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Chapter VIII Layout Planning Models BAMBANG RISDIANTO PERANCANGAN TATA LETAK FASILITAS 1 Chapter VIII Layout Planning Models BAMBANG RISDIANTO PERANCANGAN TATA LETAK FASILITAS 1

Layout till This Point • Coordinating facilities planning with other organizational units • Facility Layout till This Point • Coordinating facilities planning with other organizational units • Facility requirements a product design, process design, schedule design • Activity relationships and space requirements • Personnel requirements BAMBANG RISDIANTO PERANCANGAN TATA LETAK FASILITAS 2

Basic Layout Types • Fixed product layouts v the workstations are brought to the Basic Layout Types • Fixed product layouts v the workstations are brought to the material • Product layouts v based on the processing sequence • Group layout; Product family layout v high degree of intradepartmental flow • Process layout v high degree of interdepartmental flow BAMBANG RISDIANTO PERANCANGAN TATA LETAK FASILITAS 3

Basic Layout Types BAMBANG RISDIANTO PERANCANGAN TATA LETAK FASILITAS 4 Basic Layout Types BAMBANG RISDIANTO PERANCANGAN TATA LETAK FASILITAS 4

Basic Layout Types n Product Layout that uses standardized processing operations to achieve smooth, Basic Layout Types n Product Layout that uses standardized processing operations to achieve smooth, rapid, high-volume flow — Linear arrangement of workstations to produce a specific product — n Process Layout that can handle varied processing requirements — Centers/machines grouped by process they perform — n Fixed Position Layout in which the product or project remains stationary; workers, materials, and equipment are moved as needed — Used in projects where the product cannot be moved — BAMBANG RISDIANTO PERANCANGAN TATA LETAK FASILITAS 5

Hybrid Layouts n Cellular layouts – group machines into machining cells n Flexible manufacturing Hybrid Layouts n Cellular layouts – group machines into machining cells n Flexible manufacturing systems – automated machining & material handling systems n Mixed-model assembly lines – produce variety of models on one line BAMBANG RISDIANTO PERANCANGAN TATA LETAK FASILITAS 6

Layout Formats n Group Technology Layout n Just-in-Time Layouts – – Assembly-lines or Group Layout Formats n Group Technology Layout n Just-in-Time Layouts – – Assembly-lines or Group Technology formats n Fixed Position Layout – e. g. Shipbuilding BAMBANG RISDIANTO PERANCANGAN TATA LETAK FASILITAS 7

Manufacturing Process Layout Lathe Department Milling Department Drilling Department L L M M D Manufacturing Process Layout Lathe Department Milling Department Drilling Department L L M M D D D D L L G G G P L L Grinding Department Receiving and Shipping BAMBANG RISDIANTO PERANCANGAN TATA LETAK FASILITAS Painting Department A Assembly 8

Service Process Layout Women’s Lingerie Shoes Housewares Women’s Dresses Cosmetics & Jewelry Children’s Department Service Process Layout Women’s Lingerie Shoes Housewares Women’s Dresses Cosmetics & Jewelry Children’s Department Women’s Sportswear Entry & Seasonal Men’s Department BAMBANG RISDIANTO PERANCANGAN TATA LETAK FASILITAS 9

Product Layout IN OUT BAMBANG RISDIANTO PERANCANGAN TATA LETAK FASILITAS 10 Product Layout IN OUT BAMBANG RISDIANTO PERANCANGAN TATA LETAK FASILITAS 10

A U-Shaped Production Line IN 1 2 3 4 5 Workers 6 OUT 10 A U-Shaped Production Line IN 1 2 3 4 5 Workers 6 OUT 10 BAMBANG RISDIANTO 9 8 PERANCANGAN TATA LETAK FASILITAS 7 11

Cellular Layout n Cellular Manufacturing – Layout in which machines are grouped into a Cellular Layout n Cellular Manufacturing – Layout in which machines are grouped into a cell that can process items that have similar processing requirements n Group Technology – The grouping into part families of items with similar design or manufacturing characteristics BAMBANG RISDIANTO PERANCANGAN TATA LETAK FASILITAS 12

