or informal heuristic procedures, • Selecting an organizational pattern or format for the text.
Revising includes • assessing whether the draft successfully meets the goals set during planning • evaluating the text for unity and coherence • rearranging, adding and deleting as necessary • evaluating diction for appropriateness • evaluating syntax for clarity, effectiveness, and correctness • identifying and correcting print code and non print code errors • preparing a final version of the text, and proofreading it for scribal or typographical errors
A Six step approach to HRM writing Listing ideas Knowing the readers Gathering information Planning and organizing the writing strategy Working out an outline and writing the first draft Revising the first draft
Planning and organizing the writing strategy Three “musts” to decide in this step • What is this about? (The main point) • Why should his reader be interested? (The “so what” – the reader’s reason for reading it). • What should his reader do about this? (The goals or purpose).
Methods of Organizing Material Writing purpose • 1. To describe how to do something. • 2. To classify; to argue for or against something. • 3. To predict what effect something will have. • 4. To analyze what caused something. • 5. To compare something
Methods of Organizing Material Method to Use • For purpose 1. Step by step order. Tell how the process is done, giving each step in the order in which it is performed. • For purpose 2. Logical order. Arrange the points of your classification or the points of your argument in a logical, easy to follow sequence. • For purpose 3. Cause and effect. First give the causes or conditions, then discuss the probable effects. (Useful in anticipating future events. ) • For purpose 4. Effect to cause. First discuss the effects, then suggest possible causes. ( Useful in analyzing a present problem. ) • For purpose 5. Comparison and contrast. Discuss how two or more things are alike • and/or different. (Useful in identifying advantages and disadvantages of something or learning about an unknown by comparing it with something that is known. )
Several points for attention in the revision The writer should examine • a. the skeleton (structure and method of organization). • b. the flesh (details that fill the outline and make it convincing facts, examples, statistics; presented in sentences organized into paragraphs). • c. the clothing (words chosen to express ideas arranged in clear sentence form). • d. the grooming (correct grammar, spelling, punctuation).
Oral communication Conversation Interview Face to face communication
Rules to optimize an interview Yes or no questions should be avoided The sort of questions, totally anticipating the addressee's information during the conversation should be avoided. They are manifestly expressions of the superiority and will make the communication quite unequal
5 level communication theory application in HRM interviews Levels of communication • Level 5: Cliché Conversation • Level 4: Talking about the weather • Level 3: Sharing ideas and judgments • Level 2: “Gut Level” feelings • Level 1: Peak communication
Outcome of theory Level 5: Cliché conversation. • • Be full of shallow, simple phrases and topics. Brief. Includes greatest number of people of any level. Used heavily every day, everywhere. Level 4: Reporting on surroundings. • Neutral topics. • Interactions usually last ten to twenty minutes. • Involves only half as many people as cliché level, at work and leisure.
Outcome of theory Level 3: Sharing ideas and judgments. • Beginning of self disclosures; involves some risk. • Takes more time fifteen minutes to an hour or more. • Usually reserved for co workers considered to be friends, social friends, and family. Level 2: “Gut-level” feelings. • Used within atmosphere of trust and mutual respect. • May be very short or lengthy. • Select number of friends and family; usually used sparingly in work environment. If used, reserved for small group (two to five) of co workers. Level 1: Peak communication. • Be highest level of meaningful relationship. • Involves empathy with another. • May be of long or short duration. • Can sometimes be wholly conveyed non verbally a look, a smile, etc. • Reserved for only a few people throughout lifetime family, intimate friends.
