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Christian Ministry 1 Week 9 - Eschatology, Part 1 Christian Ministry 1 Week 9 - Eschatology, Part 1

Preparation. . . • Please turn your assignments into the In-Basket on the table. Preparation. . . • Please turn your assignments into the In-Basket on the table. • In your view, what are the events that will happen in the “end times. ”

Introduction • Last Week ➔ Satanology • Covert/Over tactics • Tonight ➔ Eschatology, Part Introduction • Last Week ➔ Satanology • Covert/Over tactics • Tonight ➔ Eschatology, Part 1 • Eschatology means the study of the last things.

Introduction • Eschatology • refers to a complex set of events in the biblical Introduction • Eschatology • refers to a complex set of events in the biblical account of the end of the age, including the Rapture, the tribulation, Jesus’ second coming, the Millennial Kingdom, the final judgments for believers and non-believers, and the New Heavens and the New Earth. . .

Why is Esch so Important? 1. It reveals the meaning of history. . . Why is Esch so Important? 1. It reveals the meaning of history. . . • the Bible teaches that history is linear and ultimately redemptive—God will complete his plan to establish his kingdom on earth through his Son, Jesus Christ (Matt. 6: 10; Eph. 1: 9, 10). . .

Why is Esch so Important? 2. Fulfilled prophecy provides unique and objective verification that Why is Esch so Important? 2. Fulfilled prophecy provides unique and objective verification that the God of the Bible is the only true God. • Isaiah 46: 9 -10. I am God, and there is none like me, declaring the end from the beginning and from ancient times things not yet done, saying, ‘My counsel shall stand, and I will accomplish all my purpose. . . ’

Why is Esch so Important? 2. Fulfilled prophecy provides unique and objective verification that Why is Esch so Important? 2. Fulfilled prophecy provides unique and objective verification that the God of the Bible is the only true God. • In Isaiah 40 -48, God insists and demonstrates that he alone is sovereign over human history by predicting historical events before they take place. . .

Why is Esch so Important? 2. Fulfilled prophecy provides unique and objective verification that Why is Esch so Important? 2. Fulfilled prophecy provides unique and objective verification that the God of the Bible is the only true God. • The fulfillment of dozens of Old Testament predictions of Jesus’ atoning death and resurrection validate the gospel as the message of salvation. . .

Why is Esch so Important? 2. Fulfilled prophecy provides unique and objective verification that Why is Esch so Important? 2. Fulfilled prophecy provides unique and objective verification that the God of the Bible is the only true God. • The Bible’s accuracy in predicting past events means that we can trust that God will fulfill the future events he has predicted.

Why is Esch so Important? 3. The assurance that God will establish his kingdom Why is Esch so Important? 3. The assurance that God will establish his kingdom provides believers with a unique basis and motivation for serving Jesus in this life. • As we focus by faith on our guaranteed eternal life with God, his Spirit will renew us daily to serve him with confidence and urgency.

Why is Esch so Important? 3. The assurance that God will establish his kingdom Why is Esch so Important? 3. The assurance that God will establish his kingdom provides believers with a unique basis and motivation for serving Jesus in this life. • Because we know that we will be consciously and bodily with Christ, we can lay our lives down now to serve others in his name. . .

Why is Esch so Important? 3. The assurance that God will establish his kingdom Why is Esch so Important? 3. The assurance that God will establish his kingdom provides believers with a unique basis and motivation for serving Jesus in this life. • Because we know that we will be eternally secure with Christ, we can endure great sufferings with hope and even joy.

Most important disagreement: how to interpret Old Organize and Interpret Testament unfulfilled prophecies • Most important disagreement: how to interpret Old Organize and Interpret Testament unfulfilled prophecies • Agreement on Three Essentials concerning the nation of Israel. Return of The Messianic Jesus Christ Eternal states: Kingdom is the focal Heaven & Hell point of these Final prophecies. Judgment Within these essentials, though, orthodox Christians disagree on how to organize and interpret many eschatological passages.

