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Chapter 9 The Confederation to the Constitution Chapter 9 The Confederation to the Constitution

Pursuit of Equality Reduced property requirements for voting Separation of church and state increased Pursuit of Equality Reduced property requirements for voting Separation of church and state increased Began challenging the institution of slavery Republican Motherhood - Mothers raised the future leaders of the Republic

The Articles of Confederation Republicanism – power rests with the people States had their The Articles of Confederation Republicanism – power rests with the people States had their own state Constitutions Commonalities: Bill of Rights Weak executive and judicial branches Strong legislative branch The Articles of Confederation (America’s first federal plan of government) was created in 1777 but was finally ratified by the state of Maryland in 1781 States were clearly sovereign

Weaknesses and Success of the Articles of Confederation Weaknesses Strengths No chief Executive Borrowed Weaknesses and Success of the Articles of Confederation Weaknesses Strengths No chief Executive Borrowed money to wage Congress was pitifully weak, it could not tax, regulate commerce or raise an army States printed their own money and sought trade with nations on their own Unanimous vote of states to amend the Articles revolutionary War A model of a loose federation of states Two significant pieces of legislation passed…. Land Ordinance of 1785 and Northwest Ordinance of 1787

The Land Ordinance of 1785 It provided that the acreage of the Old Northwest The Land Ordinance of 1785 It provided that the acreage of the Old Northwest (remember George Rogers Clark) should be sold and the proceeds used to pay off the national debt The area (5 future states) would be surveyed before settlement and then divided into townships (six miles square), which would then be divided into 36 square sections (1 square mile) with one (section 16) set aside for public schools

The Northwest Ordinance of 1787 • Answered the question of how new areas become The Northwest Ordinance of 1787 • Answered the question of how new areas become states once people arrived there • Statehood would be a two stage process… • When 60, 000 inhabitants are in area they would write a state constitution and send it to Congress for approval, if approved a new state was created with equal footing to the original 13 states

Major issues under the Articles of Confederation Economic Diplomatic Before the Revolution lots of Major issues under the Articles of Confederation Economic Diplomatic Before the Revolution lots of Britain continued to hold western trade with England…now little Some industries in England do flood states with cheap goods (hurt US businesses) Inflation ran high Where new opportunities for trade with other countries States had own tariffs and tax barriers frontier forts and even tried to annex Vermont with help of Allen brothers Spain closed Mississippi River to American Commerce Spain and England stirred up the Indians in the western frontier France demanded Revolutionary War payments The Dey of Algiers (Barbary pirates) seized American shippers

The new nation in 1783 8 The new nation in 1783 8

Shay’s Rebellion Farmers were losing their farms to foreclosures and tax delinquencies. Daniel Shays Shay’s Rebellion Farmers were losing their farms to foreclosures and tax delinquencies. Daniel Shays – farmer and Revolutionary War vet. Debtors demanded the state issue paper money, lighten taxes, and not take debtors property.

Annapolis Convention • As a result of Shay’s Rebellion James Madison and Alexander Hamilton Annapolis Convention • As a result of Shay’s Rebellion James Madison and Alexander Hamilton called for a convention to address weaknesses of Articles of Confederation • Only five states attended but delegates decided to meet again Notes from Annapolis Convention

Constitutional Convention • In May of 1787 , 55 delegates from 12 states (not Constitutional Convention • In May of 1787 , 55 delegates from 12 states (not RI) meet to discuss revising the articles of Confederation • Washington, Hamilton, Franklin and James Madison, “The Father of the Constitution” were present • Jefferson, John and Sam Adams, Patrick Henry and Thomas Paine were not present • The young delegates decided that to preserve the union, establish a strong democracy at home and protect American interests abroad a completely new Constitution was needed

The delegates quickly decided to scrap the Articles of Confederation and create a new The delegates quickly decided to scrap the Articles of Confederation and create a new Constitution. The Constitution is called a “Bundle of Compromises”. The delegates drafted a Preamble and Seven Articles that discuss the make up of the United States Federal Government. Preamble Article 1 Legislative branch Article 2 Executive Branch Article 3 Judicial Branch Article 4 Relationships Among States Article 5 Amending the Constitution Article 6 States Constitution is Supreme Law of Land Article 7 Ratifying the Constitution Amendments (First 10 Amendments called the Bill of Rights)

The Preamble to the Constitution The Preamble to the Constitution

Article 1 The Legislative Branch Large state plan, or Virginia Plan, proposed by James Article 1 The Legislative Branch Large state plan, or Virginia Plan, proposed by James Madison. A bicameral legislature based on population. Small state plan, or New Jersey Plan, proposed by William Paterson proposed a unicameral legislature based on equal representation. Great Compromise or Connecticut Plan, proposed by Roger Sherman and Oliver Ellsworth created a bicameral legislature based on equal representation in an upper house (Senate) and lower house (House of Representatives) representation would be based on state’s population. For purposes of taxation and representation slaves would count for 3/5 ths (clause) of a person when a census was taken (required every ten years by law to adjust House of Representatives) International slave trade to end in 1808.

Electoral College Election of President Fearing the “mob” delegates decided an electoral college would Electoral College Election of President Fearing the “mob” delegates decided an electoral college would directly elect President based on indirect vote of people. Electoral College is determined by state totals of United States Senators (constant) plus number of representatives (variable) 2 (Senators)+ x (Representatives) = electoral vote of state

The Great Debate To approve or not approve the new Constitution Federalist Anti-Federalist Promoted The Great Debate To approve or not approve the new Constitution Federalist Anti-Federalist Promoted new More state’s righters that Constitution as necessary to create strong federal government to deal with both domestic and foreign issues Many were former Loyalist, owners of substantial property, and from the eastern seaboard feared a centralized power Many were laborers, lived on frontier Wanted a Bill of Rights added to the Constitution

State Conventions were called to ratify the Constitution • By June 21, 1788 9 State Conventions were called to ratify the Constitution • By June 21, 1788 9 states had ratified Constitution making it the Supreme Law of the Land. • Four laggard states (Virginia, New York, North Carolina and Rhode Island) • The Federalist Papers, written by John Jay, James Madison, and Alexander Hamilton sought to convince laggard states to approve Constitution. • Rhode Island held out to approve document until a Bill of Rights was approved. • The minority had triumphed again, only ¼ of white males voted at all towards ratifying the Constitution. Also, as first written only ¼ of the four parts of the federal government were voted on by “We the People”

 "Ambition must be made to counteract ambition. . In framing a government which is to be administered by men over men, the great difficulty lies in this: you must first enable the government to control the governed; and in the next place oblige it to control itself. " - James Madison, Federalist Papers, number 51 The Federalist Papers The Father of the Constitution