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Climate Services Provided by the Colorado Climate Center Mark Losleben and Nolan Doesken Colorado Climate Services Provided by the Colorado Climate Center Mark Losleben and Nolan Doesken Colorado Climate Center Atmospheric Science Department Colorado State University Presented July 28, 2005, Boulder, CO

Beginnings o o After the State Climatologist positions were abolished by the federal government Beginnings o o After the State Climatologist positions were abolished by the federal government in the early 1970 s, many states gradually established state funded climate offices. Many were at land-grant universities. The Colorado Climate Center was established at Colorado State University in 1974 within the Colorado Agricultural Experiment Station.

Who Are We? o Roger A. Pielke, Sr. Professor, Atmospheric Science and State Climatologist, Who Are We? o Roger A. Pielke, Sr. Professor, Atmospheric Science and State Climatologist, [email protected] colostate. edu o Nolan J. Doesken Climatologist and Senior Research Associate, [email protected] colostate. edu o Odie Bliss Coordinator, [email protected] colostate. edu o Marty Osecky System Administrator

What We Do…. What We Do….

Climatic Research o Instrument Comparison Studies, Drought, Snow, Variability and Trends, Impacts and Modeling, Climatic Research o Instrument Comparison Studies, Drought, Snow, Variability and Trends, Impacts and Modeling, etc.

Data Acquisition and Archive o Elements: temperature, precipitation, snow, wind, solar, evaporation, soil temperatures, Data Acquisition and Archive o Elements: temperature, precipitation, snow, wind, solar, evaporation, soil temperatures, humidity, cloud cover

Monitor the Climate of Colorado o Drought, flooding, blizzards, tornadoes, temperature extremes, Heating/Cooling Degree Monitor the Climate of Colorado o Drought, flooding, blizzards, tornadoes, temperature extremes, Heating/Cooling Degree Data, etc.

Disseminate Information o Farmers, ranchers, consultants, engineers, print and broadcast media, water resources, utilities, Disseminate Information o Farmers, ranchers, consultants, engineers, print and broadcast media, water resources, utilities, construction, lawyers, federal, state and local governments, schools, universities, and many others. o HOW? Website, phone, fax, email, publications and conferences http: //ccc. atmos. colostate. edu (970) 491 -8545 phone (970) 491 -3314 fax

http: //ccc. atmos. colostate. edu http: //ccc. atmos. colostate. edu

What Are Climate Services? o Colorado’s experience in Climate Services: appropriate and accessible data, What Are Climate Services? o Colorado’s experience in Climate Services: appropriate and accessible data, studied analyzed, and applied to important situations. o But it all comes down to the data…

How Do We Monitor Our Climate? How Do We Monitor Our Climate?

National Weather Service Collaboration Picture of a standard coop station, potentially map showing coop National Weather Service Collaboration Picture of a standard coop station, potentially map showing coop station location (CO, WRCC map) ions eather Stat e. W Cooperativ o in Colorad Typical Cooperative Weather Station

USDA, Natural Resources Conservation Service Typical NRCS Snotel Site rado Colo tes for N USDA, Natural Resources Conservation Service Typical NRCS Snotel Site rado Colo tes for N Si Snotel RCS

State Engineer’s Office State Engineer’s Office

U. S. Geological Survey U. S. Geological Survey

And all the others collecting weather and climate data And all the others collecting weather and climate data

Automated Surface Observing System (ASOS) Denver International Airport ASOS, Photo courtesy of the National Automated Surface Observing System (ASOS) Denver International Airport ASOS, Photo courtesy of the National Weather Service

Automated Weather Observing System (AWOS) Automated Weather Observing System (AWOS)

School Weather Stations School Weather Stations

Colorado Department of Transportation (CDOT) ** Not a very good picture, maybe you can Colorado Department of Transportation (CDOT) ** Not a very good picture, maybe you can find one…

Urban Drainage and Flood Control District (UDFCD) ALERT system New ALERT weather station & Urban Drainage and Flood Control District (UDFCD) ALERT system New ALERT weather station & stream gage on Marston Lake North Drainageway.