Organize and Interpret • Messianic Kingdom • A future period of human history in Organize and Interpret • Messianic Kingdom • A future period of human history in which God intervenes in history, defeats his enemies, and reigns over the world through Jesus the Messiah. • Two Most Prominent Perspectives: • Covenantalism • Dispensationalism

Organize and Interpret • Some OT Prophecies about the MK • Ps. 2: 1 Organize and Interpret • Some OT Prophecies about the MK • Ps. 2: 1 -12

Organize and Interpret • Some OT Prophecies about the MK • Ps. 2: 1 Organize and Interpret • Some OT Prophecies about the MK • Ps. 2: 1 -12 – Note that God will install his King on Zion (Jerusalem). • Isa. 11: 1 -12

Organize and Interpret • Some OT Prophecies about the MK • Ps. 2: 1 Organize and Interpret • Some OT Prophecies about the MK • Ps. 2: 1 -12 – Note that God will install his King on Zion (Jerusalem). • Isa. 11: 1 -12 – Note that the nations (Gentiles) will turn to the Messiah, and that he will regather the dispersed nation of Israel. • Zech. 14: 1 -11, 16 -19

Organize and Interpret • Some OT Prophecies about the MK • Ps. 2: 1 Organize and Interpret • Some OT Prophecies about the MK • Ps. 2: 1 -12 – Note that God will install his King on Zion (Jerusalem). • Isa. 11: 1 -12 – Note that the nations (Gentiles) will turn to the Messiah, and that he will regather the dispersed nation of Israel. • Zech. 14: 1 -11, 16 -19 – Note that the Messiah will reign from Jerusalem.

Organize and Interpret • Covenantalism - teaches that God has permanently replaced Israel with Organize and Interpret • Covenantalism - teaches that God has permanently replaced Israel with the Church as his chosen people. Jesus’ second coming Israel New Heavens New Earth

Organize and Interpret • Covenantalism interprets the Old Testament unfulfilled prophecies concerning the nation Organize and Interpret • Covenantalism interprets the Old Testament unfulfilled prophecies concerning the nation of Israel non-literally as predictions about the Church or the new heavens and new earth.

Organize and Interpret • Two Problems with Covenantalism: 1. God fulfilled the Old Testament Organize and Interpret • Two Problems with Covenantalism: 1. God fulfilled the Old Testament predictions of the Messiah’s first coming literally, so it is reasonable to expect that he will also fulfill the Old Testament predictions of the Messiah’s Kingdom literally.

Organize and Interpret • Two Problems with Covenantalism: 2. Many passages (both OT and Organize and Interpret • Two Problems with Covenantalism: 2. Many passages (both OT and NT) insist that God will fulfill all of his promises to Israel, including: • Jer. 31: 31 -37** - God says that his promises to Israel are more certain than his creation decrees and the immeasurable vastness of the earth.

Organize and Interpret • Two Problems with Covenantalism: 2. Many passages (both OT and Organize and Interpret • Two Problems with Covenantalism: 2. Many passages (both OT and NT) insist that God will fulfill all of his promises to Israel, including: • Rom. 11: 29* - Paul (speaking about God’s promises to Israel) emphatically affirms that God’s calling is irrevocable.

Organize and Interpret • Two Problems with Covenantalism: • Note: Many Old Testament prophecies Organize and Interpret • Two Problems with Covenantalism: • Note: Many Old Testament prophecies have a “double-reference”. . . GAP: near and far event seen as one event by the prophet. . . • • TYPE: event that foreshadows a much later event. . . • TYPE-GAP: event that foreshadows a later event also predicted by the prophet. . .

Organize and Interpret • Two Problems with Covenantalism: • Note: Many Old Testament prophecies Organize and Interpret • Two Problems with Covenantalism: • Note: Many Old Testament prophecies have a “double-reference” • UNFORESEEN PARTIAL: future event predicted that has a partial fulfillment in the Church unforeseen by the prophet

Organize and Interpret • Dispensionalism teaches that God has temporarily replaced Israel with the Organize and Interpret • Dispensionalism teaches that God has temporarily replaced Israel with the Church as his chosen people—but that he will fulfill all of the promises he has made to Israel Jesus’ second coming Millennial Kingdom (church) (Israel) New Heavens New Earth

Organize and Interpret • Dispensationalism preserves a literal interpretation of the Old Testament unfulfilled Organize and Interpret • Dispensationalism preserves a literal interpretation of the Old Testament unfulfilled prophecies concerning Israel. The Church is an important part of God’s plan that was unforeseen by the Old Testament prophets—but God will ultimately fulfill his kingdom promises to Israel.

