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Classroom Systems School-wide PBIS Chris Borgmeier, Ph. D Portland State University cborgmei@pdx. edu www. Classroom Systems School-wide PBIS Chris Borgmeier, Ph. D Portland State University [email protected] edu www. web. pdx. edu/~cborgmei/

Classroom Setting Systems om s ro em s as yst cl S on ng Classroom Setting Systems om s ro em s as yst cl S on ng N tti Se School-wide Positive Behavior Support Systems Ind ivi du Sy al S ste tu ms den School-wide Systems t

Match Need to Intervention n Different staff will require different levels of Classroom Support Match Need to Intervention n Different staff will require different levels of Classroom Support n Systems approach is required for successful implementation at ALL levels of support Challenge: embedding in a SW approach v. focusing only on individuals

Non-example Action Plan Strategies - Purchase & distribute classroom management curriculum/book Discuss at faculty Non-example Action Plan Strategies - Purchase & distribute classroom management curriculum/book Discuss at faculty meeting Bring in CM expert for next month’s ½ day inservice Observe in effective classroom Observe & give feedback What is likelihood of change in teacher practice? (Sugai, 2006)

Example Action Plan Strategies + Build on SW System + Use school-wide leadership team Example Action Plan Strategies + Build on SW System + Use school-wide leadership team + Use data to justify + Adopt evidence based practice + Teach/practice to fluency/automaticity + Ensure accurate implementation 1 st time + Regular review & active practice + Monitor implementation continuously + Acknowledge improvements (Sugai, 2006)

Classroom Systems Building Capacity v. One Shot Support n Build systems to support sustained Classroom Systems Building Capacity v. One Shot Support n Build systems to support sustained use of effective practices ¨ SW leadership team ¨ Regular data review ¨ Regular individual & school action planning ¨ Regular n support & review To begin school year & throughout school year

Team Discussion n Reflect on a School-wide Model for Classroom Support n What ideas/questions/suggestions Team Discussion n Reflect on a School-wide Model for Classroom Support n What ideas/questions/suggestions do you have about how to implement supports in an effective and feasible way

Classroom Systems Focus: School-wide Support Classroom Systems Focus: School-wide Support

Classroom Practices Self Assessment n Have staff complete the Classroom Practices Self Assessment ¨ Classroom Practices Self Assessment n Have staff complete the Classroom Practices Self Assessment ¨ n Plan to complete 3 times per year ¨ n Available on-line Fall/ Winter/ Spring Team collects data to: ¨ Strategically guide decision making re: Prof’l Dev’t n ¨ Identify staff development topics/ areas of common need Monitor progress

Classroom Practices Self-Assessment Classroom Practices Self-Assessment

When Giving the Survey n Make sure staff understand this is NOT an evaluative When Giving the Survey n Make sure staff understand this is NOT an evaluative tool n Encourage honest evaluation of individual practices ¨ Anonymous responses are likely to increase accuracy of responses n Recommended to preview each of the items on the survey so staff have a clear understanding of what the item is asking staff to evaluate n Explain how the data will be used to target specific needs for staff development with the School-wide Goal of improving classroom practices

Data Summaries n Graphs & Summary n How to read the data Data Summaries n Graphs & Summary n How to read the data

Percent of Participating Staff Percent of Participating Staff

Team Discussion n Review your school Data n Prioritize Practice to focus on to Team Discussion n Review your school Data n Prioritize Practice to focus on to support implementation ¨ Note: Based on data across schools, we’ve developed materials to support Pre. Correction

Classroom Systems Team Implementation & Support Classroom Systems Team Implementation & Support

Supporting Effective Classroom Practices n Most Evidence-Based Classroom Practices are not challenging to implement…. Supporting Effective Classroom Practices n Most Evidence-Based Classroom Practices are not challenging to implement…. and are pretty easily described and understood n The Challenge is using the practices consistently over time, doing the little things consistently…. “Building Habits”

The Power of Habit: Why we do what we do in life and business The Power of Habit: Why we do what we do in life and business Charles Duhigg Video Intro #2 on NY Times Bestseller List on March 18 th 2012

The Habit Loop from “The Power of Habit” A habit is a formula our The Habit Loop from “The Power of Habit” A habit is a formula our brain automatically follows: When I see a CUE, I will do ROUTINE in order to get a REWARD.