Applying theory in interviews Employment interview • In the opening phase, interviewers can begin with Level 5 greetings and clichés. • Then the HR executive can move to Level 4 to tell the applicant something about the company. • After talking on Level 4 to learn more about the applicant’s work history and background data, the interviewer should develop questions to elicit Level 3 responses • The interviewer, while directing the applicant to do most of the talking on the Level 3, should listen carefully not only to the information given but also to how it is given. Generally, ten to fifteen questions may be asked
Applying theory in interviews Evaluation interview • Usually at the beginning of the interview, HR executive (interviewer) tells the interviewee something about the general purpose of the appraisal and the interview, communicating on the Level 4. • In a final analysis, the appraisal interview in essence should be a joint problem solving effort. Evidence from the psychologist indicates that for the developmental function of performance evaluation, a problem solving approach is the best for an appraisal interview
Topic Seven NEGOTIATIONS IN MANAGEMENT
Negotiation and Conflict Management Negotiation skills help to resolve situations where conflicts with someone else’s interests occure With an aggressive approach, you could seek to overpower the other person to give what you want With a passive approach, you could simply give in to the other person’s wishes The aim of negotiation is to explore the situation, and to find a solution that is acceptable to both people
Strategies (models) of negotiation The Adversarial Model The Problem Solving Model
The Adversarial Model Is the most commonly used approach to legal negotiations. It focuses on "winning" in the sense of maximizing the likelihood the client will prevail and what the client receives upon prevailing. Each side strives to get as much of the thing bargained for (usually money), and the more one side gets, the less the other side gets. Adversarial negotiators engage in a largely competitive and manipulative process in which, a series of concessions is made from initial, polarized positions to arrive at a compromise point which is perceived to be either roughly equivalent to what a court would award or more desirable than taking the risk of what might happen in court.
Five stages of adversarial negotiation Bargain toward compromise by analyzing and making concessions Parties define the issues and often make their first offers or proposals Establishing "target" and "resistance" points, and estimating the target and resistance points of the other side • Plan first offers (which are set somewhere beyond their target points), and establish concession patterns The parties exchange information in the course of presenting their varying positions and arguments in support of those positions The parties conclude the negotiation by executing settlement documents or releases if an agreement has been reached, or, if no agreement can be reached, by resorting to their best alternative to negotiation such as going to trial
Four assumptions of the adversarial model First, the model assumes that the parties desire the same goals, items, or values (e. g. , money). Second, the model assumes that the parties are in conflict because they are bargaining over the same "scarce" goals, items, or values. Third, it is assumed that the matters to be bargained for are limited to those that a court would award, whether money or something that the law may compel a party to do or not to do. Finally, the model assumes that the best solution is predicated upon a division of and compromise over the goals, items, or values at issue
Drawbacks of the adversarial model Underlying assumptions and method of negotiating often limit the quality of the solution to the parties' problem or dispute By assuming that the parties desire the same goals, items, or values (such as money) and therefore are limited to bargaining over the same scarce resource, the parties may overlook the fact that they really value these goals or items unequally or have completely different goals in mind When these differences are not taken into account, the parties may fail to consider alternative solutions, such as trading a smaller sum of money for the performance of an act or service by the other side Moreover, by assuming that the matters to be bargained for are limited to those that a court would award, the parties often limit their solutions to purely "legal" ones without considering extra judicial alternatives that may better satisfy both parties' goals, values, or needs.
The Problem Solving Model Focuses on identifying the parties' underlying interests or needs to develop a broad range of potential solutions from which an agreement can be fashioned that satisfies as many of the parties' mutual needs as possible. Unlike the adversarial model, which emphasizes maximizing individual gain at the expense of the other side, problem solving emphasizes maximizing the parties' joint gain. Problem solving negotiators engage in a largely cooperative and collaborative process that strives to create a mutually satisfactory solution that is not necessarily limited to traditional judicial remedies.
Four assumptions of the problem solving model First, the model assumes that the usual objective of obtaining money damages is actually a proxy for more basic interests or needs apart from merely those things that money can buy. Second, the model assumes that the parties' interests or needs are often not mutually exclusive. Third, it assumes that by identifying the parties' underlying interests or needs, the parties can come up with a greater number of possible solutions. And fourth, the model assumes that by exploring a greater number of possible solutions, the parties are more likely to find a solution that mutually satisfies their interests or needs.
