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Comenius School Development Project Second Year of Project EUROPEAN SURVEY 2006 – 2007 1 Comenius School Development Project Second Year of Project EUROPEAN SURVEY 2006 – 2007 1

Comenius School Development Project 2 Comenius School Development Project 2

CONTENTS CHAPTER I – Women in the European society 1. Introduction…………………………………. 4 2. Women’s CONTENTS CHAPTER I – Women in the European society 1. Introduction…………………………………. 4 2. Women’s right to work in countries from European Union ……………… 6 3. Famous women in Romania, Greece, Spain and Italy …………………. 15 4. Conclusions………………. . . . 29 CHAPTER II – Jobs unlikely to be done by women 1. Questionnaire- Jobs unlikely to be done by women……………. . . 32 2. Results …………………………………… 33 3. Conclusions …………………………………. . 54 “Egual Opportunities for a Successful Career”- Ro, Gr, Sp, It Comenius School Development Project 3

1. Introduction In the present work, suggestively named “Jobs Unlikely To Be Done by 1. Introduction In the present work, suggestively named “Jobs Unlikely To Be Done by Women”, we have proposed to inform society about jobs that are specific to men or specific to women. The paper is a European survey and has appeared in the second year of developing the Comenius project “Equal Opportunities for a Successful Career”, project in which four countries are involved: Romania, Greece, Spain and Italy. Based on a large amount of information, many activities have been done in order to realize this survey. There have been used different strategies and directions to obtain data from teachers, students, parents, economic agents and local community. Also, there have been taken into consideration the culture, the tradition and the mentalities of the partner countries, the specific of the participant highschools and the existent jobs on the labour market. An opinion questionnaire has been elaborated on the basis of the results of the self-knowledge and career marketing modules that were applied to students at the beginning of this year. The questionnaire was meant to provide data related to those jobs suitable for different categories of people. This European Survey was realized by : international coordinator - prof. Greavu Adina member in the project team - prof. Amza Lucia “Dimitrie Leonida” Technical College, Bucharest, Romania. “Egual Opportunities for a Successful Career”- Ro, Gr, Sp, It Comenius School Development Project 4

The sources of information for the present study were the Internet, mass-media, specialized works The sources of information for the present study were the Internet, mass-media, specialized works etc. The European Survey reflects the work of a large number of teachers and students from the four partner schools. “IES EL CASTELL” “DIMITRIE LEONIDA”TECHNICAL COLLEGE Project team Adina Greavu- international project coordinator Lucia Amza, Doina Tanase, Rodica Plesnila, Ioana Fortin, Loreta Mitrica, Ioana Banu “ 2 nd EVENING TEE KAVALAS” Project team Nikos Ioannou-project coordinator Grigoris Tsakmakis, Sotiris Totis, Eleni Zisi, Irini Karagiannidou, Giannis Dagoulis, Giannis Gavriilidis, Christos Soufleris Project team Mª Dolores Gallardo- project coordinator Maria Corominas, Nestor del Pozo Yolanda Eito, Rosa Gramunt Blanca Mampel ISTITUTO d’ISTRUZIONE SUPERIORE “P. MANCINI” Project team Giuseppina Bottino-project coordinator Luigi Reda, Giuseppina Biondi, Ivana De Santis Giseppina Aprigliano, Franco Catanzariti, Patrizia Monaco “Egual Opportunities for a Successful Career”- Ro, Gr, Sp, It Comenius School Development Project 5

2. Women’s right to work in countries from European Union EU Presidencies and the 2. Women’s right to work in countries from European Union EU Presidencies and the European Union The Women and Equality Unit actively participates in the European Advisory Committee (EAC) on Equal Opportunities for Women and Men; the Committee implementing the programme relating to the Community Framework Strategy on Gender Equality (2001 -2006); and the EU High-level Group on Gender Mainstreaming, which meets twice a year to consider and advise how to mainstream gender within the EU. “Egual Opportunities for a Successful Career”- Ro, Gr, Sp, It Comenius School Development Project 6

Recast Directive The EU Directive 2006/54/EC on the implementation of the principle of equal Recast Directive The EU Directive 2006/54/EC on the implementation of the principle of equal opportunities and equal treatment of men and women in matters of employment and occupation (re-cast version) came into force on 15 August 2006 and Member States will have two years within which to implement this Directive within their domestic legislation. The objective of the proposal is to simplify, modernise and improve the Community law in relation to gender equality by putting relevant Directives into a single text. The text combines seven Directives about equal treatment of men and women. They cover: Equal Pay Equal Treatment relating to access to employment, vocational training, promotion and working conditions Occupational social security schemes (Pensions) Burden of proof (the standards needed to bring or defend a claim. “Egual Opportunities for a Successful Career”- Ro, Gr, Sp, It Comenius School Development Project 7

THE CONSTITUTION OF ROMANIA TITLE II Fundamental rights, freedoms and duties Labour and social THE CONSTITUTION OF ROMANIA TITLE II Fundamental rights, freedoms and duties Labour and social protection of labour ARTICLE 41 (1) The right to work shall not be restricted. The choice of profession, trade, job or work place is free. (2) All the employees have the right to measures of social protection. These concern the employees’ security and health, specific labour regime for women and young people, the establishing of a minimum gross salary per country, weekends, paid rest leave, work performed under special conditions, professional training, and other specific situations stipulated by the law. (3) The normal duration of a working day is of 8 hours, at the most, on the average. (4) For equal work with men, women shall have the right to equal wages. (5) The right to collective labour bargaining and the binding character of collective agreements shall be guaranteed. “Egual Opportunities for a Successful Career”- Ro, Gr, Sp, It Comenius School Development Project 8

