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Chapter 7 Storage TE-102 Introduction to Computing http: //web. uettaxila. edu. pk/CMS/UG/TE-102/ Chapter 7 Storage TE-102 Introduction to Computing http: //web. uettaxila. edu. pk/CMS/UG/TE-102/

Chapter 7 Objectives Discuss the various types of items that users store on computer Chapter 7 Objectives Discuss the various types of items that users store on computer media Differentiate between storage devices and storage media Describe the characteristics of a floppy disk drive Describe the characteristics of CDs and DVDs Differentiate among CD-ROMs, CD-RWs, DVD-ROMs, and DVD+RWs Identify the uses of tape Identify the uses of Zip disks Describe the characteristics of a hard disk Identify the advantages of using an Internet hard drive Discuss PC Cards and the various types of miniature storage media Identify uses of microfilm and microfiche Next

Storage What is storage? Holds data, instructions, and information for future use Ø Storage Storage What is storage? Holds data, instructions, and information for future use Ø Storage medium is physical material used for storage Ø § Also called secondary storage Internal hard disk Floppy disk Removable hard disk Zip disk PC card CD or DVD microfiche External hard disk Miniatgure mobile storage media p. 7. 02 Fig. 7 -1 tape Next

Storage What is capacity? Ø Number of bytes (characters) a storage medium can hold Storage What is capacity? Ø Number of bytes (characters) a storage medium can hold Kilobyte (KB) 1 thousand Megabyte (MB) 1 million Gigabyte (GB) Terabyte (TB) 1 trillion Petabyte (PB) 1 quadrillion Exabyte (EB) p. 7. 04 1 billion 1 quintillion Next

Storage How does volatility compare? Ø Storage medium is nonvolatile—contents retained when power is Storage How does volatility compare? Ø Storage medium is nonvolatile—contents retained when power is off Ø Memory is volatile—holds data and instructions temporarily Nonvolatile Volatile ON p. 7. 04 OFF Screen Display appears Display disappears Memory (most RAM) (chips on motherboard) Data and instructions available to user Data and instructions erased Storage Medium (floppy disks, Zip disks, hard disks, CDs) Contents available to user Contents retained Next

Storage What is a storage device? Reading Process of transferring items from storage media Storage What is a storage device? Reading Process of transferring items from storage media to memory Hardware that records and retrieves items to and from storage media Functions as source of input p. 7. 04 Writing Process of transferring items from memory to storage media Creates output Next

Storage What is access time? Ø Ø Time it takes storage device to locate Storage What is access time? Ø Ø Time it takes storage device to locate item on storage medium Time required to deliver item from memory to processor faster transfer rates Stores … Primary Storage Memory (most RAM) Items waiting to be interpreted and executed by the processor Secondary Storage Hard Disk Operating system, application software, user data and information CDs and DVDs Software, backups, movies, music Miniature Storage Media slower transfer rates p. 7. 04 Tape Floppy Disk Digital pictures or small files to be transported Backups Small files to be transported Next

Floppy Disks What is a floppy disk? Ø shutter Portable, inexpensive storage medium (also Floppy Disks What is a floppy disk? Ø shutter Portable, inexpensive storage medium (also called diskette) shell liner Thin, circular, flexible film enclosed in 3. 5” wide plastic shell magnetic coating metal hub flexible thin film p. 7. 05 Fig. 7 -5 Next

Floppy Disks What is a floppy disk drive? Ø Device that reads from and Floppy Disks What is a floppy disk drive? Ø Device that reads from and writes to floppy disk § § Ø One floppy drive, named drive A If two floppy drives, second designated as drive B Floppy disk drive built into a desktop computer Also called secondary storage External floppy disk drive attaches to a computer with a cable p. 7. 06 Fig. 7 -6 Next