Five stages of the problem solving model The parties choose the most reasoned solution that maximizes their mutual gain The parties make a conscientious effort to "separate the people from the problem"—a mindset that attacks the problem, not each other The parties plan for the negotiation by identifying each aide's underlying interests or needs • These interests, which essentially constitute the underlying reasons for the parties' objectives or goals, are identified in light of the financial situation of the parties, their social and psychological needs, their moral perspectives, and the legal issues in the case The parties engage in a "brainstorming" session to generate as many solutions as possible that may satisfy the interests or needs of both parties The parties conclude the negotiation by executing settlement documents or releases if an agreement is reached, or, if no agreement can be reached, by resorting to their "best alternative to a negotiated agreement"
Difficulties of the problem solving model First there is the problem of perceiving resources as finite. In some legal disputes, for example, a case involving a simple transfer of limited dollars or other valued items from one side to the other, it may appear impossible to expand what is available to both parties. A second barrier may be the perceived inequality of power between the negotiat ing parties. If one side has power in the legal, economic or psychologi cal sense during the negotiation, the weaker party may have insuffi cient leverage to use problem solving techniques where the stronger party knows it can gain a great deal by exercising power in a conven tional negotiation. Third, an attempt to satisfy needs may itself thwart the problem solving approach in a situation where, for example, one of the parties has a need for revenge or punishment. Fourth, there may be limited psychological resources. Where one of the parties is used to a competitive style of negotiation, the execution of a problem solving method may be viewed as impossible unless the other party becomes a problem solver. Finally, a problem solving model based on a theory of needs has its own limitations. It will not solve all negotia tion dilemmas, but it still offers a potentially more systematic and effective way of thinking about negotiation.
Factors Affecting the Utility of the Adversarial and Problem Solving Models The Nature of the Dispute or Problem The Other Side's Negotiating Approach Pressures to Reach an Agreement Strategy Future Dealings Between the Parties or Negotiators Differences in Bargaining Leverage
The Nature of the Dispute or Problem The nature of the parties' dispute or problem often has a significant impact on the relative effectiveness of the adversarial or problem solving approach The adversarial model may be better suited when the parties are bargaining solely over a fixed and finite matter such as money The problem solving model may be more useful to the extent the nature of the dispute or problem does not have zero sum aspects
The Other Side's Negotiating Approach A party's negotiating approach will often be affected by the particular approach taken by the other side If the other side is unwilling to engage in a problem solving approach, attempts to employ that model will be largely ineffective because the model presupposes information sharing and collaboration between the parties Sometimes the other side's negotiating approach conforms to some generally accepted convention or norm that is endemic to a particular geographical area or type of case The parties may be reluctant to share their true needs or interests upon which expanded options for a resolution might be explored
Differences in Bargaining Leverage Negotiating leverage stems from the perception of the negative conse quences that a party can inflict on his opponent if an agreement is not reached, or from the benefits that a party can bestow on the other if an agreement is reached The extent of this leverage is largely dependent upon the alternatives available to each party in the absence of an agreement. Generally, the side that possesses the most viable alternative in the event that an agreement is not reached will have greater power over the other side.