THE CONSTITUTION OF GREECE PART TWO INDIVIDUAL AND SOCIAL RIGHTS Article 22 1. Work THE CONSTITUTION OF GREECE PART TWO INDIVIDUAL AND SOCIAL RIGHTS Article 22 1. Work constitutes a right and shall enjoy the protection of the State, which shall seek to create conditions of employment for all citizens and shall pursue the moral and material advancement of the rural and urban working population. All workers, irrespective of sex or other distinctions, shall be entitled to equal pay for work of equal value. 2. General working conditions shall be determined by law, supplemented by collective labour agreements contracted through free negotiations and, in case of the failure of such, by rules determined by arbitration. 3. Any form of compulsory work is prohibited. Special laws shall determine the requisition of personal services in case of war or mobilization or to face defence needs of the country or urgent social emergencies resulting from disasters or liable to endanger public health, as well as the contribution of personal work to local government agencies to satisfy local needs. 4. The State shall care for the social security of the working people, as specified by law. Interpretative clause: “Egual Opportunities for a Successful Career”- Ro, Gr, Sp, It Comenius School Development Project 9

THE CONSTITUTION OF SPAIN PART I. CHAPTER 2. DIVISION 2. Rights and Duties of THE CONSTITUTION OF SPAIN PART I. CHAPTER 2. DIVISION 2. Rights and Duties of Citizens Section 35 All Spaniards have the duty to work and the right to work, to the free choice of profession or trade, to advancement through work, and to a sufficient remuneration for the satisfaction of their needs and those of their families. Under no circumstances may they be discriminated on account of their sex. The law shall regulate a Workers' Statute. “Egual Opportunities for a Successful Career”- Ro, Gr, Sp, It Comenius School Development Project 10

THE CONSTITUTION OF ITALY { Adopted on: 22 Dec 1947 } { Effective since: THE CONSTITUTION OF ITALY { Adopted on: 22 Dec 1947 } { Effective since: 1 Jan 1948 } { ICL Document Status: 23 May 2003 } Article 37 [Equality of Women at Work] (1) Working women are entitled to equal rights and, for comparable jobs, equal pay as men. Working conditions habe to be such as to allow women to fulfill their essential family duties and ensure an adequate protection of mothers and children. (2) The law defines a minimal age for paid labor. (3) The republic establishes special measures protecting juvenile labor and guarantees equal pay for comparable work. “Egual Opportunities for a Successful Career”- Ro, Gr, Sp, It Comenius School Development Project 11

Recommendation 1700 (2005)1 Discrimination against women in the workforce and the workplace 1. One Recommendation 1700 (2005)1 Discrimination against women in the workforce and the workplace 1. One of the basic rights of women is not to be discriminated against in the workforce and in the workplace. This right is enshrined in international law, such as United Nations conventions, International Labour Organization (ILO) conventions and the revised European Social Charter, as well as in the national law of all Council of Europe member states and in European Community law. Unfortunately, however, reality does not always comply with the law, and even in Europe women continue to be discriminated against in manifold ways, both in the workforce and in the workplace. 2. The first problem which women encounter is a lack of access to the labour market. In most Council of Europe member states, the labour force participation rate of women is lower and the unemployment rate of women higher than that of men – although there are strong regional variations. In general, far more women than men work in part-time jobs (not always of their own choosing) and many women are overqualified for the work they do. In addition, many women are what the ILO calls “discouraged workers”: workers not included in the unemployment statistics of their country because they are not actively seeking work, although they do want to work, because they feel that no work is available to them or they face discrimination or structural, social or cultural barriers. “Egual Opportunities for a Successful Career”- Ro, Gr, Sp, It Comenius School Development Project 12

3. The second problem is the wage gap. Women are often paid less than 3. The second problem is the wage gap. Women are often paid less than men for the same work or work of equal value – on average at least 15% less (up to 25% to 30% less). High educational achievements are no safeguard. In many countries, the better the woman is educated, the greater the wage gap. In general, women also earn less than men in their lifetime and thus they have less advantageous pension insurance conditions and also receive smaller pensions when they retire, although they live longer than men. 4. The third problem is the “glass ceiling”. Women are routinely passed over when it comes to promotions. The higher the post, the less likely a woman – even one as qualified as or more qualified than her male counterparts – is to get it. Women who manage to break through this so-called “glassceiling” into decision-making positions remain the exception to the rule as even in female-dominated sectors where there are more women managers, a disproportionate number of men rise to the more senior positions. 5. The main reason for all three problems – lack of access to the labour market, the wage gap and the “glass ceiling” – is discrimination against women. In most cases, women pay a gender penalty as actual or potential mothers. Many employers wrongly fear the cost and hassle motherhood may entail. In fact, according to recent ILO research, the additional cost of hiring a woman is less than 1% of the monthly gross earnings of women employees. But women are not only discriminated against for economic reasons – they are mainly discriminated against because of stereotyping and misguided preconceptions of women’s roles and abilities, commitment and leadership style. “Egual Opportunities for a Successful Career”- Ro, Gr, Sp, It Comenius School Development Project 13

6. These stereotypes lead to women often being offered employment that is precarious, badly 6. These stereotypes lead to women often being offered employment that is precarious, badly paid, without any possibility of career advancement and not gratifying, as it does not allow for the full development of their abilities. Women are often excluded from informal networks and channels of communication (the “old boys’ network”). In addition, some of them suffer from an unfriendly corporate culture and can become victims of moral and sexual harassment, bullying and mobbing. Finally, in many Council of Europe member states, family responsibilities (housework, childcare, looking after elderly relatives) are not equally shared between women and men, leading to additional barriers which prevent women from entering and staying in the workforce and having a career. 7. In the end, women’s lower participation in the labour force and higher unemployment contribute to the economic loss and inequality which forms the basis for a broader inequality between women and can translate into economic dependence and poverty (particularly in old age) for the women affected. However, it is not only women who suffer when they are discriminated against. Discrimination against women in the workforce and the workplace contributes to lower economic growth, diminishing tax income and higher outlays in unemployment and social security benefits. The elimination of this discrimination is thus also a sound economic policy goal and improves social cohesion 1. Assembly debate on 27 April 2005 (13 th Sitting) (see Doc. 10484, report of the Committee on Equal Opportunities for Women and Men, rapporteur: Ms Curdová). Text adopted by the Assembly on 27 April 2005 (13 th Sitting). “Egual Opportunities for a Successful Career”- Ro, Gr, Sp, It Comenius School Development Project 14

