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CHAPTER FOUR BOND FUNDAMENTALS A 1 © 2001 South-Western College Publishing 3 CHAPTER FOUR BOND FUNDAMENTALS A 1 © 2001 South-Western College Publishing 3

Outline u Bond Principles Identification of Bonds Classification of Bonds Terms of Repayment Bond Outline u Bond Principles Identification of Bonds Classification of Bonds Terms of Repayment Bond Cash Flows Convertible and Exchangeable Bonds Registration u The Financial Page Listing Basic Information Footnotes Government Bonds 2

Outline u Bond Pricing and Returns Valuation Equations Yield to Maturity Spot Rates Realized Outline u Bond Pricing and Returns Valuation Equations Yield to Maturity Spot Rates Realized Compound Yield Current Yield Accrued Interest u Bond Risks Price Risks Convenience Risks 3

Bond Principles: Identification of Bonds u Bonds are identified by issuer, coupon rate, and Bond Principles: Identification of Bonds u Bonds are identified by issuer, coupon rate, and maturity. u The face value of a bond is called its par value. u e. g. 5 of “Hertz sevens of 03” (Hertz 7 s 03) u A legal document called the indenture contains the details of the bond issue. 4

Bond Principles: Classification of Bonds Method 1: By issuer a. government e. g. US Bond Principles: Classification of Bonds Method 1: By issuer a. government e. g. US Treasury, federal agency, state, local b. corporation e. g. industrial, utility, financial, transportation c. others e. g. foreign government, foreign corporation, World Bank 5

Bond Principles: Classification of Bonds Method 2: By security a. unsecured debt - backed Bond Principles: Classification of Bonds Method 2: By security a. unsecured debt - backed by faith in the taxing power of the government, or the good name of the company (debenture) b. secured debt e. g. revenue bond, assessment bond, mortgage, collateral trust bond, equipment trust certificate Bond security sometimes comes from non-traditional sources. Some rock stars floated bonds using their future earnings as backing. 6

Bond Principles: Classification of Bonds Method 3: By term a. short-term ( a year) Bond Principles: Classification of Bonds Method 3: By term a. short-term ( a year) e. g. US Treasury bills b. intermediate-term e. g. US Treasury notes (2 to 10 years ) c. long-term e. g. US Treasury bonds ( 10 years) d. open-ended e. g. corporate line of credit e. serial bond - a portfolio of bonds with staggered terms 7

Bond Principles: Terms of Repayment interest only - the periodic payments are entirely interest Bond Principles: Terms of Repayment interest only - the periodic payments are entirely interest u sinking fund - periodically, a portion of the debt principal is set aside or a certain number of the bonds is retired u balloon loan - the debt may be partially amortized with each payment u income bond- interest is payable only if it is earned u 8

Bond Principles: Bond Cash Flows annuities - most bonds are annuities plus an ultimate Bond Principles: Bond Cash Flows annuities - most bonds are annuities plus an ultimate repayment of principal u zero coupon - only the par value is returned at maturity u variable (adjustable) rate - the rate fluctuates in accordance with some market index or predetermined schedule u consols - a level rate of interest is paid perpetually u inflation-indexed Treasury bonds - the principal value is adjusted based on the consumer price index u 9

Bond Principles: Options u convertible bond - may be exchanged for common stock in Bond Principles: Options u convertible bond - may be exchanged for common stock in the company that issued the bond u exchangeable bond - may be exchanged for shares in another firm 10

Bond Principles: Registration bearer (coupon) bonds - belong to whomever legally hold them; no Bond Principles: Registration bearer (coupon) bonds - belong to whomever legally hold them; no longer issued in the United States because of tax considerations u u registered bonds - the bonds show the bondholder’s name u book entry bonds - bond ownership is reflected only in the accounting records 11

The Financial Page Listing Basic Information Footnotes Government Bonds AMR 9 s 16 Cur The Financial Page Listing Basic Information Footnotes Government Bonds AMR 9 s 16 Cur Yld 8. 4 cv - convertible vj - bankruptcy f - trading flat Net Vol Close Chg. 23 107 + ¾ zr - zero coupon dc - deep discount Maturity Ask Rate Mo/Yr Bid Asked Chg. Yld. 6 Feb 26 86: 09 86: 11 - 9 7. 11 12