Future Dealings Between the Parties or Negotiators The extent to which the parties or their negotiators are likely to have an on going relationship after the negotiation often affects the incentive for adopting an adversarial or problem solving approach The adversarial model sometimes gives rise to distrust and ill will, and thus the problem solving approach is more frequently used when the parties or their representatives expect to have future dealings with one another On the other hand, if the parties or their negotiators are merely engaged in a one shot transaction or encounter, there will be less incentive to avoid the adversarial model with its concomitant risk of impairing future relations
Pressures to Reach an Agreement The pressures placed on the parties to reach an agreement may affect their choice of negotiating approach a party might want to settle quickly because she needs the settlement proceeds immediately, desires to limit legal fees or other expenses, or wants to avoid the psychological stress of protracted controversy Generally, the problem solving model's emphasis on sharing information to identify the interests or needs of the parties and brainstorming to develop possible solutions is more time consuming than the offer counteroffer and response counter response method of adversarial negotiation Thus, the greater the time pressure placed on the parties, the more likely they are to resort to adversarial bargaining through the swifter device of reciprocal concessions
Different Styles for Different Situations Three types of negotiating styles: • (1) competitive (hardball), • (2) cooperative (softball), • (3) a combination of competitive and cooperative (hardball and softball)
Competitive (hardball) style Is typically characterized by • Aggressiveness and a confrontational approach • Winning is everything, and personal feelings and interpersonal relationships are viewed as essentially irrelevant • Threats, intimidation, and Machiavellian tactics are sometimes employed
Competitive (hardball) style The advantage of this style • is that it tends to pressure the adversary into making concessions, particularly when he is easily intimidated or inexperienced; and extreme demands and hard nosed positions may sometimes give rise to larger settlements. • In addition, the competitive negotiator develops a reputation of strength and toughness that is attractive to many clients. • On the other hand, a competitive style frequently alienates the other side and produces mistrust, misunderstanding, and more frequent deadlocks. • It often polarizes positions and causes overreaction. Personal relationships may be impaired or destroyed, thus making future negotiations with the same party or negotiator more difficult
Competitive (hardball) style The competitive style may be effective when dealing with an inexperienced negotiator or where the parties and their representatives are involved in a one time adversarial relationship. On the other hand, if the parties intend to have an ongoing relationship, the competitive style is undesirable because of its propensity to cause mistrust and alienation. This style is generally not well suited for business negotiations. The negotiator who adopts a highly competitive style can minimize its negative effects by focusing on the subject, matter of the negotiation rather than on personalities, and after an agreement is reached, by initiating an effort to repair any damage that has been caused to persona! relationships.
Cooperative (softball) style The cooperative style is • the antithesis of the competitive style. • The cooperative negotiator places a premium on interpersonal relations, and strives for common ground, shared interests, and understanding between the parties. • The style is typically sincere, accommodating, and low key. While it should not be confused with weakness, it often conveys that image.
Cooperative (softball) style The advantage of this style is • that it, tends to reduce the risk of deadlock and produces faster and more long lasting agreements. • In addition, the parties usually come away from the negotiation with their egos intact and a disposi tion to continue their relationship in the future. The disadvantage is • that the cooperative negotiator may have a tendency to avoid confrontation and make too many concessions. Sometimes a more favorable agreement is forsaken for the mere goal of reaching an agreement.
Cooperative (softball) style The effectiveness of a cooperative style depends upon the willingness of both sides to forthrightly exchange information. If the cooperative negotiator is pitted against a competitive opponent, the latter may gain an unfair advan tage by obtaining information from the former without reciprocating. In addition, the competitive bargainer may misinterpret the cooperative style as a sign of weakness and escalate his/her aggressiveness. Thus, the cooperative negotiator should also understand competitive tactics so that he/she can offset them in appropriate circumstances.
A combination of competitive and cooperative (hardball and softball) The competitive cooperative style • represents a middle ground between hardball and softball. • Here, many of the advantages of the competitive and cooperative approaches are combined in a style that is professionally amicable, open minded, but firm. • Under this approach, realistic concessions are made to satisfy the objectives, of both parties that are consistent or not mutually exclusive. • Conflicting objectives are resolved by compromise or by some creative solution that maximizes as many of the parties' remaining objectives as possible.
A combination of competitive and cooperative (hardball and softball) The advantage of this style is • that it preserves personal relationships and facilitates long term agreements. The disadvantage is that the approach is • largely unworkable unless both sides are genuinely willing to "work together" to resolve their differences—an attitude that may be inherently difficult to adopt in the face of a heated dispute. • In addition, the approach requires more time and patience.
A combination of competitive and cooperative (hardball and softball) The competitive cooperative approach is usually a waste of time if the other side is unrelentingly competitive. However, this approach may be successful if the competitive negotiator has a weak position.