“Egual Opportunities for a Successful Career”- Ro, Gr, Sp, It Comenius School Development Project “Egual Opportunities for a Successful Career”- Ro, Gr, Sp, It Comenius School Development Project 15

In 1912 , the Romanian and European newspapers published a sensational news : a In 1912 , the Romanian and European newspapers published a sensational news : a woman graduated Charlottemburg University and became an engineer. She was the first member of the Romanian Inventors Association and a member of the International Association of Universitary Women. 1887 - 1973 Romanians were very proud of her work and contribution in the field of technology so that a street in Bucharest has her name. “Egual Opportunities for a Successful Career”- Ro, Gr, Sp, It Comenius School Development Project 16

General Director of the State Institute for Geriatric Research and Geriatric Medicine in Bucharest, General Director of the State Institute for Geriatric Research and Geriatric Medicine in Bucharest, Romania, which she founded. It is the oldest institute of its kind worldwide. Dr. and scientist Anna Aslan dedicated her life to the research of the decaying cells which we call “old age”. After several decades of research, it was in this institute that Dr. Aslan discovered the method that slows down and sometime reverse the premature decay and aging process. She called it the GEROVITAL GH 3 TREATMENT. (1897 -1988) “Egual Opportunities for a Successful Career”- Ro, Gr, Sp, It Comenius School Development Project 17

IRINA SOCOL GENERAL MANAGER - SIVECO In 2004 , the European Commission awarded e. IRINA SOCOL GENERAL MANAGER - SIVECO In 2004 , the European Commission awarded e. Learning – Ae. L product for European IST Prize – which for IT field is the same as OSCAR Prize In 2005 , the World Summit jury for Information Society awarded multimedia lessons for Romanian highschools , created by SIVECO, the first prize at the IT World Championship. “Egual Opportunities for a Successful Career”- Ro, Gr, Sp, It Comenius School Development Project 18

Melina Mercouri She (Athens, Greece, October 18, 1920 – New York, March 6, 1994) Melina Mercouri She (Athens, Greece, October 18, 1920 – New York, March 6, 1994) was a Greek actress and political activist. When democracy returned to her home country, she returned, and became first a member of Parliament for PASOK, and then Minister of Culture. In 1971, she wrote her autobiography, I Was Born Greek. As Minister of Culture, she proposed the Cultural Capital of Europe ideal within the framework of cultural policy of the European Community. Athens inaugurated this institution in 1986. She advocated the return of the Parthenon Marbles that Lord Elgin removed from the Acropolis. The Marbles are now a part of the British Museum collection. The return of the marbles is anticipated as a highly probable eventuality. For this reason a new museum is created under the Parthenon to host the collection and other pieces from the monument that are being removed and restored. “Egual Opportunities for a Successful Career”- Ro, Gr, Sp, It Comenius School Development Project 19

Helen Glykatzi-Ahrweiler She was the first woman chairman of department of History in the Helen Glykatzi-Ahrweiler She was the first woman chairman of department of History in the University of Sorbone the 1967. She was also the first woman dean of University of Sorbon in his 700 years history the 1976. She is dean of the European University. After her graduation she worked as researcher in the Centre for Asia minor study, while she moved in Paris in 1953 in order to continue her study. Two years after her arrival in the French capital it was named in the National Centre of Scientific Researches of France (CNRS), while in 1964 she receives the title of director of Centre and in 1967 that of professor in the Sorbone, while in between was honoured with the title of “Docteur des Lettres”. While she was Director of Centre of History and Culture of Byzantium and Christian Archaeology in the University of Paris 1, was elected deputy rector of University of Sorbone (19701973) and in 1976, dean. She is Chairman; inter alia, the European University, the Committee of Ethics of National Centre for the Scientific Research (France), the European Cultural Centre of Delphi (Greece) and Honorary Chairman of International Committee of Byzantine Study. Also, remain Chairman of University Paris, dean of Universities of Paris, and Chairman of Centre Georges Pompidou - Beaubourg. Helen Glykatzi-Ahrweiler is considered today by the most distinguished academic personalities, particularly in the Byzantinology, with very big number of lectures and speeches inside and outside Greece. “Egual Opportunities for a Successful Career”- Ro, Gr, Sp, It Comenius School Development Project 20

Katina Paxinou Born Ekaterini Konstantopoulou , in Piraeus, Greece, she trained as an opera Katina Paxinou Born Ekaterini Konstantopoulou , in Piraeus, Greece, she trained as an opera singer but changed career and joined the Greek Royal Theater in 1929. Paxinou distinguished herself on the stage. When World War II broke out, she was performing in London. Unable to return to Greece, she emigrated to the United States. In 1950, Paxinou resumed her stage career. In her native Greece, she formed the Royal Theatre of Athens with Alexis Minotis, her principal director and her husband since 1940. Paxinou made several appearances on the Broadway stage as well, including the lead role in the first production in English of Federico Garcia Lorca's The House of Bernarda Alba, in 1951. “Egual Opportunities for a Successful Career”- Ro, Gr, Sp, It Comenius School Development Project 21

Josefa Molera (Navarre), 1921 It confers a doctor's degree in Chemistry and teacher of Josefa Molera (Navarre), 1921 It confers a doctor's degree in Chemistry and teacher of investigation of the CSIC in the Institute Rocasolano of Physics and Chemistry. After a period of formation together with Sir Cyril Norman Hinshelwood (18971967), who would be A Prize Nóbel of Chemistry (1956), it(he, she) specialized itself in kinetic chemistry. To his return it took part in one of the first cromatógrafos of gases that were constructed in Spain. “Egual Opportunities for a Successful Career”- Ro, Gr, Sp, It Comenius School Development Project 22

