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Chapter Two Copyright © 2012 Brooks/Cole, a division of Cengage Learning, Inc. A History Chapter Two Copyright © 2012 Brooks/Cole, a division of Cengage Learning, Inc. A History of Helping

Early History – Mental illness was the consequence of evil spirits – The focus Early History – Mental illness was the consequence of evil spirits – The focus of treatment was to rid the body of the evil spirits – One such process was to drill a hole in the skull to allow the spirit to leave; this was called trephining – Other treatments included, various rites, beatings, starving, and bleeding Copyright © 2012 Brooks/Cole, a division of Cengage Learning, Inc. Early History Summery

Hippocrates (3 rd century BC) – Used a scientific approach and took a much Hippocrates (3 rd century BC) – Used a scientific approach and took a much more realistic approach to mental illness – He believed mental illness had natural cause in the same manner as other illnesses – Brain disease, heredity, or head injury were examples of this – He distinguished between melancholia and epilepsy which are still used today Copyright © 2012 Brooks/Cole, a division of Cengage Learning, Inc. Early History Summery

The Catholic Church was the primary source of human services until the 1500 s The Catholic Church was the primary source of human services until the 1500 s – St. Thomas Aquinas and St. Francis of Assisi are considered to be among the first human service providers – Institutions were founded for the poor, orphans, the elderly, and those with disabilities – Asylums were established for the illness of deviant behavior Copyright © 2012 Brooks/Cole, a division of Cengage Learning, Inc. Early History Summery

Government became more prominent by the 1500 s as the church declined in power Government became more prominent by the 1500 s as the church declined in power – In England, people diagnosed with mental illness were to be protected – There were two categories of mental illness: Natural fools or idiots: permanent conditions generally present a birth Non compos mentis (lunatics): All other mental disorders Copyright © 2012 Brooks/Cole, a division of Cengage Learning, Inc. Early History Summery

By the end of the 15 th century mental competence was established by an By the end of the 15 th century mental competence was established by an inquisition (unrelated to church inquisitions) A government official and a jury of at least 12 men attempted to determine three points: – Was the person a idiot or lunatic? – When, how, and in what manner was the person lucid? – What land or property did the person own? Copyright © 2012 Brooks/Cole, a division of Cengage Learning, Inc. Early History Summery

By the end of the 15 th hospitals would not only provide medical assistance By the end of the 15 th hospitals would not only provide medical assistance to the ill but they also fed and housed tired travelers, orphans, the elderly, and the poor. Copyright © 2012 Brooks/Cole, a division of Cengage Learning, Inc. Early History Summery

During the 15 th and 16 th centuries, insane asylums were formed initially out During the 15 th and 16 th centuries, insane asylums were formed initially out of concern for the care and housing of the mentally ill, however, treatment and living conditions were very poor: – “Women were chained by the ankles to one long wall. Men were liable to be attached by the neck to a vertical bar. One man was kept that way, even in the 18 th century, for 12 years” (London’s Bethlehem Hospital) Copyright © 2012 Brooks/Cole, a division of Cengage Learning, Inc. Early History Summery

Copyright © 2012 Brooks/Cole, a division of Cengage Learning, Inc. Copyright © 2012 Brooks/Cole, a division of Cengage Learning, Inc.

The decline of feudalism and the coming of the industrial revolution created a new The decline of feudalism and the coming of the industrial revolution created a new type of economy. The rural barter system the poor could use was no longer effective and their numbers grew In England, the pressures of the poor in the city created the need for a large scale attack on poverty Copyright © 2012 Brooks/Cole, a division of Cengage Learning, Inc. Early History Summery

This large scale attack on poverty became the foundation for future human services This This large scale attack on poverty became the foundation for future human services This legislation guided social welfare practices in and England the United States for the next 350 years Copyright © 2012 Brooks/Cole, a division of Cengage Learning, Inc. Elizabethan Poor Laws (1601)

There were 3 features – Compulsory taxation – Classification system for dependents – Family There were 3 features – Compulsory taxation – Classification system for dependents – Family vs. government responsibility Copyright © 2012 Brooks/Cole, a division of Cengage Learning, Inc. Elizabethan Poor Laws (1601)

Compulsory taxation – This was simply used to raise the funds necessary to help Compulsory taxation – This was simply used to raise the funds necessary to help the needy – The system was very similar to the one used by the church in the middle ages Copyright © 2012 Brooks/Cole, a division of Cengage Learning, Inc. Elizabethan Poor Laws (1601)

Classification system for dependents – Dependents were classified according to their ability to work: Classification system for dependents – Dependents were classified according to their ability to work: Children (who could work) were apprenticed or indentured The able-bodied worked or they were punished Those unable to work received home or institutional relief Copyright © 2012 Brooks/Cole, a division of Cengage Learning, Inc. Elizabethan Poor Laws (1601)

Family vs. government responsibility – Parents were legally responsible for their children and grandchildren Family vs. government responsibility – Parents were legally responsible for their children and grandchildren – Children were legally responsible for their parents and grandparents – If the family could not provide assistance the government was responsible for doing so Copyright © 2012 Brooks/Cole, a division of Cengage Learning, Inc. Elizabethan Poor Laws (1601)