Style and Strategy Combinations Competitive and Adversarial • When a competitive (hardball) style is combined with an adversarial strategy, the negotiation is usually characterized by hard, intense bargaining. The positions of the parties are likely to be extreme at the outset and remain fairly rigid throughout the negotiation. Concessions are hard to come by, and bluffs, threats, and even ad hominem attacks may permeate the process. Deadlocks are frequent, and, even if the parties reach agreement, they sometimes leave the negotiation dissatisfied and with their personal relation ship impaired or destroyed.
Style and Strategy Combinations Cooperative (or Competitive-Cooperative) and Adversarial • "When a "cooperative (softball) or competitive cooperative (hardball & soft ball) style is combined with an adversarial strategy, the prospects of reaching an agreement are enhanced. The negotiation is typically cordial and character ized by a reasoned debate about the various offers and counteroffers pres ented. Concessions made gradually are "in the spirit of compromise. " Bluffs and threats may occur from time to time, but not in the sometimes acerbic manner employed by purely hardball negotiators. If a settlement is reached, it might include the performance of obligations other than the mere payment of money, and the parties usually will conclude the negotiation with their relationship and egos intact.
Style and Strategy Combinations Competitive and Problem-Solving • A competitive (hardball) style is largely antithetical to a problem solving strategy. While the competitive problem solver will participate in identifying the needs of the opposing party, he is likely to be less than completely candid about those needs and seek to de emphasize them in favor of feigning or inflating the needs of his own client. In addition, the competitive bargainer is likely to advance solutions that solely benefit his side, rather than entertain broader solutions that accommodate the interests of the other side. In short, the competitive negotiator is primarily motivated to explore mutually benefi cial solutions only to the extent they maximize his own client's interests.
Style and Strategy Combinations Cooperative (or Competitive-Cooperative) and Problem-Solving • A cooperative (softball) or competitive cooperative (hardball & softball) style best complements, a problem solving strategy. The cooperative negotiator genuinely seeks to identify the legitimate interests of both parties, and is willing to explore mutually beneficial solutions in an open minded manner. A premium is usually placed, on the candid exchange of information. The hallmark of the cooperative problem solver's style is to emphasize common ground and minimize the parties' differences. Generally, when a cooperative style is combined with a problem solving strategy, the prospects for reaching a mutually satisfactory agreement are at their greatest.
Role of Communication in Negotiation
Team Negotiation Skills
Topic Nine PUBLIC RELATIONS MANAGEMENT
Definition of PR a management function, which tabulates public attitudes, defines the policies, procedures, and interests of an organization. . . followed by executing a program of action to earn public understanding and acceptance the art and social science of analyzing trends, predicting their consequences, counseling organizational leaders, and implementing planned programs of action, which will serve both the organization and the public interest the practice of managing communication between an organization and its publics Public relations helps an organization and its publics adapt mutually to each other Public relations is a strategic communication process that builds mutually beneficial relationships between organizations and their publics
Specific public relations disciplines include Financial public relations – • communicating financial results and business strategy Consumer/lifestyle public relations – • gaining publicity for a particular product or service Crisis communication – • responding in a crisis Internal communications – • communicating within the company itself Government relations – • engaging government departments to influence public policy
Typical PR activities publicity events speaking opportunities press releases newsletters blogs social media press kits outbound communication to members of the press
PR technics Audience targeting • A fundamental technique used in public relations is to identify the target audience, and to tailor messages to appeal to each audience. • On the other hand stakeholders theory identifies people who have a stake in a given institution or issue. All audiences are stakeholders (or presumptive stakeholders), but not all stakeholders are audiences. Messaging • Messaging is the process of creating a consistent story around a product, person, company or service. Messaging aims to avoid having readers receive contradictory or confusing information that will instill doubt in their purchasing choice or other decisions that have an impact on the company. Brands aim to have the same problem statement, industry viewpoint or brand perception shared across sources and mediums. Social media marketing Digital marketing • Digital marketing is the use of Internet tools and technologies such as search engines, Web 2. 0 social bookmarking, new media relations, blogging and social media marketing. Interactive PR allows companies and organizations to disseminate information without
Ethics and PR Spin • Spin has been interpreted to mean overt deceit meant to manipulate the public, but has shifted to describing a "polishing of the truth. " Today spin refers to providing a certain interpretation of informant meant to sway public opinion. Companies may use spin to create the appearance of the company or other events are going in a slightly different direction than they actually are. Within the field of public relations, spin is seen as a derogatory term, interpreted by professionals as meaning blatant deceit and manipulation. • The techniques of spin include selectively presenting facts and quotes that support ideal positions (cherry picking), the so called "non denial, " phrasing that in a way presumes unproven truths, euphemisms for drawing attention away from items considered distasteful, and ambiguity in public statements. Another spin technique involves careful choice of timing in the release of certain news so it can take advantage of prominent events in the news.