Isabel Torres Isabel Torres, pharmacist of formation, was the first woman who realized in Isabel Torres Isabel Torres, pharmacist of formation, was the first woman who realized in Cantabria an investigation that cost the doctor's title him, in 1932. In the Department of Chemistry of the House Health Valdecilla, Isabel devoted herself between 1930 and 1932 to the analysis of the nutritional values of the food that were consumed in the hospital; a project at the time novel directed to improving the quality of the hospitable assistance. With his recollection, we want to open a feminine own(proper) space in the historical memory and in the scientific collective culture, with a gesture that shows the singularity of the links of the women with the production(elaboration) of knowing. “Egual Opportunities for a Successful Career”- Ro, Gr, Sp, It Comenius School Development Project 23

DOLORS ALEU I RIERA Dolors Aleu was the first woman who obtained in the DOLORS ALEU I RIERA Dolors Aleu was the first woman who obtained in the Spanish State the doctor's title(degree) in Medicine in 1882. She was born in Barcelona On April 3, 1857. She ended the studies of Medicine in 1879 but she did not obtain the permission to appear to the tests(proofs) of licentiate the year 1882. Anyhow it is necessary to mention between(among) the pioneering ones Martina Castells that obtained it three days after Dolors and Maria Helena Maseras who obtained the licentiate the same year though he(she) did not take doctor's degree. Dolors's doctoral thesis was published in 1883 by the following title(degree): " Convenience of directing for new routes the hygienic - moral education of the woman ". Her individual struggle to accede to the doctor's degree in medicine dissolved it convinced that the access denied to this privilege was a social injustice against the women. Dolors Aleu exercised for 25 years the medicine and specialized itself(himself, herself) in gynaecology and infantile medicine. He(she) died in Barcelona on February 19, 1913. “Egual Opportunities for a Successful Career”- Ro, Gr, Sp, It Comenius School Development Project 24

Rita Levi-Montalcini (born April 22, 1909 in Turin) is an Italian neurologist who, together Rita Levi-Montalcini (born April 22, 1909 in Turin) is an Italian neurologist who, together with colleague Stanley Cohen, received the 1986 Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine for their discovery of growth factors. Today she is the oldest living Nobel laureate. In 1968, she was the tenth woman elected to the United States National Academy of Sciences. In 1986 Levi-Montalcini and collaborator Stanley Cohen received the Nobel Prize in Medicine, as well as the Albert Lasker Award for Basic Medical Research. This made her the fourth Nobel Prize winner to come from Italy's small (<50, 000) Jewish community, after Emilio Segrè, Salvador Luria (a university colleague and friend) and Franco Modigliani. “Egual Opportunities for a Successful Career”- Ro, Gr, Sp, It Comenius School Development Project 25

Margherita Hack “Egual Opportunities for a Successful Career”- Ro, Gr, Sp, It Comenius School Margherita Hack “Egual Opportunities for a Successful Career”- Ro, Gr, Sp, It Comenius School Development Project 26

Maria Gaetana Agnesi -born May 16, 1718, Milan - died January 9, 1799, Milan Maria Gaetana Agnesi -born May 16, 1718, Milan - died January 9, 1799, Milan Italian mathematician and philosopher, considered to be the first woman in the Western world to have achieved a reputation in mathematics. Agnesi's best-known work, Instituzioni analitiche ad uso della gioventù italiana (1748; “Analytical Institutions for the Use of Italian Youth”), in two huge volumes, provided a remarkably comprehensive and systematic treatment of algebra and analysis, including such relatively new developments as integral and differential calculus. The French Academy of Sciences, in its review of the Instituzioni, stated that: “We regard it as the most complete and best made treatise. ” Pope Benedict XIV was similarly impressed and appointed Agnesi professor of mathematics at the University of Bologna in 1750. “Egual Opportunities for a Successful Career”- Ro, Gr, Sp, It Comenius School Development Project 27

We presented only a few remarkable women from four countries in different field of We presented only a few remarkable women from four countries in different field of activities that demonstrate the power of women. They enlarged and increased the opportunities for a lot of other women to enter into the fields that were specific for men. We are very proud of these women and we respect their contribution to our development. “Egual Opportunities for a Successful Career”- Ro, Gr, Sp, It Comenius School Development Project 28

4. Conclusions As we have shown in chapter I, both the European misunderstandings and 4. Conclusions As we have shown in chapter I, both the European misunderstandings and the legislation of the mentioned countries specify equal rights for men and women on the labour market. Because of the mentalities, traditions or discrimination, in real life women’s rights are not always respected, though. More than that, there are legislative differences even between the countries involved in this project. These aspects do not represent a novelty, and the argument is The European Parliament itself, which has given some recommendations so the equal rights for men and women be specified clearly in the legislations of the member countries and thus a democratic European area be created. “Egual Opportunities for a Successful Career”- Ro, Gr, Sp, It Comenius School Development Project 29