Group Technology One Worker, Multiple Machines Machine 1 Machine 2 Machine 3 Materials in Group Technology One Worker, Multiple Machines Machine 1 Machine 2 Machine 3 Materials in Finished goods out BAMBANG RISDIANTO Machine PERANCANGAN TATA LETAK 5 FASILITAS Machine 4 13

Group Technology Parts Families BAMBANG RISDIANTO PERANCANGAN TATA LETAK FASILITAS 14 Group Technology Parts Families BAMBANG RISDIANTO PERANCANGAN TATA LETAK FASILITAS 14

Group Technology Lathing Drilling Milling L L L M M M D D D Group Technology Lathing Drilling Milling L L L M M M D D D L D M Grinding L L M M A Receiving and shipping BAMBANG RISDIANTO A G G G A A G G Assembly G PERANCANGAN TATA LETAK FASILITAS 15

Group Technology Lathing Milling Drilling L L L M M M D D D Group Technology Lathing Milling Drilling L L L M M M D D D L D M Grinding L L M M A Receiving and shipping A G G G A A G G Assembly G (a) Jumbled flows in a job shop without GT cells BAMBANG RISDIANTO PERANCANGAN TATA LETAK FASILITAS 16

Group Technology Lathing Milling Drilling L L L M M M D D D Group Technology Lathing Milling Drilling L L L M M M D D D L D M Grinding L L M M A Receiving and shipping A G G G A A G G Assembly G (a) Jumbled flows in. PERANCANGAN TATA LETAK cells a job shop without GT BAMBANG RISDIANTO FASILITAS 17

Group Technology Lathing Milling Drilling L L L M M M D D D Group Technology Lathing Milling Drilling L L L M M M D D D L D M Grinding L L M M A Receiving and shipping A (a) Jumbled flows in a job shop without GT cells BAMBANG RISDIANTO G G G A A G G Assembly G PERANCANGAN TATA LETAK FASILITAS 18

Group Technology L L M L G M Assembly area A Cell 2 Cell Group Technology L L M L G M Assembly area A Cell 2 Cell 1 Receiving D G A G Cell 3 L M D Shipping (b) Line flows in a job shop with three GT cells BAMBANG RISDIANTO PERANCANGAN TATA LETAK FASILITAS 19

Group Technology L L M L G M Assembly area A Cell 2 Cell Group Technology L L M L G M Assembly area A Cell 2 Cell 1 Receiving D G A G Cell 3 L M D Shipping (b) Line flows in a job shop with three GT cells BAMBANG RISDIANTO PERANCANGAN TATA LETAK FASILITAS 20

Group Technology L L M L G M Assembly area A Cell 2 Cell Group Technology L L M L G M Assembly area A Cell 2 Cell 1 Receiving D G A G Cell 3 L M D Shipping (b) Line flows in a job shop with three GT cells BAMBANG RISDIANTO PERANCANGAN TATA LETAK FASILITAS 21

Group Technology L L M L G M Assembly area A Cell 2 Cell Group Technology L L M L G M Assembly area A Cell 2 Cell 1 Receiving D G A G Cell 3 L M D Shipping (b) Line flows in a job shop with three GT cells BAMBANG RISDIANTO PERANCANGAN TATA LETAK FASILITAS 22

Layout Procedures • Construction type vdevelop a new layout “from scratch” • Improvement type Layout Procedures • Construction type vdevelop a new layout “from scratch” • Improvement type vgenerate layout alternatives based on an existing layout BAMBANG RISDIANTO PERANCANGAN TATA LETAK FASILITAS 23

Apple’s Plant Layout Procedure • • • Procure the basic data Analyze the basic Apple’s Plant Layout Procedure • • • Procure the basic data Analyze the basic data Design the procedure process Plan the material flow pattern Consider the general material handling plan Calculate equipment requirements Plan individual workstations Select specific material handling equipment Coordinate groups of related operations Design activity interrelationships BAMBANG RISDIANTO PERANCANGAN TATA LETAK FASILITAS 24

Apple’s Plant Layout Procedure • • Determine storage requirements Plan service and auxiliary activities Apple’s Plant Layout Procedure • • Determine storage requirements Plan service and auxiliary activities Determine space requirements Allocate activities to total space Consider building types Construct master layout Evaluate, adjust, and check the layout with the appropriate persons • Obtain approvals • Install the layout • Follow up on implementation of the layout BAMBANG RISDIANTO PERANCANGAN TATA LETAK FASILITAS 25

