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Citation, Referencing, Quoting and Avoiding Plagiarism Introduced by Felix Siu and Sue Trinidad
Why should you reference? • Good academic essays and dissertations are the result of a process of careful planning and drafting. They have a set structure and use specific citation formats, for example, in education the APA style is used. • There are some basic strategies and tools that can be used to reference and cite correctly other’s work. It is important to practice quoting and avoid the “cut & paste” mistake. This will help you to write a better academic paper.
Academic Grammar Website http: //ec. hku. hk/acadgrammar/
The importance of referencing · To show the source of information gathered and direct the reader to further information · To acknowledge someone else’s work; this is important to avoid charges of plagiarism and so that you can demonstrate the breadth of your reading and the origins of your ideas · To provide support for your arguments
The importance of referencing • Without evidence, your ideas will lack credibility. For example, decide which of the following paragraphs you would accept more readily: • Paragraph 1. Study skills are increasingly used by higher education institutions and are proving to be popular amongst students. Some people think this is due to increasing class numbers whilst others feel that it is due to lower A level passes.
The importance of referencing • Paragraph 2. Research suggests that the number of study skills sessions that occur in higher education institutions have increased significantly over the past five years (Malley, 1998). Avis (1997), reporting on a survey of student attitudes to study skills sessions found that a significant proportion found the sessions useful and interesting. Rono (1997 b) found that increased use of study skills sessions emerged from a sharp rise in the number of students enrolling every year. However, Watson (1995) suggested that lower A level passes were responsible for the development of study skills programmes in the South East.
The importance of referencing • The second paragraph is clearly the more authoritative because it cites authors whose work may be consulted as evidence for the point being made, rather than simply referring, as in paragraph 1, to the views of “some people” and “others”.
How Should You Reference • When referring to the work of other people, there are two elements required: – a citation in the text which acknowledges the work and sets it within the context of your own – a reference which gives full details of the work in question
How Should You Reference • The most usual practice is to collect all of the references together in a list at the end of the paper and to link the text citations to the references by means of : – the use of author(s) names with dates (or page numbers)
How Should You Reference • Look again at the second of the two paragraphs you studied earlier: – Research suggests that the number of study skills sessions that occur in higher education institutions have increased significantly over the past five years (Malley, 1998). Avis (1997), reporting on a survey of student attitudes to study skills sessions found that a significant proportion found the sessions useful and interesting. Rono (1997 b) found that increased use of study skills sessions emerged from a sharp rise in the number of students enrolling every year. However, Watson (1995) suggested that lower A level passes were responsible for the development of study skills programmes in the South East.
References Avis, J. (1997). “What’s this got to do with what I do!” Contradictory views: students in further education. Journal of Vocational Education and Training, 49 (1), 81106. Bluck, R. (1994). Information skills in academic libraries: A teaching and learning role in higher education. Birmingham: SEDA. Malley, I. (1998). A survey of information skills teaching in colleges of further and higher education. London: British Library.
References Rono, F. (1997 a). Facing up to the future. Journal of Higher Education, 23 (2), 12. Rono, F. (1997 b). A student’s view of the challenges and limitations of problem based learning. Education for Health, 10 (2), 199 -204. Sanyal, B. (1987). Higher education and employment. London: Falmer. Watson, R. (1995). Student enterprise: A forum for building on transferable skills. In A. Assiter (Ed. ), Transferable skills in higher education (pp. 46 -53). London: Kogan Page.
APA Style • The American Psychological Association has established a style that it uses in all of the books and journals that it publishes. Many others working in the social and behavioral sciences have adopted this style as their standard as well. • Visit the APA Publication Manual Web site: http: //www. apastyle. org/
APA Style • When editors or teachers ask you to write in “APA style, ” they are referring to the editorial style that many of the social and behavioral sciences have adopted to present written material in the field. • Editorial style consists of rules or guidelines that a publisher observes to ensure clear and consistent presentation of written material. • APA's style rules and guidelines are set out in a reference book called The Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association.
APA Style • Editorial style concerns uniform use of such elements as – punctuation and abbreviations – construction of tables – selection of headings – citation of references – presentation of statistics – as well as many other elements that are a part of every manuscript
Citation of references • One work by one Author – Walker (2000) compared reaction times … – In a recent study of reaction times (Walker, 2000) … – In 2000 Walker compared reaction times – In a recent study of reaction times, Walker (2000) described the method…. Walker also found …
Citation of references • One work by Multiple Authors – When a work has two authors, always cite both names every time the reference occurs in text – When a work has 3, 4, or 5 authors, cite all authors the first time the reference occurs; in subsequent citations, include only the surname of the first author followed by et al. and the year if it is the first citation of the reference within a paragraph:
Citation of references • John, Russell, Rock, Rosen, and Barrett (1999) found … [Use as first citation in text] • John et al. (1999) found… [Use as subsequent first citation per paragraph thereafter. ] • John et al. found [Omit year from subsequent first citation within a paragraph.