Floppy Disks How does a floppy disk drive work? Step 1. When you insert Floppy Disks How does a floppy disk drive work? Step 1. When you insert the floppy disk into Step 6. Read/write drive, shutter moves to the side to expose the recording surface on disk. heads read data from and write data on floppy disk. Step 2. When you initiate a disk access, circuit board on drive that contains electronics sends signals to control movement of read/write heads until they barely touch surface (film) inside floppy disk’s shell. Step 5. Motor positions read/write heads over correct location on recording surface of disk. Step 3. For write instructions, Step 4. Motor spins a p. 7. 06 Fig. 7 -7 shaft, which causes surface inside floppy disk’s shell to spin. circuit board verifies whether or not disk can be written on. Next

Floppy Disks What are tracks and sectors? Track is narrow recording band that forms Floppy Disks What are tracks and sectors? Track is narrow recording band that forms full circle on disk Click to view Web Link, then click Floppy Disks below Chapter 7 p. 7. 07 Fig. 7 -8 Sector stores up to 512 bytes of data Formatting prepares disk for use and marks bad sectors as unusable Next

Floppy Disks How do you compute a disk’s storage capacity? Ø Multiply number of Floppy Disks How do you compute a disk’s storage capacity? Ø Multiply number of sides, number of tracks, number of sectors per track, and number of bytes per sector § For high-density disk: 2 sides 80 tracks 18 sectors per track 512 bytes per sector = 1, 474, 560 bytes Characteristics of a 3. 5 -inch High-Density Floppy Disk Capacity: 1. 44 MB Sides: 2 Tracks: 80 Sectors per track: 18 Bytes per sector: Sectors per disk: p. 7. 08 512 2880 Next

Floppy Disks How do you care for a floppy? Ø Ø Proper care helps Floppy Disks How do you care for a floppy? Ø Ø Proper care helps maximize disk’s life Floppy disk can last at least seven years Never open the shutter and touch the disk’s Avoid exposure surface to heat and cold Avoid exposure to magnetic Avoid exposure fields to contaminants such as dust, Keep disks in smoke, or a storage tray salt air when not using them p. 7. 08 Next

Floppy Disks What is a write-protect notch? Ø Ø Small opening with a cover Floppy Disks What is a write-protect notch? Ø Ø Small opening with a cover that you slide Protects floppy disk from being erased accidentally write-protected notch open means you cannot write on the disk notch closed means you can write on the disk p. 7. 08 Fig. 7 -10 not write-protected hole on this side means disk is high density Next

Zip® Disks What is a Zip disk? Ø Ø Magnetic medium that stores from Zip® Disks What is a Zip disk? Ø Ø Magnetic medium that stores from 100 MB to 750 MB of data Used to back up and to transfer files § Zip disk Backup is duplicate of file, program, or disk in case original is lost c Ø Zip disks require a Zip drive — high capacity drive that reads from and writes on a Zip disk c § § c External Zip drive Built-in Zip drive External Zip drive : connects to a USB, Fire. Wire or parallel port p. 7. 09 Fig. 7 -11 Next

Hard Disks What is a hard disk? Ø Ø hard disk installed in system Hard Disks What is a hard disk? Ø Ø hard disk installed in system unit High-capacity storage ( 40 to 250 GB and more) Consists of several inflexible, circular platters that store items electronically Components enclosed in airtight, sealed case for protection Sometimes called a fixed disk because it is mounted in a drive bay and usually is not potable p. 7. 09 Fig. 7 -12 Next

Hard Disks What are characteristics of a hard disk? The capacity of a hard Hard Disks What are characteristics of a hard disk? The capacity of a hard disk is determined from the number of platters it contains, together with composition of the magnetic coating on the platters. p. 7. 10 Fig. 7 -13 Next

Hard Disks How does a hard disk work? Step 3. When software requests a Hard Disks How does a hard disk work? Step 3. When software requests a disk access, read/write heads determine current or new location of data. Step 2. Small motor spins platters while computer is running. Step 4. Step 1. Circuit board controls movement of head actuator and a small motor. p. 7. 11 Fig. 7 -14 Head actuator positions read/write head arms over correct location on platters to read or write data. Next