Poor relief as public responsibility – Generally patterned after Elizabethan Poor Laws Legal residence Poor relief as public responsibility – Generally patterned after Elizabethan Poor Laws Legal residence – Services were provided at the local level Family responsibilities – Public aid was denied those who had family Apprenticed children – Children of paupers Copyright © 2012 Brooks/Cole, a division of Cengage Learning, Inc. Human Services in the Colonial America

Social philosophies Probation mental illness Child welfare Reform movements Copyright © 2012 Brooks/Cole, a Social philosophies Probation mental illness Child welfare Reform movements Copyright © 2012 Brooks/Cole, a division of Cengage Learning, Inc. 19 th Century

individualism Social Darwinism b. d. Social Philosophies Individualism – Hard work was the road individualism Social Darwinism b. d. Social Philosophies Individualism – Hard work was the road to success Laissez-faire – Limited government and limited human service Social Darwinism – Natural selection dictated that the poor were, by nature, unfit for survival Laissez-faire Copyright © 2012 Brooks/Cole, a division of Cengage Learning, Inc. *a. c.

Earliest forms of probation began appearing in the 19 th century – Judge Peter Earliest forms of probation began appearing in the 19 th century – Judge Peter O. Thatcher (Boston) – John Augustus – Salvation Army Copyright © 2012 Brooks/Cole, a division of Cengage Learning, Inc. Probation

Dr. Benjamin Rush (1700 s) – The founder of American psychiatry fought to deal Dr. Benjamin Rush (1700 s) – The founder of American psychiatry fought to deal with mental illness scientifically Dorothea Dix (1800 s) – Called attention to harsh treatment of prisoners and the mentally ill Copyright © 2012 Brooks/Cole, a division of Cengage Learning, Inc. Mental Illness

House of Refuge for Juvenile Delinquents in New York City Provision of pension for House of Refuge for Juvenile Delinquents in New York City Provision of pension for mothers and/or widows Juvenile courts and probation system Copyright © 2012 Brooks/Cole, a division of Cengage Learning, Inc. Child Welfare

Organized Charity Movement – Forerunner of the United Way Settlement House Movement – Social Organized Charity Movement – Forerunner of the United Way Settlement House Movement – Social engineering – Hull House (Jane Addams 1889) Beginning of social work profession – United Way Copyright © 2012 Brooks/Cole, a division of Cengage Learning, Inc. Reform Movements

Clifford Beers – A victim of mental illness; founded the Connecticut Society for Mental Clifford Beers – A victim of mental illness; founded the Connecticut Society for Mental Hygiend – The beginning of organized mental health movement Clinical psychology profession Copyright © 2012 Brooks/Cole, a division of Cengage Learning, Inc. Mental Health Movement

Protection from economic stability Birth of American welfare state Expansion of welfare activities Assistance Protection from economic stability Birth of American welfare state Expansion of welfare activities Assistance – Social insurance – Public assistance – Health and welfare services Copyright © 2012 Brooks/Cole, a division of Cengage Learning, Inc. Social Security Act (1935)

APTD AFDC OAA Copyright © 2012 Brooks/Cole, a division of Cengage Learning, Inc. Public APTD AFDC OAA Copyright © 2012 Brooks/Cole, a division of Cengage Learning, Inc. Public Assistance Programs

NIMH Mental health Study Act Community Mental Health Centers Act Copyright © 2012 Brooks/Cole, NIMH Mental health Study Act Community Mental Health Centers Act Copyright © 2012 Brooks/Cole, a division of Cengage Learning, Inc. 20 th Century: Mental Health

War on poverty “Great Society” Medicare Medicaid Copyright © 2012 Brooks/Cole, a division of War on poverty “Great Society” Medicare Medicaid Copyright © 2012 Brooks/Cole, a division of Cengage Learning, Inc. Johnson Administration

New type of worker Deinstitutionalization Professional organizations Copyright © 2012 Brooks/Cole, a division of New type of worker Deinstitutionalization Professional organizations Copyright © 2012 Brooks/Cole, a division of Cengage Learning, Inc. Human Service Movement

New Federalism Reduction of government involvement Department of Health and Human Services Proposition 13 New Federalism Reduction of government involvement Department of Health and Human Services Proposition 13 Copyright © 2012 Brooks/Cole, a division of Cengage Learning, Inc. Social Welfare Revisions

PRWORA- 1996 TANF Emergency funds— 2009 -2010 Evaluation Copyright © 2012 Brooks/Cole, a division PRWORA- 1996 TANF Emergency funds— 2009 -2010 Evaluation Copyright © 2012 Brooks/Cole, a division of Cengage Learning, Inc. Welfare Reform

Medicare Prescription Drug, Improvement, and Modernization Act of 2003 Centers for Faith-based and Community Medicare Prescription Drug, Improvement, and Modernization Act of 2003 Centers for Faith-based and Community Initiatives Copyright © 2012 Brooks/Cole, a division of Cengage Learning, Inc. 21 st Century Changes

Social Security funding Protection of civil liberties Healthcare War in Afghanistan Copyright © 2012 Social Security funding Protection of civil liberties Healthcare War in Afghanistan Copyright © 2012 Brooks/Cole, a division of Cengage Learning, Inc. Unresolved Issues