During centuries , in Romania , a lot of women proved to be remarkable During centuries , in Romania , a lot of women proved to be remarkable people in different field of activities. Women face obstacles to their scientific work simply because they are women and as a result , are under-represented in the science and in the decision – making bodies concerned with scientific issues. Nevertheless, in our culture, there are many women that demonstrated their intelligence and skills. According to the latest statistics, in Romania, women work, as a majority, in the following fields of activity: ØHealth and social assistance – 78, 8% ØFinancial and banking activities and insurance companies – 71, 3% ØEducation – 69, 5% ØHotels and restaurants – 66% ØTrade activities – 55, 4% ØPost and telecommunication – 53, 9% ØAgriculture – 50, 4% However, Romanian women fight against family, social and employers prejudicies and step by step most of them succeeded in having a career even in the most difficult jobs. In Greece, the participation of women in the academic-scientific field is part of a general status of social discrimination. üthe “equality” which is bound by law is often obstructed in practice üthe existing hierarchical system puts women in a lower place at all social levels üthe categories of the working force based on the sex goes back a long time • Women focus on certain occupations In the scientific field it can be observed: • An increasing inclination-almost equal to-as to the participation of female students in higher education • Increase of women in sciences, in engineering, technology, computer science • Increase of female students-but not equal- in post graduate courses Restrained though presence in managerial positions and in the higher ranks of academic hierarchy 30 “Egual Opportunities for a Successful Career”- Ro, Gr, Sp, It Comenius School Development Project

In Spain, women play a second role in research and in science and technology. In Spain, women play a second role in research and in science and technology. The difficulties to reconcile a competitive research career with family burdens, limiting their aspirations. The access and promotion of the scientist career is still controlled by male recruiting systems and the objectives of the basis for comparison does not escape male models, either. In Spain there are very few women researchers and teachers that become positive models to those who begin. In general society and mass media do not foster the professional aspirations of women. Our institutions do not support mobility and interruption/return in the research task for family needs. In 1977 the Democratic Constitution is passed, establishing equality of genres. It is not until much later that new genre policies will be elaborated. Nowadays these policies are beginning to have a real effect on society. In Italy , women still suffer a gender discrimination that causes a remarkable difference in career opportunities; therefore, we can find very few women in top positions. It has been underlined that the criterions of selection of the women are based on masculine values; hence, it has been suggested that in the criterion of evaluation the recognition of predominantly female characteristics be introduced. For example, the predilection for interdisciplinary research, which manifests their curiosity and ability, the attention and the care in job formation, the ability to cope with a baggage of matured competences; the ability of collaboration in the working activity in comparison to the traditional competitive attitude of the masculine model. Point of arrival of this innovative path is a science served by men and women. The women's presence in the decisional places must be accompanied by the desire to change the way to work and to appraise the feminine abilities. Otherwise, there cannot be innovation. According to the ISTAT, that has elaborated a recent research in Italy, we have the picture of a woman who works more, and that is occupied in the most modern and flexible jobs; a woman who invests more in culture and formation; a woman who tries to conciliate family and job, a woman for which the third age sets off to become an active phase in life, and, in general, culturally lively. As far as the scientific and technological fields are concerned, the feminine presence in Italy is emerging and acquiring strength, even though it is still scarcely assessed in percentage. 31 “Egual Opportunities for a Successful Career”- Ro, Gr, Sp, It Comenius School Development Project

CHAPTER II – Jobs Unlikely To Be Done by Women 1. Questionnaire “Jobs unlikely CHAPTER II – Jobs Unlikely To Be Done by Women 1. Questionnaire “Jobs unlikely to be done by women” 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. The project teams form all those 4 partner countries have ellaborated selfknowledge and career marketing modules and have also done numerous activities in which there were involved both students from the target groups but also some other students and teachers. In order to see how the students perceived some new information, a questionnaire was ellaborated, whose theme was “Jobs unlikely to be done by women”. The questionnaire contains a set of 29 questions and was applied to a number of 104, 15 to 19 and over 19 year-old students from Romania, Greece, Spain and Italy, both girls and boys. The questions regarded the way the students perceive gender differences related to choosing a job, the reason for their choices, the way society limits or not the women’s rights to choose a certain job, social and work relations between men and women, the dificulty of a job for a woman. There also questions that lead to gathering some data about the students – age, professional qualification, general culture and education. For a better analysis, all the answers were included into a synoptic table. “Egual Opportunities for a Successful Career”- Ro, Gr, Sp, It Comenius School Development Project 32

2. Results Students’ answers, in the questionnaires applied in Romania, Greece, Spain, Italy, were 2. Results Students’ answers, in the questionnaires applied in Romania, Greece, Spain, Italy, were , some of them, transformed in percentage and put into comparative charts. We are presenting some questions and the comparative synoptic tables. “Egual Opportunities for a Successful Career”- Ro, Gr, Sp, It Comenius School Development Project 33

1. Have you thought of a job that you would like to have? 2. 1. Have you thought of a job that you would like to have? 2. If you thought of a job(s), what would that/those be? 3. At question number 1, most students answered that they had thought of a job. A smaller percentage has been noticed in Spain, due to the fact that the students here are younger. 4. At question number 2, students have taken into consideration jobs according to their professional qualification and to the tradition of their country, as following: 5. Romania – of the 36 jobs that sudents have been asked to choose from, the following are on top: doctor, lawyer, bank manager, cook, engineer, touristic guide. These options are not surprising, given the fact that the students are in 12 th grade highschool. 6. Greece– the students have chosen out of 18 jobs, as following: engineer, electrician, car electrician, mechanic, tinker-car dyer, lathe man, plumber, hairdresser, secretary, receptionist, accountant, computer programmer, taxi driver, military man, ship commander, policeman, truck driver. The large number of choices is due to the fact that the students attend evening classes, they are of different ages and belong to varied domains of activity. Italy – since the school has an economic profile, many students have chosen shopkeeper as a job Spain – students have mainly chosen jobs like : pilot, fireman, engineer, gardener, architect, shop-assistant, hairdresser 3. Do you consider that some jobs are more difficult while others are less difficult? Most of the students from those 4 countries answer that some more difficult jobs do exist. “Egual Opportunities for a Successful Career”- Ro, Gr, Sp, It Comenius School Development Project 34