Steps to Changing your Habits 1) Identify your Bad Habit Loop Identify your habit/Routine Steps to Changing your Habits 1) Identify your Bad Habit Loop Identify your habit/Routine to change b) Look for Rewards c) Isolate the Cue a) 2) Have a Plan for change Identify your Replacement Behavior “New Habit” b) Pair w/ Rewards a)

My “Bad Habit” Loop from “The Power of Habit” A habit is a formula My “Bad Habit” Loop from “The Power of Habit” A habit is a formula our brain automatically follows: When I see CUE, I will do ROUTINE in order to get a REWARD. Step 1: Identify your Habit – I raise my voice, scolding my daughter Step 2: Look for Rewards – I want her to stop whining, screaming, yelling, tantrum, but raising my voice usually further escalates; so what is my reward? . . I get to feel like I’m doing something & letting her know this is not ok Step 3: Isolate the Cue – My “terrible 2 s” daughter is whining, screaming, yelling, throwing a tantrum

The Habit Loop A habit is a formula our brain automatically follows: When I The Habit Loop A habit is a formula our brain automatically follows: When I see CUE, I will do ROUTINE in order to get a REWARD. When my 2 y. o. daughter starts whining (cue), I will raise my voice (routine) in order to make me feel like I’m doing something & let her know it’s not OK to act this way (reward). Step 4: Have a Plan – Replace raising my voice with calmly saying “yelling is not ok” and consistently saying to her tell me what you want & occasionally prompting her with the words to say – this should provide me the Reward of letting her know it’s not ok, “doing something” and make me feel better and more controlled about how I’m responding… and teaching her specifically how to respond… over time reducing the trantrums & whining

Integrating “Power of Habit” in to the Classroom n How can we support teachers Integrating “Power of Habit” in to the Classroom n How can we support teachers to: ¨ Understand the “Habit Loop” ¨ Build habits to use Evidence-based Classroom practices ¨ Change Bad Habits in the classroom & replace w/ Evidence-based classroom practices

Implementation Steps 1) Teach staff the “Habit Loop” and the steps to changing your Implementation Steps 1) Teach staff the “Habit Loop” and the steps to changing your habits 2) Identify the Targeted Classroom Practice & provide examples 3) Give staff a chance to individualize (staff must be individually invested – changing habits is tough & takes commitment) a) Tailor the classroom practice to fit their unique context & needs & b) Define their personal “Habit Loop” (cue habit reward) 4) Present a range of plans for Supporting Implementation of the new habit/classroom practice 5) Give staff time to Develop an individualized Plan for Supporting Implementation

1. The Habit Loop n Teach staff the “Habit Loop” and the steps to 1. The Habit Loop n Teach staff the “Habit Loop” and the steps to changing your habits (see previous slides)

Team Discussion n Reflect on the Habit Loop information ¨ Is this information useful? Team Discussion n Reflect on the Habit Loop information ¨ Is this information useful? ¨ If so, how would you present this information? ¨ Is this something you believe would be meaningful for staff to hear?

2. Present the Targeted Practice n Targeted Classroom Practices are selected by the SWPBIS 2. Present the Targeted Practice n Targeted Classroom Practices are selected by the SWPBIS team based on teacher self-assessment results & ‘Priority for Improvement’ data to increase buy-in & tailor to needs n n Share the Data SW-PBIS team presents the Targeted Classroom Practice ¨ Define classroom practice & critical features ¨ Present a range of examples n n Model cue & rewards Might include individual examples from staff members who use the identified practice

Pre. Correction n Definitions: ¨A systematic way of anticipating and addressing inappropriate social or Pre. Correction n Definitions: ¨A systematic way of anticipating and addressing inappropriate social or academic behaviors (Kauffman, Mostert, Trent, & Pullen, 2006) ¨ The provision of prompts for desired behavior in certain circumstances that are determined to be antecedents for problem behavior (De. Pry & Sugai, 2002)

Pre. Correction: Critical Features n Pre. Corrective statements should be delivered at the beginning Pre. Correction: Critical Features n Pre. Corrective statements should be delivered at the beginning of an activity or transition before problem behavior has a chance to occur… it’s crucial to know the cues that most commonly trigger the problem behavior. n Pre. Correct for what to do – prompt for the expected appropriate behavior… do not focus on inappropriate student behavior

Pre. Correction n Implementation Examples: ¨ Recommend tailoring examples to fit your context ¨ Pre. Correction n Implementation Examples: ¨ Recommend tailoring examples to fit your context ¨ “Before we line up, remember walk in a straight line, quiet voices with hands to self” ¨ “Before we break into group work, if you need help -- remember you can ask a peer in your work group quietly for help, and if they don’t know the answer, go on to the next problem, and you can ask me at the break. ” ¨ As students enter the classroom, the teacher prompts them to pick up their folders, go straight to their desk, and to get started quietly on the warm-up activity on the board.