Ethics and PR Negative PR • Negative public relations, also called dark public relations (DPR), is a process of destroying the target's reputation and/or corporate identity. The objective in DPR is to discredit someone else, who may pose a threat to the client's business or be a political rival. DPR may rely on IT security, industrial espionage, social engineering and competitive intelligence. • Common techniques include using dirty secrets from the target, producing misleading facts to fool a competitor. Some claim that negative public relations may be highly moral and beneficial for the general public since threat of losing the reputation may be disciplining for companies, organizations and individuals. Apart from this, negative public relations helps to expose legitimate claims against one.
Ethics and PR Politics and civil society • The manipulation of public opinion was a necessary part of democracy. In public relations, lobby groups are created to influence government policy, corporate policy, or public opinion, typically in a way that benefits the sponsoring organization. • When a lobby group hides its true purpose and support base, it is known as a front group. Front groups are a form of astroturfing, because they intend to sway the public or the government without disclosing their financial connection to corporate or political interests. They create a fake grass roots movement by giving the appearance of a trusted organization that serves the public, when they actually serve their sponsors.
Five Modern Trends of PR Public relations is becoming a profession with a scholarly body of knowledge Public relations is becoming a management function rather than only a technical communication function Public relations practitioners are becoming strategic counselors who are less preoccupied with publicity in the mass media than their predecessors Public relations has moved from a profession practiced only by white males to a profession with a female majority and with practitioners of many racial and ethnic backgrounds All public relations practice today is global rather than confined to the borders of only one company
Impression management Definition • impression management is a goal directed conscious or unconscious process in which people attempt to influence the perceptions of other people about a person, object or event; they do so by regulating and controlling information in social interaction • impression management is practice in professional communication and public relations, where the term is used to describe the process of formation of a company's or organization's public image
Impression Management Motives Instrumental motive • we want to influence others and gain rewards. Conveying the right impression aids the acquisition of desired social and material outcomes. Social outcomes can include approval, friendship, assistance or power while conveying an impression of competency in the workforce can bring about positive material rewards such as higher salaries or better working conditions Expressive motive • We construct an image of ourselves to claim personal identity, and present ourselves in a manner that is consistent with that image. If we feel like this is restricted, we exhibit reactance/be defiant. We try to assert our freedom against those who would seek to curtail our self presentation expressiveness.
Impression Management Strategies ingratiation • where we use flattery or praise to increase our social attractiveness by highlighting our better characteristics so that others will like us intimidation • which is aggressively showing anger to get others to hear and obey us self handicapping • In this case people create 'obstacles' and 'excuses’ for themselves so that they can avoid self blame when they do poorly
Impression Management Theory Impression management theory • states that any individual or organization must establish and maintain impressions that are congruent with the perceptions they want to convey to their publics. From both a communications and public relations viewpoint, theory of impression management encompasses the vital ways in which one establishes and communicates this congruence between personal or organizational goals and their intended actions which create public perception. • The idea that perception is reality is the basis for this sociological and social psychology theory, which is framed around the presumption that the other’s perceptions of you or your organization become the reality from which they form ideas and the basis for intended behaviors
Basic factors governing impression management social situation cultural norms being a potential subject of monitoring audience
Reputation management definition Reputation management • is the practice of understanding or influencing an individual or business' reputation. It was originally coined as a public relations term, but advancement in computing, the internet and social media made it primarily an issue of search results. Although it is often associated with ethical grey areas, such as astroturfing review sites, trying to censor negative complaints or using gamey SEO tactics to influence results, there also ethical forms of reputation management, such as responding to customer complaints, asking sites to take down incorrect information and using online feedback to influence product development.
