- Количество слайдов: 87
• Colonial Style • Early National and Romantic Style • Victorian Style • Period Style • Modern Style • Postmodern Style
Colonial Styles Early Spanish, French, English Georgian Federal (Adam)
Early Spanish, French, English • IDENTIFYING FEATURES: • with central chimney, casement windows, steeply-pitched roof, and second story overhang. Other late Medieval features include hall and parlor floor plan (bilateral symmetry) and central chimney. Choir lofts were often built facing outdoors for purposes of outdoor processions.
Georgian Style • IDENTIFYING FEATURES: • Renaissance-inspired classical symmetry, two rooms deep, two rooms high (Four over Four plan), central or end chimneys, classical detailing, transom lights, pilasters around door. Hipped roof (British Georgian), or side-gable roof (American Georgian).
Federal (Adam) • IDENTIFYING FEATURES: • Fan light over door (almost always rounded, rarely squared), sidelights, classical/Greek detailing of entryway, Palladian windows, balustrades, oval/circular rooms in some high style examples. Symmetrical as Georgian style. Windows: double-hung sash windows for first time (Georgian also).
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Early National and Romantic Styles Greek Revival Gothic Revival Italianate
Early National and Romantic Styles • IDENTIFYING FEATURES: • Gable or hipped, low-pitch roof; dentil cornice emphasized with wide band of trim -- cornice represents classical entablature ; porches: square or rounded columns , first style to use gable-front floor plan , templefront entryway with entry door surrounded by rectangular transom and sidelights.
Gothic Revival • IDENTIFYING FEATURES: • Steeply pitched roof, cross-gabled, decorated verge boards, pointed-arch windows, sometimes stained glass, like churches. Gothic window above entry, one -story porch with flattened, Gothic arches.
Italianate • IDENTIFYING FEATURES: • 2 or 3 stories, rarely 1 story; low-pitched roof, widely overhanging eaves; large, decorative brackets beneath eaves; tall, narrow windows (most often on commercial buildings), commonly arched or curved above; some with square cupola or tower (campanile), elaborate wraparound porch (or smaller entry porch) with decorative Italianate double columns and other details.
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Victorian Styles Second Empire Romanesque Revival Queen Anne Folk Victorian
Second Empire • IDENTIFYING FEATURES: Basically Italianate style/forms with Mansard roof!! Dormer windows, sometimes a square (not round) tower, decorative brackets, molded cornice, similar to Italianate detail on windows, doors; Floor plan often includes pavilions: outward projection of a building's center or side.
Romanesque Revival • IDENTIFYING FEATURES: • Round arches over windows and/or entryways; thick, cavernous entryways and window openings; thick masonry walls, rounded towers with conical roof; facades are asymmetrical; variable stone and brick façade.
Queen Anne • IDENTIFYING FEATURES: • Steeply pitched, irregular roof shapes; dominant, front-facing gable; patterned shingles, bay windows, picturesque massing , polychromatic and decorative ornamentation; partial or full-width porches of one story; multiple gables and dormers; occasional towers and turrets, rounded or square.
Folk Victorian • IDENTIFYING FEATURES: • Porches with spindle work detailing, L- shaped or gable-front plan, cornice brackets, details often with Italianate and/or Queen Anne inspiration, sometimes Gothic.
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Colonial Revival Tudor Revival Pueblo Revival Mission Period Styles Spanish Revival Beaux Arts Neoclassical Italian Renaissance
Colonial Revival • HISTORICAL BACKGROUND AND FEATURES: Initially inspired by the 1876 Philadelphia Centennial: new interest in American colonial past. Architects studied colonial styles throughout New England by 1890 s. A dominant style for domestic buildings nationwide 1900 -1940 s. Georgian and Adam styles were the backbone of revival ideas, with a secondary influence of Dutch Colonial (with Gambrel roof). The colonial revival style is sometimes referred to as neo-Georgian, due to its striking resemblance to the earlier Georgian and federal styles.
Tudor Revival • HISTORICAL BACKGROUND AND • FEATURES: Tudor revival became especially popular with 1920 s suburban homes, loosely based on late medieval prototypes. Many are identified with false (ornamental) half-timbering, a medieval English building tradition, often with stucco or masonry veneered walls, steeply pitched roof, cross-gabled plans. A variety of this is sometimes referred to as the picturesque cottage or English cottage, which typically includes a picturesque (asymmetrical) floor plan
Beaux Arts • HISTORICAL BACKGROUND AND • FEATURES: Beaux-Arts style was advocated by Americans who studied at the Ecole. The style emphasized classical forms and styles, elaborate detailing, massive plans, heavy masonry. Mostly used for grand public and institutional buildings, and the private homes of America's industrial barons. The primary inspiration for this style was Chicago's Columbian Exposition in 1893.
