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Child Development Chapter 6 The Baby’s Arrival
1. What is happening when lightening occurs? • The baby settles into the lower pelvis as the time of birth nears. • Baby’s head places pressure on the rectum and pelvic floor. • rib cage expands more easily allowing deeper breaths • eat without feeling full quickly • more pressure on their bladders • perpetual feeling that the baby is about to fall out.
2. What is the “bloody show” and what does it mean for pregnant women? • It can be green, yellowish, pinkish, brown, the blend of all of them, or even clear. It is usually accompanied with blood. • This vaginal stain occurs when the mucus that seals the cervix dissolves. • This is an early sign that labor has begun.
3. Explain what occurs when a woman’s “water breaks. ” • The amniotic sac ruptures, and the woman feels a trickle or gush of warm amniotic fluid.
Effacement and Dilation • Cervix – the opening to the uterus • Effacement – cervix gets shorter and thins out in order to stretch and open around your baby's head. – is measured from 0% to 100%. • Dilation – stretching and opening of cervix – measured from 1 to 10 centimeters.
4. What are contractions? What is their purpose? • The tightening and releasing of the muscles of the uterus during labor. • They push the baby out of the mother’s body.
5. What is the purpose of fetal monitoring during labor? • External: To watch the baby’s heart rate for indicators of stress. • Internal: A fetal scalp electrode is placed by screwing a tiny sire into the top layers of the baby's scalp, then relaying the baby's heart rate to the fetal monitor.
6. When is labor considered premature? What are the warning signs? • When the fetus has been developing 37 weeks or less. • Warning signs: – Contractions every ten minutes or less – Dull backache – Leaking fluid or blood
7. How can you distinguish false labor from real contractions? • In false labor, contractions… – Are not regular or rhythmic – Do not increase in strength over time – End with light exercise, such as walking
8. Summarize the 3 stages of labor. • First – contractions make the cervix dilate-first child: 6 -18 hours; later children: 2 -5 hours • Second – baby is born; First child: 1 -2 hours; later children: 15 -30 minutes • Third – placenta is delivered; 10 -30 minutes
Stages of Labor
9. What is a breech presentation? Why is it a complication? • When the baby does not enter the lower pelvis with his head down. • The baby may have difficulty moving through the woman’s pelvis. • Preferable to try to turn a breech baby between the 32 nd and 37 th weeks of pregnancy.
10. How is the hormone “relaxin” related to dilation? • It allows the ligaments that join the bones of the mother’s pelvis to stretch like rubber bands, moving apart the pelvic bones. • It also allows the walls of the birth canal to stretch so the baby can pass through. • This causes the “waddle. ”
11. What is an episiotomy, and why is it done? • It is a surgical cut made to enlarge the opening of the vagina. • It keeps the skin from tearing.
12. What are stem cells, and why are they important? • Cells in the cord blood left behind in the umbilical cord & placenta after birth • They can produce all types of blood cells. • Can be used to treat serious blood-related illnesses in the baby and other family members
13. What is a cesarean birth? Why is it sometimes necessary? • Delivery through a surgical incision in the mother’s abdomen • May be needed if – Labor is not progressing normally – Baby is distressed or turned wrong – Multiple babies
14. What factors increase the chances of premature birth? • Mother has had other premature births • Multiple babies • Mother has other medical problems • Mother is a teen
15. Why does a premature baby need an incubator? • Brain has not yet developed the ability to control all body systems • An incubator controls oxygen supply, temperature, and humidity
Section 6 -2 The Newborn
16. Fontanels • Open spaces on the baby’s head where the bones are not yet joined. They allow the bones to move together during passage through the birth canal. One is just above the baby’s forehead and the other is toward the back of the skull. • It may make the head appear pointed or lopsided.
17. Newborn Proportions • The newborn’s brain is large. After birth, the head and brain grow much less than the rest of the baby’s body.
18. What physical adjustments do newborns’ bodies make to survive outside the uterus? • The lungs take in oxygen. • The circulatory system begins to deliver blood to lungs. • The heart pumps harder. • Small openings in the heart begin to close. • A new type of hemoglobin develops.
19. What is lanugo, and what happens to it? • Fine, downy hair growing on a newborn’s forehead, back, and shoulders. • It disappears soon after birth.
20. When nurses give the newborn its first bath, what are they washing away? What is the purpose of this substance? • A white, pasty substance called vernix (made up of the fetus’s shed skin cells and skin gland secretions). • It protects the skin against constant exposure to the amniotic fluid.
21. What is the purpose of the Apgar scale? What five areas does it rate? • It rates the physical condition of the newborn, including: – – – Breathing Response to stimulation Heart rate Clear skin color Muscle tone
• • • 22. Identify medical procedures that are performed shortly after birth and tell the purpose of each. Weigh and measure the baby Apply antibiotic drops to eyes to prevent infection Give vitamin K to prevent rare bleeding disorder Hearing screening Blood tests to determine type & screen certain diseases
23. What steps are taken to record a newborn’s identity? • A footprint is taken • A plastic I. D. badge is attached to the baby, the mother, and someone of the mother’s choosing
Watch… Stop at 24: 16
Section 6 -3 The Postnatal Period
24. What are some new things a mother can do to begin bonding with her newborn? • Hold, carry, rock the baby • Touch the baby’s fingers and toes • Talk, sing, read to the baby • Look into the baby’s eyes
25. How do bonding activities affect the baby’s brain? • They help the brain develop and build connections.
26. What is colostrum? How does it help the baby? • High calorie, high protein early breast milk • It satisfies hunger & provides protection from illnesses
27. What period of time is considered the neonatal period? • The baby’s first month of life
28. A new mother is frightened. The baby’s eyes and skin appear yellow. What is the condition and what causes it? Does it require treatment? • Jaundice – a common condition that occurs when the liver can’t remove bilirubin quickly enough. • It requires treatment, such as phototherapy, to avoid damage to the nervous system.
29. What do lactation consultants do? • Teach new mothers to breastfeed.
30. Describe the benefits of rooming -in. • Fathers can visit anytime. • Babies have on main caregiver, so they cry less. • Mothers get more rest not worrying about baby in nursery. • Parents start learning how to take care of the baby right away.
31. What two legal forms should parents complete for their new baby? • Birth certificate • Application for Social Security number
32. Identify the physical problems of premature babies. • Lack the ability to coordinate sucking and swallowing milk. • Lack enough body fat for warmth. • Immature lungs • Immature digestive system
33. Summarize the physical needs of a new mother during the prenatal period. • • Rest Gentle exercise Good nutrition, incl. plenty of fluids Medical checkup 4 -6 weeks after giving birth
Pelvic floor • Support for the bladder, intestines, the uterus (in females), and in maintenance of continence as part of the urinary and anal sphincters.
34. Compare and contrast “baby blues” with postpartum depression. How are they similar and different? • Similarities – Both are feelings of sadness, often include crying and anxiety • Differences – Postpartum depression is more extreme – With PD, woman may be overly anxious about baby, have little interest in the baby, or think of harming the baby. They need immediate help.
Watch… Part 2