Citation of references • When a work has six or more authors – Cite only the surname of the first author followed by et al. and the year for the first and subsequent citations. – Law et al. (2000) – Law, N. , Yuen, H. K. , Ki, W. W. , Li, S. C. , Lee, Y. & Chow, Y. (2000). (Eds. ) Changing Classrooms & Changing Schools: A Study of Good Practices in Using ICT in Hong Kong Schools. Hong Kong: Centre for IT in School and Teacher Education, The University of Hong Kong.
Citation of references • Groups as Authors – (e. g. corporations, associations. Government agencies, and study groups) – The names of some group authors are spelled out in the first citation and abbreviated thereafter. – First text citation: • (Education and Manpower Bureau [EMB], 2003) – Subsequent text citations: • (EMB, 2003)
Reference list • Internet articles based on a print source – Vanden. Bos, G. , Kanpp, S. , & Doe, J. (2001). Role of reference elements in the selection of resources by psychology undergraduates [Electronic version]. Journal of Bibliographic Research, 5, 117 -123. • Article in an Internet-only journal Fredrickson, B. L. (2000, March 7). Cultivating positive emotions to optimize health and well-being. Prevention & Treatment, 3, Article 0001 a. Retrieved November 20, 2003, from http: //journals. apa. org/prevention/volume 3/pre 00030001 a. html
Reference list World Wide Web page Beckleheimer, J. (1994). How do you cite URL's in a bibliography? Retrieved December 13, 1995, from http: //www. nrlssc. navy. mil/meta/bibliography. html. World Wide Web page (no author) Educating America for the 21 st century: Developing a strategic plan for educational leadership for Columbia University-1993 -2000 (Initial workshop draft). (1994). Retrieved May 16, 1995, from http: //www. ilt. columbia. edu/CONF/Ed. Plan. html.
Reference list World Wide Web page (no publication date) Prizker, T. J. (n. d. ). An early fragment from central Nepal. Retrieved December 12, 1996, from http: //www. ingress. com/~astanart/pritker/pritzker. html. World Wide Web Homepage Curtin University of Technology Homepage. (1999, February 9). Retrieved February 11, 1999, from http: //www. curtin. edu. au.
Test Your Skills - APA Style Look at the sheet provided Are these references correct? Check the box and correct format if incorrect with your partner
Answers - Reference list BOOKS Taylor, R. (1980). The Computer in School: Tutor, tool, and tutee. NY: Teachers College Press Koskoff, V. D. & Goldhurst, R. (1968). The dark side of the house. New York: Dial Press. BOOK CHAPTER Chen, V. & Hung, D. (2003). Learning theories and IT in Instruction. In Hung, Tan. Learning theories and IT in Instruction. In S. C. Chen, V. & S. C. D. & A. Wong, (Eds. ), Teaching and Learning with Technology: Theory and Practice (pp. 114 -120). New York: Tan & A. Wong, (Eds. ), Teaching and Learning with Technology: Harper Row. Practice. Pearson, Harper Row, 2003, pp. 114 -120. Theory and Piaget, J. (1970). The stages of the intellectual development of the child. In P. H. Mussen, J. J. Congor & J. Kagan (Eds. ), Readings in child development and personality (pp. 291 -302). New York: Harper & Row.
Answers - Reference list • JOURNALS • Chin, S. (1994). The integration of instructional Steve Chin. (1994). The integration of instructional technology in Hong Kong education. CUHK Educational Journal, 22(2), 321 -330. Educational Journal, 22 (2), 321 -330. • • Wharton, N. (1996). Health and safety in outdoor activity centres. Journal of Adventure Education and Outdoor Leadership, 12(4), 8 -9. • •
Test Your Skills - APA Style http: //elc. polyu. edu. hk/cill/reference. Machine. htm
What is Plagiarism? http: //www. hku. hk/plagiarism/page 2 s. htm
Quotations • Material directly quoted from another author’s work or from one’s own previously published work • (Short quotations < 40 words) – She stated, “The placebo effect disappeared when behaviors were studied in this manner” (Miele, 1993, p. 27), but she did not clarify which behaviors were studied.
Quotations • (Long quotations > 40 words) – indent the block about ½ in form the left margin. Storytelling is an important technique in the process of learning and understanding. Individuals gain a better understanding of one another through the use of concrete examples rather than through vague abstractions and generalizations which have no relationship to life’s experiences, since the sharing of experiences through the device of storytelling enables individuals to build the bridge of understanding between one another (Abrahamson, 1998, p. 441).
Plagiarism and how to avoid it http: //ec. hku. hk/plagiarism/
Test Your Skills http: //ec. hku. hk/plagiarism/Source_A. htm
Final Comments • Plan, draft and write your work carefully • Have a colleague proof read for you • Follow APA formatting style for citations and referencing, and use • Integrity, Creativity and Originality 1 1 University of Hong Kong. (2002, p 19). What is Plagiarism?