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Climate Change and Tourism Dr. Ulric Trotz utrotz@yahoo. com Climate Change and Tourism Dr. Ulric Trotz [email protected] com

Climate Change Impacts on the Caribbean, with Special Attention to Tourism and Insurance” A Climate Change Impacts on the Caribbean, with Special Attention to Tourism and Insurance” A Symposium sponsored by the Faculty of Social Sciences, Mona Campus, UWI, Jamaica, and The Caribbean Community Climate Change Centre, Belize UWI, Mona, June 15 -17, 2007 CLIMATE CHANGE & TOURISM IN THE CARIBBEAN U. O. TROTZ - CCCCC [email protected] com

GLOBAL CLIMATE CHANGE Recently released Fourth Assessment Report of the IPCC concludes: n n GLOBAL CLIMATE CHANGE Recently released Fourth Assessment Report of the IPCC concludes: n n n Unequivocal evidence that the earth’s temperature is rising and attributable to anthropogenic activities – Green House Gases Rise in global temperatures of between 2 -4. 5 o. C. Sea level rise of between 11 -77 cm. Changed weather patterns More intense extremes –drought , floods More intense hurricanes [email protected] com

CLIMATE TRENDS IN THE CARIBBEAN n n n n Mean temp. increase for past CLIMATE TRENDS IN THE CARIBBEAN n n n n Mean temp. increase for past 3 decades. By end of 1970’s a significant warming detected in lower part of atmosphere. Significant >> in minimum temp. (1. 4 deg. since 1960). 2 degree decrease in diurnal temp. range for region. No. of warm days in region >>, no. of cold nights <<. Frequency of droughts >> since 1960 (Cuba). Frequency of occurrence of extreme events changing. Flooding & hurricane passage > in 1990’s [email protected] com

Dependencies of Tourism in the Caribbean n n Equitable climate Tourism plantq q q Dependencies of Tourism in the Caribbean n n Equitable climate Tourism plantq q q q q Hotels and other facilities Infrastructure- airports, cruise ship berths, roads, coastal protection structures etc. Natural amenities – beach, reefs, wetlands Access to clean and adequate supply of water Access to ready supply of energy Financial services especially insurance Healthy environment free from diseases Adequate supplies of food Social harmony [email protected] com

IMPACTS ON TOURISM n Direct Impacts – climate variability and changing weather patterns affect: IMPACTS ON TOURISM n Direct Impacts – climate variability and changing weather patterns affect: q q q Planning of tourism programs Tourist’s comfort Travel decisions n n n q warmer winters Heat waves Hurricanes Tourist flows [email protected] com

IMPACTS ON TOURISM n Indirect – Sea Level Rise (SLR) q q q Coast IMPACTS ON TOURISM n Indirect – Sea Level Rise (SLR) q q q Coast and Beach erosion Inundation of flood plains Soil and aquifer salinisation Exaggerated storm surge Loss of mangroves and other coastal ecosystems. At worst total submersion [email protected] com

SLR & Storm Surge utrotz@yahoo. com SLR & Storm Surge [email protected] com

IMPACTS ON TOURISM n Warmer sea temperature q q Coral bleaching – El Nino IMPACTS ON TOURISM n Warmer sea temperature q q Coral bleaching – El Nino 1998 extensive bleaching in region Breakdown of reef protection n n q q Amenity loss for divers and snorkelers In combination with loss of mangroves, sea-grass beds impact on fisheries Projected increase in frequency of extreme events floods, droughts Projected increase in intensity of hurricanes [email protected] com

IMPACTS ON TOURISM n Increase in frequency? ? And intensity of hurricanes: q q IMPACTS ON TOURISM n Increase in frequency? ? And intensity of hurricanes: q q q q Damage to sea-defences. Damage to reefs Destruction of mangroves Beach and coastal erosion Storm surge damage to shoreline Damage to coastal infrastructure – roads, utilities, airports, Damage to hotels and other tourism plant Disruption of services. [email protected] com