Organize and Interpret • Although this is a non-essential doctrine, we believe that Dispensationalism Organize and Interpret • Although this is a non-essential doctrine, we believe that Dispensationalism is superior to Covenantalism in several key areas. We identify ourselves with progressive Dispensationalists. . .

Organize and Interpret • Other important theological and practical implications: Covenantalism God’s dealing with Organize and Interpret • Other important theological and practical implications: Covenantalism God’s dealing with humanity Dispensationalism Emphasizes UNITY in the way God has worked with humanity during the covenant of grace (after the Fall). Emphasizes DIFFERENCES in the way God has worked with humanity during different dispensations.

Organize and Interpret • Other important theological and practical implications: Covenantalism Soteriology As a Organize and Interpret • Other important theological and practical implications: Covenantalism Soteriology As a result of this emphasis on unity, Covenantalists correctly emphasize that people have always been saved by grace through faith. Dispensationalism Most dispensationalists, like Covenantalists, argue that people have always been saved by grace through faith.

Organize and Interpret • Other important theological and practical implications: Covenantalism Ecclesiology Covenantalists define Organize and Interpret • Other important theological and practical implications: Covenantalism Ecclesiology Covenantalists define the church as all believers during all of history. Therefore, many feel free to bring Old Testament forms into the church. . . Dispensationalism

Organize and Interpret • Other important theological and practical implications: Covenantalism Ecclesiology . . Organize and Interpret • Other important theological and practical implications: Covenantalism Ecclesiology . . . such as infant baptism, religious calendars, ritualism, etc. Sometimes, Covenantalists have advocated using the state to advance the church’s mission. Dispensationalism

Organize and Interpret • Other important theological and practical implications: Covenantalism Ecclesiology Dispensationalism . Organize and Interpret • Other important theological and practical implications: Covenantalism Ecclesiology Dispensationalism . . . such as infant baptism, religious calendars, ritualism, etc. Sometimes, Covenantalists have advocated using the state to advance the church’s mission. Because Dispensationalists see the Church Age as a distinct period in salvation history (beginning on Pentecost). . .

Organize and Interpret • Other important theological and practical implications: Covenantalism Ecclesiology Dispensationalism . Organize and Interpret • Other important theological and practical implications: Covenantalism Ecclesiology Dispensationalism . . . such as infant baptism, religious calendars, ritualism, etc. Sometimes, Covenantalists have advocated using the state to advance the church’s mission. . they usually call for a more radical break with Old Testament worship and structures and uphold the separation of church and state.

Organize and Interpret • Other important theological and practical implications: Covenantalism Sanctificatio n Dispensationalism Organize and Interpret • Other important theological and practical implications: Covenantalism Sanctificatio n Dispensationalism Dispensationalists Many Covenantalists tend to stress God’s place more emphasis grace as the key on the Law in dynamic in sanctification.

Organize and Interpret • Other important theological and practical implications: Covenantalism Pneumatolo gy Dispensationalism Organize and Interpret • Other important theological and practical implications: Covenantalism Pneumatolo gy Dispensationalism Dispensationalists Some Covenantalists say the Holy Spirit believe the Holy Spirit indwelt believers only indwelt believers in after Jesus' death on the Old Covenant. the cross.

The Millennial Kingdom Coming? What is it and when does it occur relative to The Millennial Kingdom Coming? What is it and when does it occur relative to Jesus’ 2 nd • Millennial Kingdom comes from Revelation 20: 1 -10. • • For context, let’s read Rev 19: 11 -21: 8 Sequence of Events: • Jesus returns ➔ binds Satan for 1000 years ➔ Great White Throne Judgment ➔ God finishes His redeeming work by creating New Heavens and Earth.

Some: MK ≅ New The Millennial Kingdom Coming? Heavens/Earth. They are called What is Some: MK ≅ New The Millennial Kingdom Coming? Heavens/Earth. They are called What is it and when does it occur relative to Jesus’ 2 nd “Amillennialists. ” • Covenantalists • Do not view the MK as a literal 1000 year period or as the fulfillment of God’s kingdom promises to Israel. Jesus’ second coming Israel New Heavens New Earth

Others: MK refers to a period of world peace ushered in by the church, Others: MK refers to a period of world peace ushered in by the church, and that Jesus returns at the end of this period. The Millennial Kingdom Coming? Therefore, they are called to Jesus’ What is it and when does it occur relative “Post- 2 nd Millennialists. ” • Covenantalists • Do not view the MK as a literal 1000 year period or as the fulfillment of God’s kingdom promises to Israel. Jesus’ second coming Israel (world peace) New Heavens New Earth

The Millennial Kingdom Coming? What is it and when does it occur relative to The Millennial Kingdom Coming? What is it and when does it occur relative to Jesus’ 2 nd • Dispensationalists • MK is the period God promised to Israel through the OT prophets. • Believe Jesus will return before this period. They are called “Premillenialists. ” • Believe it will be a literal 1000 years, followed by the GWT Judgment.