4. When you choose your job, you take into consideration the fact that. . 4. When you choose your job, you take into consideration the fact that. . . 1 You like what you will do 2 You have the necessary competence 3 It’s the right job for you as a girl/boy 4 Another reason ______ All the students take into consideration what they like when choosing a job. 5. Do you consider that some jobs are only for men while other jobs are only for women? 35 “Egual Opportunities for a Successful Career”- Ro, Gr, Sp, It Comenius School Development Project

6. If you have answered YES, give three examples for each category. Bring arguments 6. If you have answered YES, give three examples for each category. Bring arguments for your choices. Romania Jobs likely to be done by women: secretary, maid, hairdresser, baby-sitter, manicurist, nurse, beautician, cook, cashier, model, doctor, pedagogue Arguments: Women have the right skills, they enjoy doing it, they are caring and have experience with children, they also have a special taste for beauty, they know what they are doing and are more patient. Jobs likely to be done by men: bodyguard, bricklayer, lathe operator, fireman, butcher, mechanic, plumber, train conductor, electrician, policeman, millitary officer, house painter, welder, scavenger, carpenter, miner, postman Arguments: Men have the necessary strength, have technical abilities, they like what they are doing, they need money. Greece Jobs likely to be done by women: hairdresser, secretary, receptionist , accountant, teacher, nurse, cleaning agent, pedagogue Arguments: Women are more efficient for these jobs Jobs likely to be done by men: electrician, car mechanic, truck driver, lathe operator, tinker-car dyer, plumber, bricklayer, carpenter. Arguments: These jobs are more difficult and some even dangerous. Spain Jobs likely to be done by women: none Jobs likely to be done by men: mechanic, bricklayer Arguments: No arguments. Italy Jobs likely to be done by women: secretary Arguments: It’s an easy job. Jobs likely to be done by men: mechanic Arguments: It’s usually a male’s job. “Egual Opportunities for a Successful Career”- Ro, Gr, Sp, It Comenius School Development Project 36

7. Do you consider that there are jobs unlikely to be done by women? 7. Do you consider that there are jobs unlikely to be done by women? 8. If you have answered YES at question 7, give three examples and bring arguments. Romania – bricklayer, driver, welder, pilot, sailman, crane operator, lathe operator, mechanic, fireman, train conductor, electrician, guardian, plumber, rescuer, butcher, carpenter, diver. Arguments – Women do not have the same skills; these jobs require strength and resistence, they imply toxic environment, are dangerous and women get more easily scared. Greece - ship commander, night watchman, surgeon, lathe operator, bricklayer, plumber. Arguments – These jobs imply regular voyages, they seem to be more brutal, heavier and dangerous. Italy – electrician. Arguments – It’s usually a male’s job. “Egual Opportunities for a Successful Career”- Ro, Gr, Sp, It Comenius School Development Project 37

9. If you have answered YES at question 7, what do you consider to 9. If you have answered YES at question 7, what do you consider to be the reasons for which some jobs are unsuitable for women? (there may be more answers) a-Women aren’t capable e-I don’t like working with women b-Women are not as strong as men f-I don’t trust women c-Women are supposed to take care more of their families and homes g-Women wouldn’t look too well doing that job d-Women are not educated or trained enough h-Another reason ______ “Egual Opportunities for a Successful Career”- Ro, Gr, Sp, It Comenius School Development Project 38

10. Do you consider that in nowadays society women are restrained in choosing a 10. Do you consider that in nowadays society women are restrained in choosing a job? 11. If you have answered YES at question 10, what would be the reasons? (there may be more answers) A Prejudices B Family background C School education D Restraining laws E Lack of courage F Maternity G Lack of option in choosinhg a job H Another reason _____ 39 “Egual Opportunities for a Successful Career”- Ro, Gr, Sp, It Comenius School Development Project

12. Do you consider that there are enough women working in the technical or 12. Do you consider that there are enough women working in the technical or scientific fields? 13. A job is difficult when it implies. . . 1 … intense physical effort 2 … intense nervous consumption / intense stress 40 “Egual Opportunities for a Successful Career”- Ro, Gr, Sp, It

 3 … frequent trips, leg work 4 … unspecific timetable (relay system, night 3 … frequent trips, leg work 4 … unspecific timetable (relay system, night shifts, long programme) 5 … working in difficult conditions (cold, extremely hot) or in a toxic environment 41 “Egual Opportunities for a Successful Career”- Ro, Gr, Sp, It Comenius School Development Project

6 … risky activities (working at elevation, accident danger) 7 …shameful, embarrassing activities 8 6 … risky activities (working at elevation, accident danger) 7 …shameful, embarrassing activities 8 … having special personal qualities, (knowledge, abilities, fitness, health) 42 “Egual Opportunities for a Successful Career”- Ro, Gr, Sp, It Comenius School Development Project

14. Do you consider that the following jobs : Electrician House painter Receptionist Professor 14. Do you consider that the following jobs : Electrician House painter Receptionist Professor Aeroplane pilot Mechanic Crane driver Cleaning agent Tinker – car dyer Bricklayer Bank manager Maker-fitter gyps apparatus Life guard / mountain rescuer Welder Cosmetician Nutritionist Stretcher bearer Military man Lathe operator Male hairdresser Porter Dental technician Criminologist Milling-machine operator Male manicurist / pedicurist Aerobics trainer Textile worker Cameraman Oceanographer Farmer Mechanic locksmith Truck / ambulance driver Secretary Diver Policeman Engineer Cook Sailer Broker Plumber Waiter Fireman Astronaut Housekeeper Food loader-distributor Ship commander …. . imply ( 1, 2, 3, 4 – variables) 1. Intense physical effort Peavey man 2. Intense nervous consumption / intense stress 3. Frequent trips, leg work 4. Unspecific timetable 1. From the students’ answers we have pointed out the jobs that they consider to imply the greatest (A) and the smallest (B) physical effort: Romania Greece Spain A – house painter A – farmer A – tinker-car dyer, cleaning agent, house painter, B – male manicurist/ pedicurist B – bank manager diver, military, sailor, mechanic, fireman, electrician Italy A – mechanic, house painter, waiter, stretcher bearer, sailor, military man, policeman, astronaut, peavy man B – engineer, manicurist “Egual Opportunities for a Successful Career”- Ro, Gr, Sp, It Comenius School Development Project 43