IMPACTS ON TOURISM n n Changing weather patterns & water supply Projected decrease in IMPACTS ON TOURISM n n Changing weather patterns & water supply Projected decrease in precipitation q q Less water available Aquifer salinization Serious consequences for water short countries – Barbados, Antigua& Barbuda Inadequate aquifer recharge [email protected] com

RESPONDING TO IMPACTS n Developing countries responsible for negligible percentage of global GHG emissions. RESPONDING TO IMPACTS n Developing countries responsible for negligible percentage of global GHG emissions. n They stand to bear the brunt of CC impacts because of their inherent vulnerability. n They must insist on Mitigation ( reducing GHG emissions) by the industrialized and large developing countries n The region must “adapt” to climate change (take proactive action that would decrease climate change impacts). [email protected] com

SOME INDICATIVE ADAPTATION OPTIONS FOR THE CARIBBEAN Sea Level Rise n n n n SOME INDICATIVE ADAPTATION OPTIONS FOR THE CARIBBEAN Sea Level Rise n n n n Building seawalls and breakwaters Enhancing preservation of natural sea-defences (mangroves) Relieve anthropogenic stresses on reef system Beach nourishment (expensive) Prohibit sand mining Adjust setbacks and enforce Institute a local system of marine protected area [email protected] com

SOME INDICATIVE ADAPTATION OPTIONS FOR THE CARIBBEAN Water Sector n Desalination n Water conservation SOME INDICATIVE ADAPTATION OPTIONS FOR THE CARIBBEAN Water Sector n Desalination n Water conservation n Recycling grey water in the industry n Water harvesting n Low flush toilets n Aquifer recharge n Drip irrigation in agriculture [email protected] com

SOME INDICATIVE ADAPTATION OPTIONS FOR THE CARIBBEAN Built Environment n n n Building design SOME INDICATIVE ADAPTATION OPTIONS FOR THE CARIBBEAN Built Environment n n n Building design for efficient cooling Adequate setbacks from eroding coasts Locating coastal infrastructure away from eroding coasts Facilities designed to accommodate future climate (revisit CUBIC) Incentives (fiscal, insurance) to industry for compliance Factor in increased insurance costs into resort profitability [email protected] com

SOME INDICATIVE ADAPTATION OPTIONS FOR THE CARIBBEAN Enabling Government Policy n n n Fiscal SOME INDICATIVE ADAPTATION OPTIONS FOR THE CARIBBEAN Enabling Government Policy n n n Fiscal incentives for changes to built tourism infrastructure (e. g retrofitting to comply with adjusted building codes) Fiscal regime to encourage sustainable construction in less vulnerable coastal zones Greater public infrastructure for new tourism developments e. g. coastal defence Land use planning to incorporate CC considerations Retraining of displaced workers [email protected] com

TOURISM AS A CONTRIBUTING CAUSE n n GHG emissions from the sector derived from: TOURISM AS A CONTRIBUTING CAUSE n n GHG emissions from the sector derived from: Transport q q q n n n Road Sea Aviation Activity specific tourism e. g. sport Buildings and other tourism amenities – use of energy Increased stress on natural ecosystems – coastal ecosystems, natural resource base for ecotourism [email protected] com

DECREASING TOURISM EMISSIONS FOOTPRINT n n n n Encourage green tourism Energy efficient building DECREASING TOURISM EMISSIONS FOOTPRINT n n n n Encourage green tourism Energy efficient building designs –cooling/light Water conservation – low flush toilets etc. Energy efficiency management practices Renewable energy use e. g. solar water heating Encourage use of energy efficient vehicles, cycling & activities that use less energy. Bear in mind that some countries thinking of an aviation tax – increased airfares disincentive for travel? ? [email protected] com

DJERBA DECLARATION ON TOURISM & CLIMATE CHANGE n Call on UN, international, financial & DJERBA DECLARATION ON TOURISM & CLIMATE CHANGE n Call on UN, international, financial & bilateral agencies to support govts. of developing countries in their efforts to address and to adapt to the adverse effects of cc and formulate appropriate action plans. n Request international organisations, govts. NGOs and academic institutions to support local governments and destination management organisations in implementing adaptation and mitigation measures that respond to the specific climate change impacts at local destinations. [email protected] com