Reed’s Plant Layout Procedure • Analyze the product or products to be produced • Reed’s Plant Layout Procedure • Analyze the product or products to be produced • Determine the process required to manufacture the product • Prepare layout planning charts • Determine workstations • Analyze storage area requirements • Establish minimum aisle widths • Establish office requirements • Consider personnel facilities and services • Survey plant services • Provide for future expansion BAMBANG RISDIANTO PERANCANGAN TATA LETAK FASILITAS 26

Layout Planning Chart • Flow process, including operations, transportation, storage, and inspections • Standard Layout Planning Chart • Flow process, including operations, transportation, storage, and inspections • Standard times for each operation • Machine selection and balance • Manpower selection and balance • Material handling requirements BAMBANG RISDIANTO PERANCANGAN TATA LETAK FASILITAS 27

Muther’s Systematic Layout Planning (SLP) Procedure BAMBANG RISDIANTO PERANCANGAN TATA LETAK FASILITAS 28 Muther’s Systematic Layout Planning (SLP) Procedure BAMBANG RISDIANTO PERANCANGAN TATA LETAK FASILITAS 28

BAMBANG RISDIANTO PERANCANGAN TATA LETAK FASILITAS 29 BAMBANG RISDIANTO PERANCANGAN TATA LETAK FASILITAS 29

Relationship Diagram BAMBANG RISDIANTO PERANCANGAN TATA LETAK FASILITAS 30 Relationship Diagram BAMBANG RISDIANTO PERANCANGAN TATA LETAK FASILITAS 30

Space Relationship Diagram BAMBANG RISDIANTO PERANCANGAN TATA LETAK FASILITAS 31 Space Relationship Diagram BAMBANG RISDIANTO PERANCANGAN TATA LETAK FASILITAS 31

Alternative Block Layout BAMBANG RISDIANTO PERANCANGAN TATA LETAK FASILITAS 32 Alternative Block Layout BAMBANG RISDIANTO PERANCANGAN TATA LETAK FASILITAS 32

Algorithmic Approaches • The relative placement of departments on the basis of their “closeness Algorithmic Approaches • The relative placement of departments on the basis of their “closeness ratings” or “material flow intensities” is one that can be reduced to an algorithmic process. • Algorithm classification v Type of input data ü qualitative “flow” data (relationship chart) ü quantitative flow matrix (from-to chart); numerical values of closing rating ~ mostly used ü both qualitative and quantitative (BLOCPLAN, used one at a time) BAMBANG RISDIANTO PERANCANGAN TATA LETAK FASILITAS 33

Algorithm Classification • Objective function v “distance-based”: Minimizing the sum of flows times v Algorithm Classification • Objective function v “distance-based”: Minimizing the sum of flows times v distances (from-to chart) – QAP: “adjacency-based”: maximizing an adjacency score (relationship chart) BAMBANG RISDIANTO PERANCANGAN TATA LETAK FASILITAS 34

Algorithm Classification • Normalized adjacency score (efficiency rating) • Normalized adjacency score for an Algorithm Classification • Normalized adjacency score (efficiency rating) • Normalized adjacency score for an X relationship BAMBANG RISDIANTO PERANCANGAN TATA LETAK FASILITAS 35

Algorithm Classification • Layout representation • discrete (grid size<->computational burden) • continuous (rectangular building Algorithm Classification • Layout representation • discrete (grid size<->computational burden) • continuous (rectangular building and department shapes) • department cannot be split v Any grid assigned to a department must be “reachable” form any other such grid • enclosed void (atrium) BAMBANG RISDIANTO PERANCANGAN TATA LETAK FASILITAS 36

BAMBANG RISDIANTO PERANCANGAN TATA LETAK FASILITAS 37 BAMBANG RISDIANTO PERANCANGAN TATA LETAK FASILITAS 37

Algorithm Classification • Layout improvement v start with an initial layout v improve through Algorithm Classification • Layout improvement v start with an initial layout v improve through incremental changes • Layout construction v develop a layout from scratch v given dimension (basic assumption in the v book) v “green field”: site plan BAMBANG RISDIANTO PERANCANGAN TATA LETAK FASILITAS 38