Colorado Climate Center Monitoring Activities o Fort Collins Historic Weather Station – Continuous observations Colorado Climate Center Monitoring Activities o Fort Collins Historic Weather Station – Continuous observations from 1889 to present

Co. Ag. Met Weather Data for Agriculture o Automated weather stations with daily and Co. Ag. Met Weather Data for Agriculture o Automated weather stations with daily and hourly readings of: n Temperature n Humidity n Wind n Precipitation n Solar energy n Evapotranspiration http: //www. coagmet. com

Center, Colo. , Co. Ag. Met Daily Values of Temperature and Solar Radiation Center, Colo. , Co. Ag. Met Daily Values of Temperature and Solar Radiation

Applications of Climate Monitoring Applications of Climate Monitoring

Applications of Climate Monitoring o Standardized Precipitation Index Map Applications of Climate Monitoring o Standardized Precipitation Index Map

Applications of Climate Monitoring o Water Management and Irrigation Scheduling Applications of Climate Monitoring o Water Management and Irrigation Scheduling

Applications of Climate Monitoring o Extreme Precipitation Study Applications of Climate Monitoring o Extreme Precipitation Study

Applications of Climate Monitoring o History of Extreme Rainfall Applications of Climate Monitoring o History of Extreme Rainfall

Applications of Climate Monitoring March 2003 Snow storm aftermath in Fort Collins Applications of Climate Monitoring March 2003 Snow storm aftermath in Fort Collins

Common Theme from Climate Monitoring Applications is – “Inadequate Spatial Density of Precipitation Data” Common Theme from Climate Monitoring Applications is – “Inadequate Spatial Density of Precipitation Data” Feb

? ? How About Remote Sensing ? ? CSU-CHILL Radar Site ? ? How About Remote Sensing ? ? CSU-CHILL Radar Site

Remote Sensing is Great – But Ground Calibration is Crucial Red Arrow indicates location Remote Sensing is Great – But Ground Calibration is Crucial Red Arrow indicates location of Co. Co Ra. HS observer. Resulting hailpad and retrieved hailstones. Co Ra. HS observations are also providing valuable spotter information to the National Weather Service. Contour map of hail quadrature parameter (HQP) showing potential hail damage from a severe thunderstorm in Douglas County, CO, in July 2002. The data were produced from the CSU-CHILL Polametric Radar. Co Ra. HS data are being used as ground validation for the CSU-CHILL hail and rainfall products.

How can we gather more data without breaking the bank? ? How can we gather more data without breaking the bank? ?

Community Collaborative Rain, Hail and Snow Network Community Collaborative Rain, Hail and Snow Network

The Origin of Co. Ra. HS The Fort Collins Flood of July 28, 1997 The Origin of Co. Ra. HS The Fort Collins Flood of July 28, 1997

What is Co. Ra. HS? Co. Ra. HS is a unique, non-profit community based What is Co. Ra. HS? Co. Ra. HS is a unique, non-profit community based network of volunteers of all ages and backgrounds working together to measure and map precipitation (rain, hail and snow).

Co. Ra. HS: Simple tools to study rain Rain Gauge Example Station Co. Ra. HS: Simple tools to study rain Rain Gauge Example Station

Co. Co Ra. HS Gauge in March 2003 Snowstorm Arapahoe County Co. Co Ra. Co. Co Ra. HS Gauge in March 2003 Snowstorm Arapahoe County Co. Co Ra. HS observer near Cherry Creek, Colorado

Co. Ra. HS: Simple Tools to Study Hail Pad Damaged Hail Pad Co. Ra. HS: Simple Tools to Study Hail Pad Damaged Hail Pad

Example Hail Pad Stands Example Hail Pad Stands

Co. Ra. HS -- Supplementing NWS Cooperative Program to Improve Precipitation Measurements. Co. Ra. HS -- Supplementing NWS Cooperative Program to Improve Precipitation Measurements.

Fort Collins Daily Rainfall Examples Fort Collins Daily Rainfall Examples

Colorado Hailstorm July 10, 2002, Parker, CO Colorado Hailstorm July 10, 2002, Parker, CO

Expanded Hail Information from Web Site Expanded Hail Information from Web Site

How many volunteers do we need? o o Our goal is at least one How many volunteers do we need? o o Our goal is at least one per square mile over urbanized areas. As many as we can find in rural areas.

Participating Co. Ra. HS States Participating Co. Ra. HS States

For More Information, Visit the Co. Ra. HS Web Site http: //www. cocorahs. org For More Information, Visit the Co. Ra. HS Web Site http: //www. cocorahs. org Support for this project provided by Informal Science Education Program, National Science Foundation and many local charter sponsors.

Colorado Climate Center Data and Power Point Presentations available for downloading http: //ccc. atmos. Colorado Climate Center Data and Power Point Presentations available for downloading http: //ccc. atmos. colostate. edu n n click on “Drought” then click on “Presentations”