DJERBA DECLARATION ON TOURISM & CLIMATE CHANGE n Encourage the tourism industry to adjust DJERBA DECLARATION ON TOURISM & CLIMATE CHANGE n Encourage the tourism industry to adjust their activities: q n use more energy efficient and cleaner technologies and logistics (for transport companies, hoteliers, tour operators, travel agents and tourist guides). Call on govts. , bilateral and multilateral institutions to conceive and to implement sustainable management policies for q q water resources conservation of wetlands and other freshwater ecosystems [email protected] com

DJERBA DECLARATION ON TOURISM & CLIMATE CHANGE n Call upon govts. to encourage the DJERBA DECLARATION ON TOURISM & CLIMATE CHANGE n Call upon govts. to encourage the use of renewable energy sources in tourism and transport companies and activities, by facilitating technical assistance and using fiscal and other incentives. n Encourage consumer associations, tourism companies and the media to raise consumers’ awareness of destinations and in generating markets, in order to change consumption behaviour and make more climate friendly tourism choices [email protected] com

WAY FORWARD FOR THE REGIONAL TOURISM SECTOR n n n Sustainable tourism thrust of WAY FORWARD FOR THE REGIONAL TOURISM SECTOR n n n Sustainable tourism thrust of regional industry in consonance with actions to mitigate climate change impacts Improve environmental performance of industry through benchmarking &eco-labeling e. g. through Green Globe 21 – includes GHG emissions as one of nine key indicators. Explore potential of tourists to participate in carbon offsetting schemes- Trees for Travelers, Climate Care, Business Enterprises for Sustainable. Travel. [email protected] com

WAY FORWARD FOR THE REGIONAL TOURISM SECTOR n n n More discriminatory approach to WAY FORWARD FOR THE REGIONAL TOURISM SECTOR n n n More discriminatory approach to tourism destinations – “green tourism”- win-win situations for the Caribbean. Factor in climate factors into management & planning for the sector. Work with regional climate science community (CCCCC) to generate relevant climate information. [email protected] com

EXAMPLES OF RELEVANT CLIMATE INFORMATION n Expected to answer the following e. g. : EXAMPLES OF RELEVANT CLIMATE INFORMATION n Expected to answer the following e. g. : q What is expected change inn Temperature n Sea level n Frequency of weather extremes – El Nino, La Nina n Frequency and intensity of hurricanes n Frequency in return periods of extreme events – floods , droughts n Patterns and intensity of precipitation. n Storm surge and new areas at risk n Flood plains [email protected] com

WAY FORWARD FOR THE REGIONAL TOURISM SECTOR n n Partnership with government to facilitate WAY FORWARD FOR THE REGIONAL TOURISM SECTOR n n Partnership with government to facilitate development of an enabling policy environment for sustainable tourism. Partnership with regional insurance companies, climate science community to better define future climate risks to which the region may be exposed in order to: n n Provide a rational basis for the design of insurance instruments e. g weather derivatives, catastrophe bonds, parametric insurance. Provide the basis for incentives from the financial/government/insurance sectors for “smart development in the sector” [email protected] com

WAY FORWARD FOR THE REGIONAL TOURISM SECTOR n n Actions required for sustainable tourism WAY FORWARD FOR THE REGIONAL TOURISM SECTOR n n Actions required for sustainable tourism are in many cases identical to those required to increase the resilience of the sector to the impacts of global climate change. CCCCC offers a partnership with the CTO and it’s stakeholders to provide the sector with the information and capacity necessary for it to cope effectively with this emerging global environmental threat – climate change [email protected] com

REGIONAL TOURISM AND CLIMATE CHANGE THANK YOU utrotz@yahoo. com REGIONAL TOURISM AND CLIMATE CHANGE THANK YOU [email protected] com