Relationship Diagramming for New Layouts • Step 1. Select the first department to enter Relationship Diagramming for New Layouts • Step 1. Select the first department to enter the layout select the department with the greatest # of “A” • Step 2. Select the second department to enter the layout – have an “A” with the 1 st department • Step 3. Select the third department to enter the layout AA, AE, AI, A*, EE, EI, E*, II, I* • Step 4. Determine the fourth department to enter the layout - AAA, AAE, AAI, AA*, AEE, AEI • Step n. Department n is placed according to the rules described in Steps 3 and 4 BAMBANG RISDIANTO PERANCANGAN TATA LETAK FASILITAS 39

Pairwise Exchange Method for Layout Improvement • Minimize the total cost of transporting materials Pairwise Exchange Method for Layout Improvement • Minimize the total cost of transporting materials among all departments in a facility • Rectilinear distance, from centroid to centroid BAMBANG RISDIANTO PERANCANGAN TATA LETAK FASILITAS 40

Example • Four departments with equal size v. Material flow matrix v. Distance matrix Example • Four departments with equal size v. Material flow matrix v. Distance matrix BAMBANG RISDIANTO PERANCANGAN TATA LETAK FASILITAS 41

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Pairwise Exchange Method • Remark vdoes not guarantee to yield the optimal solution: local Pairwise Exchange Method • Remark vdoes not guarantee to yield the optimal solution: local optimality • may cycle back to one alternative • symmetric layout may occur • can be accomplished only if the department pair considered are of equal size or if they share a common border BAMBANG RISDIANTO PERANCANGAN TATA LETAK FASILITAS 43

Graph Based Construction Methods ( GBCM ) BAMBANG RISDIANTO PERANCANGAN TATA LETAK FASILITAS 44 Graph Based Construction Methods ( GBCM ) BAMBANG RISDIANTO PERANCANGAN TATA LETAK FASILITAS 44

Perancangan Tata Letak Dengan Metode Grafik • Merupakan metode perancangan layout dengan menggunakan adjacency Perancangan Tata Letak Dengan Metode Grafik • Merupakan metode perancangan layout dengan menggunakan adjacency graph (grafik kedekatan)untuk memperoleh bobot terbesar • Berdasarkan from-to-chart (keterkaitan aktivitas) • Node : menyatakan departemen/aktivitas • Arc : menghubungkan departemen • Angka : menyatakan tingkat kedekatan (closeness) • Bobot terbesar = jumlah nilai busur-busur BAMBANG RISDIANTO PERANCANGAN TATA LETAK FASILITAS 45

Contoh metode grafik Dep 1 1 2 3 4 5 60 100 50 0 Contoh metode grafik Dep 1 1 2 3 4 5 60 100 50 0 40 65 30 80 0 2 3 4 10 5 Diketahui From-to-chart BAMBANG RISDIANTO PERANCANGAN TATA LETAK FASILITAS 46

Alternatif block layout 4 65 80 3 4 10 0 5 65 2 50 Alternatif block layout 4 65 80 3 4 10 0 5 65 2 50 0 2 60 80 3 40 0 100 5 0 60 1 (b) 1 (a) BAMBANG RISDIANTO PERANCANGAN TATA LETAK FASILITAS 47

Bobot layout (a) (b) Busur Bobot 1 -2 1 -4 1 -5 2 -4 Bobot layout (a) (b) Busur Bobot 1 -2 1 -4 1 -5 2 -4 3 -5 4 -5 BAMBANG RISDIANTO 60 50 0 65 80 0 10 265 1 -2 60 1 -3 100 1 -5 0 2 -3 40 2 -4 65 3 -4 80 3 -5 0 terpilih 345 PERANCANGAN TATA LETAK FASILITAS 48

Grafik kedekatan terakhir BAMBANG RISDIANTO PERANCANGAN TATA LETAK FASILITAS 49 Grafik kedekatan terakhir BAMBANG RISDIANTO PERANCANGAN TATA LETAK FASILITAS 49