Neoclassical • Historical Background and Features: • Neoclassical became a dominant style for domestic buildings nationwide between 1900 -1940 s. It was directly inspired by the Beaux-Arts style and the Columbian Exposition: classical symmetry, full-height porch with columns and temple front; classical ornament. Basically, this is the revival of the Greek Revival style.
Italian Renaissance • IDENTIFYING FEATURES: Usually identified with a low-pitched, hipped roof, often with ceramic tiles and sometimes flat, hinting at its Mediterranean source region; wide, overhanging eaves with large brackets under the roofline; arched doors and windows, primarily on the first floor; Italian-style entryway, often with classical columns; facade usually symmetrical, but occasionally found in asymmetrical or picturesque floor plans.
Spanish Revival • Historical Background and Features: • Spanish revival was inspired by the architecture of Spain and Latin America, emphasizing their rich stylistic details. Due to the early influence of New Spain in the Southwest and Southeast, the style is rare outside the Southwest, Texas and Florida. Includes low-pitched roof; little or no eave overhang; red-tiled roof; prominent arch over door or window or porch; stucco wall surface; usually asymmetrical façade.
Mission • Historical Background and Features: • The Mission style originated in southern California and was the first style to diffuse eastward from the West. The style was considered the "California counterpart" to the Georgian-inspired Colonial Revival popular in Northeast. Most famously, the style was adopted by both the Southern Pacific and Santa Fe Railways for train stations, resort hotels, and other rail corridor buildings, essentially as an effort to "theme" the Southwest for eastern travelers. The style includes Mission-shaped dormers and/or roof parapet; wide, overhanging eaves, exposed rafters, red-tiled roof, stucco walls, arched windows/doors on ground level.
Pueblo Revival • IDENTIFYING FEATURES: • Features include flat roof with parapeted wall, irregular/rounded edges to walls, stucco surface, often vigas (round roof beams) extending through walls to the exterior.
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Modern Styles CraftsmanBungalow Prairie Art DecoArt Modern International Modern Houses
Craftsman/Bungalow • IDENTIFYING FEATURES: • Low-pitched, gabled roof, wide overhang of eaves, exposed rafters under eaves, decorative brackets under gables; incised porch ; tapered, square columns supporting roof; 4 -over-1 or 6 over-1 sash windows, often with Frank Lloyd Wright design motifs; hand- crafted stone or woodwork, often mixed materials throughout structure. Bungalows can either be front-gabled or side-gabled.
Prairie • IDENTIFYING FEATURES: • Focused specifically on mid western regionalism, with its horizontal, open floor plans representing the expansive prairie region.
Art Deco/Art Moderne • IDENTIFYING FEATURES: • (1) ART DECO: Smooth wall surface, often stucco; smooth-faced stone and metal, often with vivid colors; forms simplified and streamlined; geometric designs including zigzags, chevrons; towers and other vertical projections, presenting a vertical emphasis; machined and often metallic construction materials for decorative features.
(2) ART MODERNE: Smooth, rounded wall surfaces, often stucco; flat roof with small ledge at roofline; horizontal grooves or lines in walls; asymmetrical façade; casement/corner windows or other horizontally arranged windows; metal balustrades; glass-block windows, often curved. Unlike Art Deco, an emphasis on the horizontal.
International • IDENTIFYING FEATURES: • Modern structural principles and materials; Concrete, glass, steel the most common; occasionally reveals skeleton-frame construction, exposing its structure; rejected non-essential decoration; ribbon windows, corner windows a hallmark of the style; bands of glass as important as bands of "curtain wall"; balance and regularity admired and fostered; flat roof, without ledge. Often with thin, metal mullions and smooth spandrel panels separating large, single-pane windows.
Modern houses • BACKGROUND AND INSPIRATION: Modern houses included the California ranch, raised ranch, split-level, and "sea ranch" after the 1950 s. Similar to international style, these houses really don't include much "style" at all -they are designed to look to the future, not the past for their inspiration. By the 1980 s architects and developers were beginning to move away from modern forms, favoring instead a revived interest in past styles and ornamentation -- the postmodern era had begun.
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Residential Postmodern Styles Commercial
Residential • BACKGROUND AND INSPIRATION: • The postmodern era is most associated with architecture appearing since the late 1970 s, continuing through today. Postmodernism is basically an allusion to the past, with multiple associations and meanings. It is a rejection of modernist thought, a return to traditional, historical precedents, a re-awakened interest in history and heritage.
Commercial • BACKGROUND AND INSPIRATION: • Postmodernism is basically an allusion to the past, with multiple associations and meanings. It is a rejection of modernist thought, a return to traditional, historical precedents, a re-awakened interest in history and heritage. Postmodernism coincides with both the historic preservation movement and the new urbanism movement quite well.
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