2. From the students’ answers we have pointed out the jobs that they consider 2. From the students’ answers we have pointed out the jobs that they consider to imply the greatest (A) and the smallest (B) nervous consumption: Romania Greece Italy A –pilot A – bank manager A - mechanic, house painter, waiter, nutritionist B – tinker-car dyer B – male hairdresser professor , military man male manicurist/pedicurist B - electrician 3. From the students’ answers we have pointed out the jobs that they consider to imply the most (A) and the fewest/least (B) travels and leg work: Romania Greece Italy A – truck/ambulance driver A – waiter A - tinker-car dyer, crane driver, receptionist, porter, B – tinker-car dyer B – bank manager housekeeper, textile worker, fireman B – male hairdresser, mechanic locksmith 4. From the students’ answers we have pointed out the jobs that they consider to have the most (A) and the least (B) unusual programme: Romania Greece A- truck/ambulance driver A - fireman B – textile worker B – nutritionist Italy A – welder, milling machine operator, engineer, bricklayer, male manicurist, cook, cleaning agent, aerobics trainer secretary, oceanographer, sailor, pilot, cameraman, astronaut B – electrician, mechanic locksmith, male hairdresser “Egual Opportunities for a Successful Career”- Ro, Gr, Sp, It Comenius School Development Project 44

15. Do you consider that the following jobs : Electrician House painter Receptionist Professor 15. Do you consider that the following jobs : Electrician House painter Receptionist Professor Aeroplane pilot Mechanic Crane driver Cleaning agent Tinker – car dyer Bricklayer Bank manager Maker-fitter gyps apparatus Life guard / mountain rescuer Welder Cosmetician Nutritionist Stretcher bearer Military man Lathe man Male hairdresser Dental technician Criminologist Milling-machine operator Male manicurist / pedicurist Porter Personal de parcat autivehicule Textile worker Cameraman Aerobics trainer Oceanographer Farmer Mechanic locksmith Truck / ambulance driver Housekeeper Diver Policeman Engineer Cook Secretary Sailer Broker Plumber Waiter Food loader-distributor Fireman Astronaut …. . imply ( 1, 2, 3, 4 – variables) 1. Working in special / toxic Ship commander Peavey man 2. Risky activities 3. Shameful/embarassing work 4. Having special, personal qualities The students from those 4 countries consider that there are jobs that are done in toxic environments, other jobs that imply risky activities or some shameful work and other jobs that do require some special personal qualities. Choosing from their answers, we can have a perspective view and we can make a classification: 1. Working in special / toxic – house painter, tinker-car dyer, astronaut, oceanographer, textile worker, dental technician 2. Risky activities – astronaut, electrician, crane driver, diver, sailor, peavy man, policeman, fireman, life guard 3. Shameful/embarassing work – manicurist/pedicurist, housekeeper, house painter, peavy man, cleaning agent 4. Having special, personal qualities – aeroplane pilot, criminologist, aerobics trainer, male hairdresser, 45 “Egual Opportunities for a Successful Career”- Ro, Gr, Sp, It broker Comenius School Development Project

16. Do you consider the following jobs : Electrician House painter Receptionist Professor Aeroplane 16. Do you consider the following jobs : Electrician House painter Receptionist Professor Aeroplane pilot Mechanic Crane driver Cleaning agent Tinker – car dyer Bricklayer Cosmetician Bank manager Maker-fitter gyps apparatus Life guard / mountain rescuer Stretcher bearer Military man Dental technician Criminologist Textile worker Cameraman Welder Male hairdresser Nutritionist Lathe man Male manicurist / pedicurist Porter Personal de parcat autivehicule Truck / ambulance driver Aerobics trainer Oceanographer Farmer Mechanic locksmith Cook Housekeeper Diver Policeman Engineer Waiter Secretary Sailer Broker Food loader-distributor Fireman Astronaut Milling-machine operator Plumber Peavey man suitable for. . . . ? 1. WOMEN Ship commander 2. MEN The students have filled in for each job three options – YES; NO; DK – dividing the jobs into jpbs unlikely to be done by women and jobs unlikely to be done by men. By analysing the results, we have chosen a few examples: A – jobs likely to be done by women B – jobs likely to be done by men C – jobs likely to be done both by men and women “Egual Opportunities for a Successful Career”- Ro, Gr, Sp, It Comenius School Development Project 46

Romania A – manicurist/pedicurist , housekeeper, secretary, aerobics trainer, cosmetician, cleaning agent B – Romania A – manicurist/pedicurist , housekeeper, secretary, aerobics trainer, cosmetician, cleaning agent B – electrician, mechanic, tinker-car dyer, welder, plumber, house painter, crane driver, sailor, fireman, aeroplane pilot, ship commander, peavy man C – cook, waiter, receptionist, bank manager, nutritionist, professor, engineer, hairdresser, dental technician, military man, farmer Greece A - manicurist/pedicurist , housekeeper B – mechanic, tinker-car dyer, lathe man, milling machine operator, bricklayer, truck driver, food loader distributor, make fitter gyps apparatus, strecher bearer, sailor, fireman, astronaut, ship commander, peavy man C – cook, waiter, receptionist, cleaning agent, nutritionist, aerobics trainer, professor, textile worker Italy A – mechanic, house painter, hairdresser, receptionist, aerobics trainer, professor, dental technician B – tinker-car dyer, crane driver, cook, textile worker, housekeeper C – welder, mechanic locksmith, bricklayer, waiter, secretary, oceanographer, cameraman Spain A+B=C The students from this country answer that all the jobs are equally suitable for both men and women. “Egual Opportunities for a Successful Career”- Ro, Gr, Sp, It Comenius School Development Project 47