Hard Disks platter What is a cylinder? Ø Vertical section of track through all Hard Disks platter What is a cylinder? Ø Vertical section of track through all platters Ø track sector Single movement of read/write head arms accesses all platters in cylinder read/write head platter sides p. 7. 11 Fig. 7 -15 cylinder Next

Hard Disks What is a head crash? Ø Ø Occurs when read/write head touches Hard Disks What is a head crash? Ø Ø Occurs when read/write head touches platter surface Spinning creates cushion of air that floats read/write head above platter § § Ø Clearance between head and platter is approximately two-millionths of an inch A smoke particle, dust particle, or human hair could render drive unusable Head crash results in a loss of data or sometimes loss of the entire drive - Needs to backup the hard disk regularly. hair read/write head dust clearance smoke platter p. 7. 12 Fig. 7 -16 Next

Hard Disks v Hard disk access time can be improved by using disk caching. Hard Disks v Hard disk access time can be improved by using disk caching. Ø Two types of cache : memory cache and disk cache. § § Memory cache: used to improve the memory access time. L 1 and L 2 cache for most PC, L 3 cache for server. L 1 and L 2 are built directly on to the processor chip. Search order: L 1, then L 2, then L 3 (if it exists), then RAM Disk cache: used to improve the hard disk access time

Hard Disks What is a disk cache? Ø Portion of memory that processor uses Hard Disks What is a disk cache? Ø Portion of memory that processor uses to store frequently accessed items processor disk cache first request for data—to disk cache second request for data—to hard disk p. 7. 12 Fig. 7 -17 Next

Hard Disks What are external hard disks and removable hard disks? Ø Used to Hard Disks What are external hard disks and removable hard disks? Ø Used to back up or transfer files External hard disk—freestanding hard disk that connects with a cable to a USB, Fire. Wire or other port on the system unit. Storage capacities up to 250 GB or higher p. 7. 13 Fig. 7 -18 Removable hard disk—hard disk that you insert and remove from hard disk drive Storage capacities up to 80 GB or higher Next

Hard Disks What is a disk controller? Chip and circuits that control transfer of Hard Disks What is a disk controller? Chip and circuits that control transfer of items from disk EIDE (Enhanced Integrated Drive Electronics) controller supports four hard disks, provides connections for CD and DVD drives SCSI (Small Computer System Interface) controller supports up to fifteen devices including hard disks, CD and DVD drives, tape drives, printers, scanners, network cards p. 7. 13 Next

Hard Disks What is an Internet hard drive (online storage)? Ø Ø Service on Hard Disks What is an Internet hard drive (online storage)? Ø Ø Service on Web that provides storage for minimal monthly fee Files can be accessed from any computer with Web access Large files can be downloaded instantaneously Others can be authorized to access your data Click to view Web Link, then click Hard Drives below Chapter 7 p. 7. 14 Fig. 7 -19 Next

CDs and DVDs What are CDs and DVDs? Ø Ø Ø Flat, round, portable CDs and DVDs What are CDs and DVDs? Ø Ø Ø Flat, round, portable metal discs with protective plastic coating These are optical media that store items by using microscopic pits and lands Most PCs include CD or DVD drive, most play audio CDs p. 7. 15 Fig. 7 -20 Push the button to slide out the tray. Insert the disc, label side up. Push the same button to close the tray. Next

CDs and DVDs How does a laser read data on a CD or DVD? CDs and DVDs How does a laser read data on a CD or DVD? disc label lens pit 0 prism Step 1. Laser diode shines a light beam toward disc. p. 7. 16 Fig. 7 -21 laser diode lightsensing diode lens land Step 2. If light strikes a pit, it scatters. If light strikes a land, it is reflected back toward diode. 1 prism laser diode lightsensing diode Step 3. Reflected light is deflected to a light-sensing diode, which sends digital signals of 1 to computer. Absence of reflected light is read as digital signal of 0. Next