Bond Pricing & Returns: Valuation Equations 1. Annuities The bond pricing relationship is customarily Bond Pricing & Returns: Valuation Equations 1. Annuities The bond pricing relationship is customarily expressed in terms of semiannual periods. 13

Bond Pricing & Returns: Valuation Equations 2. Zero Coupon Bonds 3. Variable Rate Bonds Bond Pricing & Returns: Valuation Equations 2. Zero Coupon Bonds 3. Variable Rate Bonds 14

Bond Pricing & Returns: Valuation Equations 4. Consols 15 Bond Pricing & Returns: Valuation Equations 4. Consols 15

Bond Pricing & Returns: Yield to Maturity The yield to maturity is the single Bond Pricing & Returns: Yield to Maturity The yield to maturity is the single interest rate that, when applied to the stream of cash flows associated with a bond, causes the present value of those cash flows to equal the bond’s market price. 16

Bond Pricing & Returns: Yield to Maturity A heuristic: The yield to maturity calculation Bond Pricing & Returns: Yield to Maturity A heuristic: The yield to maturity calculation carries an assumption that coupon proceeds are reinvested at the yield to maturity. u 17

Bond Pricing & Returns: Yield to Maturity u If a bond pays periodic interest, Bond Pricing & Returns: Yield to Maturity u If a bond pays periodic interest, it is not possible to lock in a prescribed yield to maturity. u A plot of interest rates against time to maturity is known as a yield curve. yield time 18

Bond Pricing & Returns: Spot Rates u A spot rate is the yield to Bond Pricing & Returns: Spot Rates u A spot rate is the yield to maturity of a zero coupon security of the chosen maturity. u A treasury strip is a government bond or note that has been decomposed into two parts, one for the stream of interest payments and one for the return of principal at maturity. u The yield to maturity is a derived statistic after the bond price is known. 19

Bond Pricing & Returns: Spot Rates u The yield to maturity can be thought Bond Pricing & Returns: Spot Rates u The yield to maturity can be thought of as an “average” of the spot rates, or as a flat yield curve at some constant interest rate. u This single interest rate makes the present value of the future cash flows equal to the bond’s market price. % Spot Rate Curve Yield to Maturity Term 20

Bond Pricing & Returns How can two investments paying interest on two different time Bond Pricing & Returns How can two investments paying interest on two different time schedules be compared? Realized Compound Yield: 21

Bond Pricing & Returns: Current Yield u The current yield only measures the return Bond Pricing & Returns: Current Yield u The current yield only measures the return associated with the bond’s interest payments. u A bond whose market price is less than its par value is selling at a discount. The price of such bonds rise as maturity approaches. u If the market price is more than the par value, the bond sells at a premium. 22

Bond Pricing & Returns: Accrued Interest u Interest is earned for each day that Bond Pricing & Returns: Accrued Interest u Interest is earned for each day that a bond is held, although interest payments are generally made twice a year only. A bond buyer must pay the accrued interest to the seller of the bond. u u dirty price = bond price + accrued interest clean price = bond price u By convention, accrued interest is calculated using a 360 -day year. 23

Bond Risks: Price Risks u default risk - the possibility that the issuer of Bond Risks: Price Risks u default risk - the possibility that the issuer of the bond is unable to pay - rated by agencies like Moody’s and Standard & Poor’s u interest rate risk - the chance of loss due to changing interest rates 24

Bond Risks: Convenience Risks u call risk - the possibility that the company will Bond Risks: Convenience Risks u call risk - the possibility that the company will exercise a bond’s call feature u reinvestment rate risk - the chance that the interest received cannot be reinvested to earn as much as the bond’s original yield to maturity - the higher the coupon on a bond, the higher its reinvestment rate risk u marketability risk - the difficulty of selling a bond in the secondary market 25

Review u Bond Principles Identification of Bonds Classification of Bonds Terms of Repayment Bond Review u Bond Principles Identification of Bonds Classification of Bonds Terms of Repayment Bond Cash Flows Convertible and Exchangeable Bonds Registration u The Financial Page Listing Basic Information Footnotes Government Bonds 26

Review u Bond Pricing and Returns Valuation Equations Yield to Maturity Spot Rates Realized Review u Bond Pricing and Returns Valuation Equations Yield to Maturity Spot Rates Realized Compound Yield Current Yield Accrued Interest u Bond Risks Price Risks Convenience Risks 27