Steps in Pre. Correction 1) 2) 3) 4) 5) 6) 7) ID the context Steps in Pre. Correction 1) 2) 3) 4) 5) 6) 7) ID the context & predictable behavior of concern Specify expected behaviors Modify the context Conduct behavioral rehearsals Provide strong reinforcement for expected behaviors Prompt expected behaviors before performance Monitor the plan

Use of Precorrection w/ Transition Difficulties Pre. Correction Step Without Pre. Correction With Pre. Use of Precorrection w/ Transition Difficulties Pre. Correction Step Without Pre. Correction With Pre. Correction ID context & problem behavior Inappropriate transition – running from seat to carpet Teacher recognizes problem during transition Specify Exp. Beh No problem or solution ID’d Define ‘walk to carpet w/ hands to self’ & prepare to teach Modify the Context No changes made Student’s seat is moved closer to carpet Conduct Beh’l Rehearsals No practice Practice 3 rehearsals of transition Reinforce Exp. Beh No reinf of approp beh. Verbal praise for approp. Beh (grp &/or indiv) Prompt Exp Beh before performance No prompts for approp behavior Before transition, remind class expectations for transition Monitor the plan No monitoring or data collection Monitor success of student transitions w/ tally sheet from Crosby, Jolivette & Patterson, 2006

Use of Precorrection w/ Reading Difficulties Pre. Correction Step Without Pre. Correction With Pre. Use of Precorrection w/ Reading Difficulties Pre. Correction Step Without Pre. Correction With Pre. Correction ID context & problem behavior Engage in reading activity w/o knowledge of student reading ability Review reading activity & ID words student may struggle w/ in oral reading Specify Exp. Beh Student is unaware of how to pronounce target words correctly Student is instruction to point at sound out and read each word Modify the Context not modified Introduction and practice w/ target words is built into oral reading session Conduct Beh’l Rehearsals No sight-work practice Practice reading sight words independently Reinforce Exp. Beh Student behavior leads to escaping reading instruction Student can earn 5 min of acad computer time daily for participating in instruction Prompt Exp Beh before performance Not prompted about what is expected “remember to point to the first letter and sound out these words we practiced earlier” Monitor the plan No plans Conduct pre & post tests on student reading from Crosby, Jolivette & Patterson, 2006

See the Pre. Correction “Guide” n Goal: create a resource guide for SWPBIS teams See the Pre. Correction “Guide” n Goal: create a resource guide for SWPBIS teams to use for each practice on the CPSA that: ¨ Defines n the identified practice With cues & potential rewards ¨ Outlines a range of examples of how to implement the identified practice ¨ Provides a guide for implementing Classroom Systems model

Team Task n Develop a plan for how you will present the Targeted Practice Team Task n Develop a plan for how you will present the Targeted Practice ¨ Review SW Self-Assessment results ¨ Habit Loop? ¨ Definition of Practice ¨ Critical Features ¨ Range of Implementation Examples ¨ Steps/Procedures

3. Staff: Tailor to Fit n Tailor to Fit Context & Define personal habit 3. Staff: Tailor to Fit n Tailor to Fit Context & Define personal habit loop ¨ Tailor the targeted classroom practice to fit personal classroom & style = define habit/routine ¨ ID cues -- specific time to use/ prompt & set goals ¨ ID rewards n Provide a worksheet to guide this activity

Habit Loop Example Pre. Correction Habit Loop Example Pre. Correction

Pre. Correction Worksheet Pre. Correction Worksheet

Pre. Correction Worksheet (cont) Pre. Correction Worksheet (cont)

Team Task n How much time will you give staff members to identify their Team Task n How much time will you give staff members to identify their targeted practice? ¨ What n resources will you use? Worksheets or revision of it? ¨ What additional resources would be helpful to carry this out? n Do you want to collect copies of their plan, so you can provide support?