CDs and DVDs How is data stored on a CD or DVD? Ø Ø CDs and DVDs How is data stored on a CD or DVD? Ø Ø Typically stored in single track Track divided into evenly sized sectors that store items single track spirals to edge of disc sectors p. 7. 16 Fig. 7 -22 Next

CDs and DVDs How should you care for a CD or DVD? Do not CDs and DVDs How should you care for a CD or DVD? Do not expose the disc to excessive heat or sunlight Do not eat, smoke, or drink near a disc Do store the disc in a jewel box when not in use Do not stack discs Do not touch the underside of the disc p. 7. 16 Fig. 7 -23 Do hold a disc by its edges Next

CDs and DVDs What is a CD-ROM? Ø Ø Ø Compact disc read-only memory CDs and DVDs What is a CD-ROM? Ø Ø Ø Compact disc read-only memory A type of optical disc that uses laser technology to store data. Cannot erase or modify contents. Called a single-session disc because manufactures write all items on the disc at one time. Typically holds 650 MB to 1 GB. Commonly used to distribute multimedia and complex software (Encyclopedias, games…) p. 7. 17 Fig. 7 -24 Next

CDs and DVDs What is the data transfer rate of a CD-ROM drive? v CDs and DVDs What is the data transfer rate of a CD-ROM drive? v The speed of a CD-ROM drive determines how fast the drive installs program and accesses the disc. v Original CD-ROM drives: single speed drives with transfer rates of 150 KBps (Kilobytes per second). v To measure the transfer rate, manufacturers use the relative values of the transfer rate of this original CDROM drives v They use an X to denote the original transfer rate of 150 KBps.

CDs and DVDs What is the data transfer rate of a CD-ROM drive? Ranges CDs and DVDs What is the data transfer rate of a CD-ROM drive? Ranges from 48 X to 75 X or faster 48 X: 48 150 KBps = 7, 200 KBps p. 7. 18 75 X 75 150 KBps = 11, 250 KBps Next

CDs and DVDs What is a Picture CD? A type of CD that stores CDs and DVDs What is a Picture CD? A type of CD that stores digital versions of roll of film using a jpg file format Film developers offer Picture CD service Can be modified using photo editing software Step 3. Step 1. Drop off film to be developed. Mark the Picture CD box on the film-processing envelope. p. 7. 19 Fig. 7 -25 Step 2. When you pick up prints and negatives, a Picture CD contains digital images of each photograph. At home, print images from Picture CD with your ink-jet photo printer. At a store, print images from Picture CD at kiosk. Next

CDs and DVDs What is a Photo. CD? v Another type of CD that CDs and DVDs What is a Photo. CD? v Another type of CD that stores digital photographic images. v A single Photo. CD stores images from multiple rolls of film using the Image Pac, or PCD, file format developed by Kodak. v Designed for commercial and professional users. v Available in many resolutions, ranging from 128 x 192 to 4096 x 6411 pixels. v A Photo. CD is a multisession disc; users can save additional photos on the disc at a later time.

CDs and DVDs What is a CD-R (compact disc-recordable)? v Multi-session CD with which CDs and DVDs What is a CD-R (compact disc-recordable)? v Multi-session CD with which users write on part of the disc at one time and another part at a later time. v Disc’s contents cannot be erased. v Most current CD-ROM drives can read a CD-R. v CD-R drives can read both audio CDs and standard CD-ROMs. v Speed of CD-R drive § Reading speed: 48 X or more § Writing speed: 40 X or more § Manufactures list the writing speed first and reading speed next, such as 40/48. v Slightly more expensive than standard CD-ROM drives.

