China The politics and government thereof The

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China The politics and government thereof China The politics and government thereof

The Mandate of Heaven • In traditional Chinese politics there is a rhythm • The Mandate of Heaven • In traditional Chinese politics there is a rhythm • Dynasties come and go in accordance with the Mandate of Heaven • You know if you’ve lost the mandate when there are earthquakes, floods, famine and droughts, as well as barbarians • The story of the tablet on the Drum Tower

What’s behind the Doctrine? • Karl Wittfogel’s [after Marx] concept of Oriental Despotism • What’s behind the Doctrine? • Karl Wittfogel’s [after Marx] concept of Oriental Despotism • China is essentially two rivers: The Hwang Ho [Yellow] and the Yangtse • To ease the effects of flood and drought, the Grand Canal was built to link the two

CIA map of China CIA map of China

What’s behind the Doctrine? • China is essentially two rivers: The Hwang Ho [Yellow] What’s behind the Doctrine? • China is essentially two rivers: The Hwang Ho [Yellow] and the Yangtse • To ease the effects of flood and drought, the Grand Canal was built to link the two • Further irrigation works followed • New dynasties cleared and repaired the canals, then slowly became corrupt and the waterworks silted up • Hu Jintao’s background is in water conservancy!

Crisis of development • China in trade surplus with rest of world until UK Crisis of development • China in trade surplus with rest of world until UK fought the Opium War • Goal was to stop paying for goods in silver • Pay opium instead…Indian Opium • By the time various wars finished, UK had effectively occupied several ports • Other European countries followed • Then Japan

Semi-colonialism • In a very short period China went from being perhaps the richest Semi-colonialism • In a very short period China went from being perhaps the richest country in the world to one of the poorest • Economy based on consumer goods and services, not manufacturing • So could not compete militarily • And mandate of heaven was lost • Tried to maintain traditional system

What sort of Westernisation? • • • 1911 Manchus overthrown Guomindang shared power with What sort of Westernisation? • • • 1911 Manchus overthrown Guomindang shared power with warlords Sun yatsen and Yuan shihkai 1917 Russian Revolution 1921 foundation of Chinese Communist Party in both Paris and Beijing • Emergence of Chiang Kaishek as leader of Guomindang • Failure of democracy

Chinese Communism very different • • • Peasant based not proletariat Protracted guerilla warfare, Chinese Communism very different • • • Peasant based not proletariat Protracted guerilla warfare, not city coup Chinese nationalism, not intermationalism Populist [narodnik] not Marxist Mao never went abroad, except short visit to Moscow. Suspicious of returned Bolsheviks • Stalin equally suspicious of Mao

People’s Republic of China 1949 • Conquest of South by North • Conquest of People’s Republic of China 1949 • Conquest of South by North • Conquest of cities by countryside • Army more of a national organisation than party • State had to be built from bottom up • Infrastructure poor • Famine to overcome

Main policies • “Lean to one side” ie follow Soviet model • “Walk on Main policies • “Lean to one side” ie follow Soviet model • “Walk on two feet” invest in Industry and Agriculture equally • “Great Leap Forward” industrialise the countryside. Socialism without urbanisation • Sino-Soviet split • Cultural Revolution

Mao was 30% good? • Strategy for taking power • Recreated infrastructure • Used Mao was 30% good? • Strategy for taking power • Recreated infrastructure • Used manpower because couldn’t buy technology • Egalitarian • Chinese model • Too many deaths • Could have done more in cities • 1956 went off the rails • Sick and dictatorial • Gang of Four • Alienated both USA and USSR • Tried to export rev.

Post-Mao • • • How to Modernise? Whateverists Oil Foreign investment Market revolution Special Post-Mao • • • How to Modernise? Whateverists Oil Foreign investment Market revolution Special Economic Zones

Deng Xiaoping • • Combined market reforms in agriculture With Special economic Zones While Deng Xiaoping • • Combined market reforms in agriculture With Special economic Zones While maintaining Stalinist Heavy Industry Made cheap Chinese labour available foreign capitalists • Recognised need to become a global player

Standing Committee of Politburo 2003 • • • Hu Jintao General Secretary and President Standing Committee of Politburo 2003 • • • Hu Jintao General Secretary and President Wu Bangguo Chair, NPC SC Wen Jiabao Prime Minister Jia Qinglin Chair CPPCC Zeng Qinghong Vice-President and Secretary Huang Ju Vice-Premier Wu Guangzheng Sec, Committee for Disc. Insp. Li Changchun ideology and propaganda Luo Gan legislative responsibilities

Chinese institutions Chinese institutions




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