4. Present Examples for Supporting Implementation n SW-PBIS team presents a range of ways 4. Present Examples for Supporting Implementation n SW-PBIS team presents a range of ways to support implementation ¨ Plan ways to actively support teachers to use targeted practice -- Prompting, monitoring & rewarding ¨ Link Classroom Improvement Efforts with Peer Support & Feedback n Levels of Support ¨ Personal n Phone alarm, note on clipboard ¨ Peer n plan Support Check-in or prompt w/ buddy before school/ at lunch/ end of day

4. Present Examples for Supporting Implementation n Team Support (e. g. Grade Level, Dept, 4. Present Examples for Supporting Implementation n Team Support (e. g. Grade Level, Dept, PLC) ¨ Make Classroom improvement a regular part of meetings and activities ¨ Check-in, share ideas & give feedback to: n n Encourage implementation Check-in, problem solve, enhance implementation

Examples for Supporting Implementation n School-wide ¨ Morning announcements reminders ¨ Regular review/check-in at Examples for Supporting Implementation n School-wide ¨ Morning announcements reminders ¨ Regular review/check-in at staff meeting n Rewards for implementers, ¨ Daily email or weekly implementation checks via

Simple Daily Ratings Rate your level of implementation of your Pre. Correction Strategy (today Simple Daily Ratings Rate your level of implementation of your Pre. Correction Strategy (today or this week) Low Medium High 1 2 3 Rate the effectiveness of your implementation on student behavior (today or this week) Low Medium High 1 2 3

Team Task n How will you present ideas for supporting implementation? ¨ Personal ¨ Team Task n How will you present ideas for supporting implementation? ¨ Personal ¨ Peer/Buddy ¨ Team n How might this work in your school What school-wide strategies would like to implement? ¨ Announcement reminders? ¨ Staff meeting review & sharing? ¨ Collect implementation data? n Daily email, survey monkey?

5. Staff time to individualize plan for supporting implementation n Give staff time to 5. Staff time to individualize plan for supporting implementation n Give staff time to develop individualized plan to support implementation ¨ Ways n n to Prompt, monitor & reward Plan for self-prompting Time with Peer or develop a Department, Grade Level plan

Pre. Correction Worksheet (cont) Pre. Correction Worksheet (cont)

Team Discussion n Discuss this Classroom Systems support model ¨ What thoughts or concerns Team Discussion n Discuss this Classroom Systems support model ¨ What thoughts or concerns do you have with implementation? n What feedback or suggestions do you have? n What can we do to make this easier for you to implement effectively?

Evaluation n Please complete the evaluation n Supporting Classroom practices is challenging ¨ We’re Evaluation n Please complete the evaluation n Supporting Classroom practices is challenging ¨ We’re looking for real feedback on this model and what we’ve presented today Thank You!

Pre. Correction Descriptive Readings n n n Colvin, G. , Sugai, G. , Patching, Pre. Correction Descriptive Readings n n n Colvin, G. , Sugai, G. , Patching, B. (1993). Pre-correction: An instructional approach for managing predictable problem behavior. Intervention in School and Clinic, 28, 143 – 150. Crosby, S. , Jolivette, K. , & Patterson, D. (2006). Using Precorrection to Manage Inappropriate Academic and Social Behaviors. Beyond Behavior, 16(1), 14 -17. Stormont, M. , & Reinke, W. (2009). The Importance of Precorrective Statements and Behavior-Specific Praise and Strategies to Increase Their Use. Beyond Behavior, 18(3), 26 -32.

Pre. Correction Research n n n Colvin, G. , Sugai, G. , Good, R. Pre. Correction Research n n n Colvin, G. , Sugai, G. , Good, R. H. , III, Lee, Y. (1997). Using active supervision and precorrection to improve transition behaviors in an elementary school. School Psychology Quarterly, 12, 344– 363. De Pry, R. L. , Sugai, G. (2002). The effect of active supervision and precorrection on minor behavioral incidents in a sixth grade general education classroom. Journal of Behavioral Education, 11, 255– 267. Haydon, T. , Scott, T. M. (2008). Using common sense in common settings: Active supervision and precorrection in the morning gym. Intervention in School and Clinic, 43, 283– 290. Lewis, T. J. , Colvin, G. , Sugai, G. (2000). The effects of pre-correction and active supervision on the recess behavior of elementary students. Education and Treatment of Children, 23, 109– 121. Miao, Y. , Darch, C. , Rabren, K. (2002). Use of precorrection strategies to enhance reading performance of students with learning and behavior problems. Journal of Instructional Psychology, 29, 162– 174. Stormont, M. , Smith, S. C. , Lewis, T. J. (2007). Teacher implementation of precorrection and praise statements in Head Start classrooms as a component of a program-wide system of positive behavioral support. Journal of Behavioral Education, 16, 280– 290.