CDs and DVDs What is a CD-RW (compact disc-rewritable)? v Erasable disc users can CDs and DVDs What is a CD-RW (compact disc-rewritable)? v Erasable disc users can write on multiple times. v CD-RW overcomes the major disadvantage of CD-R disc. v With CD-RW, the disc acts like a floppy disk or hard disk, allowing users to write and rewrite data onto it multiple times. v Reliability of disc tends to drop with each successive rewrite. v Speed of CD-RW drive § writing speed: 52 X or more § rewriting speed: 24 X or more § reading speed: 52 X or more § Manufacturers state the speeds in the above order: 52/24/52. v Multithread CD drive is a drive that reads audio CDs, data CDs, CD-Rs, and CD-RWs. Most current CD drives are multithread.

CDs and DVDs Comparison of CD-ROM, CD-R and CD-RW CD-ROM (compact disc read only CDs and DVDs Comparison of CD-ROM, CD-R and CD-RW CD-ROM (compact disc read only memory) — single-session CD CD-R (compact disc-recordable) — multi-session CD CD-RW (compact disc-rewritable) — erasable disc you can write on multiple times ce p. 7. 20 Must have CD-ROM drive Must have CD recorder or CD-R drive Must have CD-RW software and CD-RW drive

CDs and DVDs How is an audio CD created? Ø From a purchased CD. CDs and DVDs How is an audio CD created? Ø From a purchased CD. . . Step 1. Artist composes a song. Step 2. Song is stored on audio CD and purchased by user. Step 5. User listens to song on a personal computer or removes CD and listens to song on a portable CD player. p. 7. 20 Fig. 7 -26 Step 4. User copies file to a CD-RW disc. Step 3. User inserts audio CD into CD drive, plays song, and rips desired tracks onto hard disk. Next

CDs and DVDs How is an audio CD created? Ø From the Internet. . CDs and DVDs How is an audio CD created? Ø From the Internet. . . Step 1. Artist composes a song. Step 2. Song is compressed and stored on the Internet. Step 3. User pays for and downloads song as audio file onto a hard disk. Step 5. User listens to song on a personal computer or removes CD and listens to song on a portable CD player. p. 7. 20 Fig. 7 -26 Step 4. User copies file to a CD-RW disc. Next

CDs and DVDs What is a DVD-ROM (digital versatile disc-ROM or digital video disc-ROM)? CDs and DVDs What is a DVD-ROM (digital versatile disc-ROM or digital video disc-ROM)? Ø Ø High capacity disc capable of storing 4. 7 GB to 17 GB Must have DVD-ROM drive or DVD player to read DVD-ROM Newer DVD-ROM drive, CDRW/DVD, can read audio CDs, CD -ROMs, CD-Rs, and CD-RWs Stores databases, music, complex software, and movies p. 7. 22 Fig. 7 -27 DVD drive Next

CDs and DVDs How does a DVD-ROM store data? v DVD-ROM uses one of CDs and DVDs How does a DVD-ROM store data? v DVD-ROM uses one of three storage techniques Ø Make the disc denser by packing the pits closer together. Ø Two layers of pits are used, lower layer is semitransparent so laser can read through Ø Some are double-sided DVD-ROM Storage Capacities Sides 1 1 2 2 Layers 1 1 1 2 Storage Capacity 47 GB 8. 5 GB 9. 4 GB 17 GB

CDs and DVDs DVD Variations v v v DVD-R (DVD-recordable) DVD+RW (DVD-rewritable) DVD+RAM (DVD+random CDs and DVDs DVD Variations v v v DVD-R (DVD-recordable) DVD+RW (DVD-rewritable) DVD+RAM (DVD+random access memory) : allow users to erase and record on a DVD+RAM discs more than 100, 000 times. Storage capacity up to 4. 7 GB per side

Tape What is tape? Ø Ø Ø Magnetically coated plastic ribbon capable of storing Tape What is tape? Ø Ø Ø Magnetically coated plastic ribbon capable of storing large amounts of data at low cost Primarily used for backup Tape drive reads and writes data on a tape Tape drive Tape cartridge p. 7. 24 Fig. 7 -29 Next