Reputation management history The concept was initially intended to broaden public relations outside of media relations. Today the rise of the internet and social media has shifted most reputation management to review sites, social media and—most prominently—the top search results on a brand or individual
Concepts of Reputation management is the practice of monitoring the reputation of an individual or brand, addressing contents which are damaging to it, and using customer feedback to get feedback or early warning signals to reputation problems. Most of reputation management is focused on pushing down negative search results. Reputation management may attempt to bridge the gap between how a company perceives itself and how others view it. Online reputation management is the practice of monitoring the Internet reputation of a person, brand or business, with the goal of emphasizing positive coverage rather than negative reviews or feedback. Prior to a July 2007 story in the Washington Post the term online reputation management was unknown. Reputation management for individuals maybe referred as online identity management (OIM), online image management, online personal branding or personal reputation management (PRM).
Tactics of Reputation management Tactics include the following • Improving the tagging and search engine optimization of company published materials, such as white papers and positive customer testimonials in order to push down negative content. • Publishing new positive websites and social media profiles that outperform negative results in search. • Submitting online press releases to authoritative websites in order to promote brand presence and suppress negative content. • Submitting legal take down requests if someone believes they have been libeled. • Getting mentions of the business or individual in third party sites that rank highly in Google. • Creating fake blogs pretending to be a different person that shares the same name in order to push down negative search results on the actual person or brand. • Using spam bots and denial of service attacks to force sites with damaging content off the Web entirely. • Astroturfing third party websites by creating anonymous accounts that create positive reviews or lash out against negative ones. • Proactively offering free products to prominent reviewers. • Proactively responding to public criticism stemming from recent changes.
Topic Ten COMMUNICATION MANAGEMENT AT CRISIS
Definition of crisis and communication management Crisis is • any situation that is threatening or could threaten to harm people or property, seriously interrupt business, damage reputation and/or negatively impact the bottom line Crisis communication management is • an ongoing and holistic process, in which the place actively communicates with the public in order to minimize any damage to the place image
Stages of a crisis Post-crisis Precaution Planning. Prevention Crisis Coping
Stages of a crisis Precaution • In accordance with its name, during the precaution stage most actions taken by organizations and places have nothing to do with a specific crisis situation but mainly concern preventive measures. This ongoing stage is used to create a strong and favorable image for the place through activities such as social contribution, community relations, allocating resources to PR, and creating good media relations Planning-Prevention • In the second stage of crisis communication management, the place's main goal is to prepare for future crises and to try to prevent them before they get out of control. The main tasks in the planning prevention stage are the preparation of issue management plan (risk management), and the creation of a communication response strategy (also known as emergency response and action strategy)
Stages of a crisis Coping • Crisis coping is a highly complex task in which a wide variety of measures are taken to contain the crisis, reduce its scale, and bring it to an end. As in the preceding stages, a correct, professional, and proactive use of crisis communication techniques can ease the perception of the crisis and prevent long term damage to the place's image. On the other hand, places that do not succeed in gaining control of the crisis coverage and delivering the right messages might find themselves facing a long term image crisis Post-crisis • In every crisis there is a post crisis stage, starting once the smoke has cleared and lasting months or even years after the physical crisis has faded. From the perspective of crisis communication management, this stage is used for PR, advertising and marketing campaign aimed at altering the place’s image and re attracting tourists, visitors and investors
The Dimensions of a Crisis Operations Victims Professional expectations Trust/credibilit y Ethics Behavior Lessons learned
The 10 Steps of Crisis Communications Riding Out the Storm Identify Key Messages Assess the Crisis Situation Develop Holding Statements Anticipate Crises Spokesperson Training Identify Spokespersons Identify Your Crisis Communications Team Establish Notification Systems Identify and Know Your Stakeholders
The 10 Steps of Crisis Communications Identify Your Crisis Communications Team • A small team of senior executives should be identified to serve as your organization's Crisis Communications Team. Ideally, the team will be led by the organization's CEO, with the firm's top public relations executive and legal counsel as his or her chief advisers. If your in house PR executive does not have sufficient crisis communications expertise, he or she may choose to retain an agency or independent consultant with that specialty. Other team members should be the heads of major organization divisions, to include finance, personnel and operations. Identify Spokespersons • Within each team, there should be individuals who are the only ones authorized to speak for the organization in times of crisis. The CEO should be one of those spokespersons, but not necessarily the primary spokesperson. The fact is that some chief executives are brilliant business people but not very effective in person communicators. The decision about who should speak is made after a crisis breaks — but the pool of potential spokespersons should be identified and trained in advance.