17. Do you consider that boys and girls have the same performances at. . 17. Do you consider that boys and girls have the same performances at. . . 1 Informatics g- girls b – boys bth – both 2 Physical education 3 Workshops 48 “Egual Opportunities for a Successful Career”- Ro, Gr, Sp, It Comenius School Development Project

4 Foreign languages 5 Physics/ Chemistry 6 Mathematics 7 Tehnology “Egual Opportunities for a 4 Foreign languages 5 Physics/ Chemistry 6 Mathematics 7 Tehnology “Egual Opportunities for a Successful Career”- Ro, Gr, Sp, It Comenius School Development Project 49

 8 Biology 9. Mother tongue 18. It is more performant a professor who 8 Biology 9. Mother tongue 18. It is more performant a professor who is. . . 1 A man 2 A woman 3 Gender doesn’t matter Dk – I don’t know 50 “Egual Opportunities for a Successful Career”- Ro, Gr, Sp, It Comenius School Development Project

19. Do you consider yourself to have prejudices? 20. Is there in your family 19. Do you consider yourself to have prejudices? 20. Is there in your family a woman (sister, mother, grandmother, aunt, cousin) who has an unusual job? 21. Is there in your family a man (brother, father, grandfather, uncle, cousin) who has an unusual job? 51 “Egual Opportunities for a Successful Career”- Ro, Gr, Sp, It Comenius School Development Project

22. Your circle of friends consists mainly of. . . 1 Men 2 Women 22. Your circle of friends consists mainly of. . . 1 Men 2 Women 3 Both, in equal proportions Dk – I don’t know 23. If you were to choose a colleague with whom to work on a project related to your (future) job, this would be: 1 A man 2 A woman 3 Gender doesn’t matter Dk – I don’t know 52 “Egual Opportunities for a Successful Career”- Ro, Gr, Sp, It Comenius School Development Project

24. Motivate your choice: 25. Romania – I have more boyfriends, the person’s competences 24. Motivate your choice: 25. Romania – I have more boyfriends, the person’s competences are more important, I trust both genders, a man will be more practical, men are superior, a woman will better get on with men, what counts more is teamwork, women will think better and will be more calculated. 26. Greece - The reason for choosing a male colleague is the physical power The reason for choosing a female colleague is the fact that she’s easier to cooperate with Spain – The boys work better with men. Italy – A male is usually sincere. Questions 25, 26, 27, 28 and 29 are introduced in the questionnaire in order to find out some of the students’ personal details, like: -Cultural level -School performances -Sex -Age -Speciality or profession 53 “Egual Opportunities for a Successful Career”- Ro, Gr, Sp, It Comenius School Development Project

3. Conclusions The questionnaire applied to the Romanian, Greek, Spanish and Italian students was 3. Conclusions The questionnaire applied to the Romanian, Greek, Spanish and Italian students was meant to inquire them regarding the information, but also the mentality concerning jobs generally and jobs unlikely to be done by women particularly. By analysing the results we can point out the fact that students filled in the questionnaire correctly and of course their conceptions on the mentioned issues become evident. Most of the students have thought of choosing a job after taking into consideration their skills and the future income. ØAs for jobs likely to be done either by women or men, except for the Spanish students who do not make this difference, the others consider that there are certain jobs for men and certain jobs for women. Many examples are given so that arguments be brought to support students’ opinions. ØDiscussing jobs unlikely to be done by women, the Italian students, for example, claim that women are not capable, not strong enough and should take care of the house, or they simply admit that they do not like working with women; the Romanian and Greek students agree that women are not strong enough for certain jobs and that these jobs just don’t “suit” a woman. ØAsked if women are restricted in choosing a job, the opinions are different. Here we must point out the Spanish students who answered NO in a large percentage and the Italian students who answered DK. The students from the 4 countries blame education and prejudices for the restrictions that women have to face when choosing a job. “Egual Opportunities for a Successful Career”- Ro, Gr, Sp, It Comenius School Development Project 54

ØThe Romanian and Spanish students consider that there are many women in scientific and ØThe Romanian and Spanish students consider that there are many women in scientific and technological fields, while the Greek students consider there are enough and the Italian ones seem not to know the answers. ØFrom the students’ answers we can point out the fact that they classify the 47 jobs in the questionnaire correctly, considering that those jobs imply more or less: physical effort, leg work, unspecific programme, toxic conditions, risky activities, shameful work, special personal qualities. According to this classification, the students consider that some jobs are likely to be done by men while others are likely to be done by women. ØThe most Romanian, Greek and Spanish students consider themselves not having prejudices. It’s very impressive the fact that there are students who do admit that they have prejudices and this is a step in their formation. ØAsked if they preferred a girl or a boy to work with on a project, the most of the students answer that the gender difference doesn’t matter for them, which brings the team member to hope that in a future democratic European Union, women will not be restricted anymore. From this European study we can easily come to the conclusion that although our students have been more or less connected directly to a job, their answers are close to the reality of labour, due to the information they get from their families, from society or mass-media. 55 “Egual Opportunities for a Successful Career”- Ro, Gr, Sp, It Comenius School Development Project

 The questionnaire as well as other activities within the project has the role The questionnaire as well as other activities within the project has the role to make students and teachers aware of the problem women face while choosing a job and also of some prejudices and mentalities. Those who have realized the European study “Jobs unlikely to be done by women”, the international coordinator Adina Greavu and the team member Lucia Amza thank all the Romanian, Greek, Spanish and Italian participants – students, teachers, school managers – who have gathered in an attempt of changing something so that the women’s right to work be respected in a democratic Europe. Special thanks to the European Commission for the financial support. “Egual Opportunities for a Successful Career”- Ro, Gr, Sp, It Comenius School Development Project 56