The Millennial Kingdom Coming? What is it and when does it occur relative to The Millennial Kingdom Coming? What is it and when does it occur relative to Jesus’ 2 nd • Dispensationalists • MK is the period God promised to Israel through the OT prophets. Israel Jesus’ second coming Millennial Kingdom (church) (Israel) New Heavens New Earth

The Millennial Kingdom Coming? What is it and when does it occur relative to The Millennial Kingdom Coming? What is it and when does it occur relative to Jesus’ 2 nd • Premillennial view best harmonizes. Consider Rev 20 -22 & OT passages • MK begins with Satan’s binding (Rev. 20: 1 -3) and ends with Satan’s final rebellion and judgment (Rev. 20: 7 -10). . . • Jesus will reign over all the earth (Rev. 20: 4), establishing true social justice (Isa. 29: 19 -21) and lasting world peace (Isa. 2: 4). . .

The Millennial Kingdom Coming? What is it and when does it occur relative to The Millennial Kingdom Coming? What is it and when does it occur relative to Jesus’ 2 nd • Premillennial view best harmonizes. Consider Rev 20 -22 & OT passages • Jesus’ resurrected followers reign with him (Rev. 20: 4 -6). True believers from other periods of history will be raised and reign with Jesus during this time (Dan. 7: 22, 27; Matt. 19: 28; 1 Cor. 6: 2). . .

The Millennial Kingdom Coming? What is it and when does it occur relative to The Millennial Kingdom Coming? What is it and when does it occur relative to Jesus’ 2 nd • Premillennial view best harmonizes. Consider Rev 20 -22 & OT passages • There will be unprecedented worldwide spiritual enlightenment. Because the Messiah will be personally present, all peoples will have access to his instruction (Isa. 2: 2, 3). Understanding of who the true God is and what he has done for humankind will cover the earth (Isa. 11: 9). The Holy Spirit will also be poured out on all people (Joel 2: 28). . .

The Millennial Kingdom Coming? What is it and when does it occur relative to The Millennial Kingdom Coming? What is it and when does it occur relative to Jesus’ 2 nd • Premillennial view best harmonizes. Consider Rev 20 -22 & OT passages • The curse over nature will be substantially removed. . . The earth will be abundantly productive (Isa. 4: 2; 35: 1 a, 2 a), and the destructive hostility of animals will be removed (Isa. 11: 6 -9 a). . .

The Millennial Kingdom Coming? What is it and when does it occur relative to The Millennial Kingdom Coming? What is it and when does it occur relative to Jesus’ 2 nd • Premillennial view best harmonizes. Consider Rev 20 -22 & OT passages • The earth’s inhabitants (except for the resurrected believers) will remain mortal, but without sickness (Isa. 33: 24) and calamity (Isa. 65: 19 b-23). . .

Conclusion • Studying the last things builds our faith to live for God today! Conclusion • Studying the last things builds our faith to live for God today! • Two Main Christian Views of end times • Covenantalism (A- & Post-Mill) • Dispensationalism (Pre-Mill)**

Questions? Questions?

Next Week • Eschatology Part 2 - New Heavens and New Earth Next Week • Eschatology Part 2 - New Heavens and New Earth

Memory Verses • Please note: the last page of your notes gives a description Memory Verses • Please note: the last page of your notes gives a description of the verses, not the actual wording of the verses • • Jer. 31: 31 -37** Rom. 11: 29*

Assignment • Please note the change from the syllabus: Read Rev. 21, 22. What Assignment • Please note the change from the syllabus: Read Rev. 21, 22. What are the key features of the New Heavens and the New Earth? How does this fortify you to endure in your service to Christ? • Church Visitation assignment (due next week)

Corporate Prayer Corporate Prayer