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CLAS 0810 A ALEXANDER THE GREAT AND THE ALEXANDER TRADITION PART III: THE SURVIVING CLAS 0810 A ALEXANDER THE GREAT AND THE ALEXANDER TRADITION PART III: THE SURVIVING SOURCES CLASS 10 SEPTEMBER 24, 2014 THE HISTORICAL ALEXANDER-SOURCES: THE PRIMARY WRITTEN SOURCES

Oral tradition and official documents (Diaries, letters, Ephemerides, “Last Plans”, etc. ) BC The Oral tradition and official documents (Diaries, letters, Ephemerides, “Last Plans”, etc. ) BC The fragments or Nearchus Primary sources or Callisthenes 300 Cleitarchus Ptolemy Onesicritus Aristobulus Chares “Alexander-historians” 200 100 The DIODORUS SICULUS 0 Pompeius Trogus “Vulgate” tradition CURTIUS 100 PLUTARCH 200 300 AD ARRIAN = Primary source of information = Considerable information JUSTIN

The Library at Alexandria The old… …and the new (2001) The Library at Alexandria The old… …and the new (2001)

Ancient writing materials (1) On wood (a mummy-tag) On pottery (an ostrakon tax receipt) Ancient writing materials (1) On wood (a mummy-tag) On pottery (an ostrakon tax receipt) On wax tablets (a birth certificate, 128 AD)

Ancient writing materials (2) On papyrus (recycled as Mummy cartonnage) On parchment or vellum Ancient writing materials (2) On papyrus (recycled as Mummy cartonnage) On parchment or vellum (10 th-century Coptic manuscript of the Old Testament) On paper (Hebrew manuscript of a prayer)

Ancient writing materials (3) Classical-era bookroll or scroll — Papyrus, used for long works, Ancient writing materials (3) Classical-era bookroll or scroll — Papyrus, used for long works, such as literary texts or government records The codex — usually on parchment. Replaces the bookroll in late antiquity. Strongly associated with Christian writings. The Byzantine-era bookroll (4 th-7 th centuries AD) was written and read vertically

Palimpsests Palimpsests

I: CAT SAT ON THE MAT II: CAT SAT ON THE HAT Stemmata and I: CAT SAT ON THE MAT II: CAT SAT ON THE HAT Stemmata and textual criticism III: CAT SAT ON THE MAT B: CAT SAT ON THE HAT A: BAT SAT ON THE HAT C: CAT SHAT ON THE MAT D: CAT SAT ON THE BAT [Black = surviving manuscripts; green = hypothesized lost manuscripts]

Siege of Constantinope, 1453 Earliest surviving manuscript copies of ancient texts about Alexander are Siege of Constantinope, 1453 Earliest surviving manuscript copies of ancient texts about Alexander are from the Middle Ages: e. g. , Arrian ca. AD 1200 Plutarch ca. AD 1300 William Caxton’s printing press Page from The Recuyell of the Historyes of Troye, printed by Caxton in 1474. This was the first book printed in England.

 • Earliest extant manuscript copies of Arrian date to the late Middle Ages… • Earliest extant manuscript copies of Arrian date to the late Middle Ages… • Arrian ca. 1200 AD, Plutarch ca. 1300 AD • Sack of Byzantium by the Crusaders 1204 AD • Ottoman Turks take Constantinople 1453 AD • First moveable-type printing press in England by William Caxton in 1474 AD

Oral tradition and official documents (Diaries, letters, Ephemerides, “Last Plans”, etc. ) BC The Oral tradition and official documents (Diaries, letters, Ephemerides, “Last Plans”, etc. ) BC The fragments or Nearchus Primary sources or Callisthenes 300 Onesicritus Cleitarchus Aristobulus Ptolemy Chares “Alexander-historians” 200 100 DIODORUS SICULUS 0 Pompeius Trogus CURTIUS 100 The PLUTARCH “Vulgate” 200 300 AD tradition ARRIAN = Primary source of information = Considerable information JUSTIN

Justin • 3 rd century AD epitome of Pompeius Trogus’s Philippic Histories • P. Justin • 3 rd century AD epitome of Pompeius Trogus’s Philippic Histories • P. Trogus was a Romanized Gaul writing at the time of the emperor Augustus • His account of Alexander occupied Books 11 and 12 • Drew on similar sources as Diodorus and Curtius • Contains many fantastic, legendary stories (e. g. about Alexander’s parentage)

Diodorus Siculus • Written and published in the late 1 st century BC • Diodorus Siculus • Written and published in the late 1 st century BC • A “Universal History”… • … of which Book 17 covers the years 336 -323 BC • Big gaps in the surviving manuscripts (but the Table of Contents has survived) • Valuable for military details lacking in other accounts • Emphasizes the importance and fickleness of Luck • Portrays Alexander in terms of the idealized virtues of the Hellenistic monarch

Quintus Curtius Rufus • Date not certain, probably 1 st century AD (perhaps at Quintus Curtius Rufus • Date not certain, probably 1 st century AD (perhaps at time of the emperor Claudius). • History of Alexander in 10 books (Books 1 -2 lost) • Wrote in Latin, and so more accessible to readers • Very popular after the Renaissance, and the main source of inspiration for artists • Emphasis on (a) Alexander’s constant good furtune, and (b) the deterioration of his character after death of Darius III • Rhetorical, flowery style • Speeches are an important feature of Curtius’ writing

Oral tradition and official documents (Diaries, letters, Ephemerides, “Last Plans”, etc. ) BC The Oral tradition and official documents (Diaries, letters, Ephemerides, “Last Plans”, etc. ) BC The fragments or Nearchus Primary sources or Callisthenes 300 Onesicritus Cleitarchus Aristobulus Ptolemy Chares “Alexander-historians” 200 100 DIODORUS SICULUS 0 Pompeius Trogus CURTIUS 100 The PLUTARCH “Vulgate” 200 300 AD tradition ARRIAN = Primary source of information = Considerable information JUSTIN

Oral tradition and official documents (Diaries, letters, Ephemerides, “Last Plans”, etc. ) BC Nearchus Oral tradition and official documents (Diaries, letters, Ephemerides, “Last Plans”, etc. ) BC Nearchus Callisthenes 300 Cleitarchus Ptolemy Onesicritus Aristobulus Alexander’s admiral 200 Alexander’s official historian Chares Naval officer in Alexander’s fleet Alexander’s general Death of Alexander Engineer or architect Alexander’s chamberlain 100 DIODORUS SICULUS 0 [World History] Pompeius Trogus [World History] CURTIUS [History] 100 PLUTARCH 200 300 AD [Biography] ARRIAN [History] JUSTIN [Epitome]