The 10 Steps of Crisis Communications Spokesperson Training • All stakeholders — internal and external — are just as capable of misunderstanding or misinterpreting information about your organization as the media, and it's your responsibility to minimize the chance of that happening. • Spokesperson training teaches you to be prepared, to be ready to respond in a way that optimizes the response of all stakeholders Establish Notification Systems • It is absolutely essential, pre crisis, to establish notification systems that will allow you to rapidly reach your stakeholders using multiple modalities. The Virginia Tech catastrophe, where email was the sole means of alerting students initially, proves that using any single modality can make a crisis worse. Some of us may be on email constantly, others not so. Some of us receive our cellphone calls or messages quickly, some not. If you use more than one modality to reach your stakeholders, the chances are much greater that the message will go through
The 10 Steps of Crisis Communications Identify and Know Your Stakeholders • Who are the internal and external stakeholders that matter to your organization? I consider employees to be your most important audience, because every employee is a PR representative and crisis manager for your organization whether you want them to be or not! But, ultimately, all stakeholders will be talking about you to others not on your contact list, so it's up to you to ensure that they receive the messages you would like them to repeat elsewhere Anticipate Crises • There at least two immediate benefits to this exercise: • You may realize that some of the situations are preventable by simply modifying existing methods of operation. • You can begin to think about possible responses, about best case/worst case scenarios, etc. Better now than when under the pressure of an actual crisis. • In some cases, of course, you know that a crisis will occur because you're planning to create it — e. g. , to lay off employees, or to make a major acquisition. Then, you can proceed with steps 8 10 below, even before the crisis occurs.
The 10 Steps of Crisis Communications Develop Holding Statements • While full message development must await the outbreak of an actual crisis, "holding statements" — messages designed for use immediately after a crisis breaks — can be developed in advance to be used for a wide variety of scenarios to which the organization is perceived to be vulnerable, based on the assessment you conducted in Step 6 of this process Assess the Crisis Situation • Assessing the crisis situation is, therefore, the first crisis communications step you can't take in advance. But if you haven't prepared in advance, your reaction will be delayed by the time it takes your in house staff or quickly hired consultants to run through steps 1 to 7. Furthermore, a hastily created crisis communications strategy and team are never as efficient as those planned and rehearsed in advance
The 10 Steps of Crisis Communications Identify Key Messages • With holding statements available as a starting point, the Crisis Communications Team must continue developing the crisis specific messages required for any given situation. The team already knows, categorically, what type of information its stakeholders are looking for. What should those stakeholders know about this crisis? Keep it simple — have no more than three main messages for all stakeholders and, as necessary, some audience specific messages for individual groups of stakeholders Riding Out the Storm • No matter what the nature of a crisis. . . no matter whether it's good news or bad. . . no matter how carefully you've prepared and responded. . . some of your stakeholders are not going to react the way you want them to. This can be immensely frustrating. What do you do? • Take a deep breath. • Take an objective look at the reaction(s) in question. Is it your fault, or their unique interpretation? • Decide if another communication to those stakeholders is likely to change their impression for the better. • Decide if another communication to those stakeholders could make the situation worse. • If, after considering these factors, you think it's still worth more communication, then take your best shot!