Langkah-langkah metode grafik Langkah 1 • Pilih pasangan departemen yang mempunyai bobot terbesar, dari Langkah-langkah metode grafik Langkah 1 • Pilih pasangan departemen yang mempunyai bobot terbesar, dari contoh (block layout b) terpilih dept 1 dan 3. • Hubungkan node 1 dan 3 1 BAMBANG RISDIANTO 3 PERANCANGAN TATA LETAK FASILITAS 50

Langkah 2 • Pilih departemen ke 3 yang akan masuk dalam grafik , dengan Langkah 2 • Pilih departemen ke 3 yang akan masuk dalam grafik , dengan menjumlah bobot departemen yang belum terpilih dengan departemen a dan 3 • Pilih pasangan yang mempunyai nilai terbesar BAMBANG RISDIANTO PERANCANGAN TATA LETAK FASILITAS 51

2 4 5 1 -3 60+40=100 50+80 =130 0+0=0 Terpilih - 4 50 1 2 4 5 1 -3 60+40=100 50+80 =130 0+0=0 Terpilih - 4 50 1 BAMBANG RISDIANTO 80 100 3 PERANCANGAN TATA LETAK FASILITAS 52

Langkah 3 • Memilih departemen yang belum terpilih dalam grafik • Jumlahkan bobot departemen Langkah 3 • Memilih departemen yang belum terpilih dalam grafik • Jumlahkan bobot departemen yang belum terpilih dengan dept 1, 3 dan 4 BAMBANG RISDIANTO PERANCANGAN TATA LETAK FASILITAS 53

1– 3 -4 2 5 60+40+65 =160 0 + 10 = 10 Terpilih - 1– 3 -4 2 5 60+40+65 =160 0 + 10 = 10 Terpilih - 4 65 50 60 1 BAMBANG RISDIANTO 2 100 80 40 3 PERANCANGAN TATA LETAK FASILITAS 54

Langkah 4 • Karena tinggal departemen 5 yang belum masuk grafik, maka ditentukan bidang Langkah 4 • Karena tinggal departemen 5 yang belum masuk grafik, maka ditentukan bidang yang akan menjadi tempat departemen 5 • Bidang segitiga yang terbentuk: 1– 2– 3 1– 2– 4 1– 3– 4 2– 3– 4 BAMBANG RISDIANTO PERANCANGAN TATA LETAK FASILITAS 55

1 -2 -3 1 -2 -4 5 0+30+0=30 1 -3 -4 2 -3 -4 1 -2 -3 1 -2 -4 5 0+30+0=30 1 -3 -4 2 -3 -4 0+30+10 = 40 terpilih 0+0+10 = 10 30+0+10 = 40 terpilih 4 10 5 30 50 0 60 1 BAMBANG RISDIANTO 65 80 2 40 100 3 PERANCANGAN TATA LETAK FASILITAS 56

Langkah 5 • Menyusun ulang block layout berdasarkan grafik kedekatan Bobot layout (b) Busur Langkah 5 • Menyusun ulang block layout berdasarkan grafik kedekatan Bobot layout (b) Busur Bobot 1 -2 1– 3 1– 4 1 -5 2 -3 2 -4 2 -5 3– 4 4 -5 60 100 50 0 40 65 30 80 10 435 BAMBANG RISDIANTO PERANCANGAN TATA LETAK FASILITAS 57

BAMBANG RISDIANTO PERANCANGAN TATA LETAK FASILITAS 58 BAMBANG RISDIANTO PERANCANGAN TATA LETAK FASILITAS 58

Contoh BAMBANG RISDIANTO PERANCANGAN TATA LETAK FASILITAS 59 Contoh BAMBANG RISDIANTO PERANCANGAN TATA LETAK FASILITAS 59

penyelesaian • Bobot terbesar adalah dept A dan B A BAMBANG RISDIANTO B PERANCANGAN penyelesaian • Bobot terbesar adalah dept A dan B A BAMBANG RISDIANTO B PERANCANGAN TATA LETAK FASILITAS 60

 • Perhitungan bobot dept A dan B dengan dept yang lain BAMBANG RISDIANTO • Perhitungan bobot dept A dan B dengan dept yang lain BAMBANG RISDIANTO PERANCANGAN TATA LETAK FASILITAS 61

C A BAMBANG RISDIANTO B PERANCANGAN TATA LETAK FASILITAS 62 C A BAMBANG RISDIANTO B PERANCANGAN TATA LETAK FASILITAS 62

D E F G BAMBANG RISDIANTO A–B-C 10+0+1=11 6+6+0 =12 6+0+2 = 8 0+9+7 D E F G BAMBANG RISDIANTO A–B-C 10+0+1=11 6+6+0 =12 6+0+2 = 8 0+9+7 = 16 PERANCANGAN TATA LETAK FASILITAS Terpilih 63

C 6 7 1 A BAMBANG RISDIANTO G 9 4 7 B PERANCANGAN TATA C 6 7 1 A BAMBANG RISDIANTO G 9 4 7 B PERANCANGAN TATA LETAK FASILITAS 64

A-B-C A-B-G A-C-G B-C-G D 10+0+1=11 10+0+6= 16 10+1+6=17 0+1+6= 7 E 6+6+0=12 6+0+0=6 A-B-C A-B-G A-C-G B-C-G D 10+0+1=11 10+0+6= 16 10+1+6=17 0+1+6= 7 E 6+6+0=12 6+0+0=6 F 6+0+2=8 6+0+0=6 6+2+0=8 0+2+0=2 BAMBANG RISDIANTO PERANCANGAN TATA LETAK FASILITAS 65

C 1 8 D 6 10 0 A BAMBANG RISDIANTO 7 5 G 9 C 1 8 D 6 10 0 A BAMBANG RISDIANTO 7 5 G 9 13 B PERANCANGAN TATA LETAK FASILITAS 66

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BAMBANG RISDIANTO PERANCANGAN TATA LETAK FASILITAS 68 BAMBANG RISDIANTO PERANCANGAN TATA LETAK FASILITAS 68

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Computer-Aided Layout Techniques BAMBANG RISDIANTO PERANCANGAN TATA LETAK FASILITAS 70 Computer-Aided Layout Techniques BAMBANG RISDIANTO PERANCANGAN TATA LETAK FASILITAS 70

Evaluation and Interchange in CRAFT • Interchanges are only possible if v Depts. are Evaluation and Interchange in CRAFT • Interchanges are only possible if v Depts. are the same size; or v Adjacent (a necessary but not sufficient condition) • Estimate the potential saving for an interchange v For evaluation only the centroids are swapped (error? ) • Select the best among all possible interchanges • Actually perform the interchange • Path-dependent heuristic (locally optimal) v Try different initial solutions or exchange options • the error in estimated cost may go either direction BAMBANG RISDIANTO PERANCANGAN TATA LETAK FASILITAS 71

Dummy Departments • May be used to v. Fill building irregularities v. Represent obstacles Dummy Departments • May be used to v. Fill building irregularities v. Represent obstacles or unusable areas in the facility (fixed location) v. Represent extra space in the facility v. Aid in evaluating aisle locations in the final layout BAMBANG RISDIANTO PERANCANGAN TATA LETAK FASILITAS 72

Example 6. 1 BAMBANG RISDIANTO PERANCANGAN TATA LETAK FASILITAS 73 Example 6. 1 BAMBANG RISDIANTO PERANCANGAN TATA LETAK FASILITAS 73

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The Impact of Change • Plant layout situations v Changes in the design of The Impact of Change • Plant layout situations v Changes in the design of existing product, the introduction of new products v Changes in the processing sequence for existing products v Changes in production quantities and schedules - the need for capacity changes v Changes in production strategies BAMBANG RISDIANTO PERANCANGAN TATA LETAK FASILITAS 79

Flexibility • Can be achieved by v utilizing modular office equipment, workstations, and material Flexibility • Can be achieved by v utilizing modular office equipment, workstations, and material handling equipment v installing general purpose production equipment v utilizing a grid-based utility and services system v using modular construction BAMBANG RISDIANTO PERANCANGAN TATA LETAK FASILITAS 80

Flexible Layout BAMBANG RISDIANTO PERANCANGAN TATA LETAK FASILITAS 81 Flexible Layout BAMBANG RISDIANTO PERANCANGAN TATA LETAK FASILITAS 81