Tape How is data stored on a tape? Ø Sequential access § Reads and Tape How is data stored on a tape? Ø Sequential access § Reads and writes data consecutively, like music tape § Unlike direct access (random access) — used on floppy disks, Zip disks, hard disks, CDs, and DVDs — which can locate particular item immediately Popular Types of Tape Name Digital audio tape (also called digital data storage) Digital linear tape Linear tape-open Quarter-inch cartridge Travan Abbreviation DAT (also called DDS) DLT LTO QIC TR Storage Capacity 2 GB to 240 GB 20 GB to 229 GB 100 GB to 200 GB 40 MB to 25 GB 8 GB to 40 GB

PC Cards What is a PC Card? Ø Ø Adds capabilities to computer Credit-card-sized PC Cards What is a PC Card? Ø Ø Adds capabilities to computer Credit-card-sized device commonly used in notebook computers PC Cards Category Thickness Type I 3. 3 mm Type II 5. 0 mm Type III 10. 5 mm p. 7. 24 Figs. 7 -31– 7 -32 Use RAM, SRAM, flash memory Modem, LAN, SCSI, sound, TV turner, hard disk, or other storage Rotating storage such as a hard disk Next

Miniature Mobile Storage Media What is miniature mobile storage media? Ø Storage for small Miniature Mobile Storage Media What is miniature mobile storage media? Ø Storage for small mobile devices Miniature mobile storage media p. 7. 25 Fig. 7 -33 Next

Miniature Mobile Storage Media What are common types of miniature mobile storage media? (Refer Miniature Mobile Storage Media What are common types of miniature mobile storage media? (Refer to the Figure 7 -34 for storage capacity and use) Compact. Flash Smart Media Memory Stick ® Secure Digital Microdrive ™ USBDrive ™ Next

Miniature Mobile Storage Media What is a card reader? Ø Ø Reads information stored Miniature Mobile Storage Media What is a card reader? Ø Ø Reads information stored on miniature mobile storage media Type of card determines type of card reader needed p. 7. 27 Fig. 7 -35 Next

Miniature Mobile Storage Media What is a USB flash drive (keychain drive)? v Flash Miniature Mobile Storage Media What is a USB flash drive (keychain drive)? v Flash memory storage device that plugs into a USB port on a computer or potable device v Storage capacity is up to 32 GB v Data transfer rate is about 16 MBps

Miniature Mobile Storage Media What is a smart card? Ø Ø Ø Stores data Miniature Mobile Storage Media What is a smart card? Ø Ø Ø Stores data on microprocessor embedded in small card Difference with a flash memory card: § Flash memory card has only storage capabilities. § Smart card contains a processor and have input, process, output, and storage capabilities Sometimes called intelligent smart card p. 7. 27 Fig. 7 -36 Next

Miniature Mobile Storage Media Where is a smart card used? v To store a Miniature Mobile Storage Media Where is a smart card used? v To store a prepaid dollar amount, as in a prepaid telephone calling card or electronic money v To store medical records, vaccination data, and other healthcare information v To track information such as customer purchases or employee attendance

Miniature Mobile Storage Media What is e-money (electronic money)? Means of paying for goods Miniature Mobile Storage Media What is e-money (electronic money)? Means of paying for goods and services over the Internet Also called digital cash Money is withdrawn from your bank account p. 7. 28 Bank issues unique digital cash numbers that represent amount of money Sometimes placed on smart card Next

Microfilm and Microfiche What are microfilm and microfiche? Store microscopic images of documents on Microfilm and Microfiche What are microfilm and microfiche? Store microscopic images of documents on roll or sheet of film Images recorded using computer output microfilm recorder Microfilm — 100 - to 215 -foot roll of film p. 7. 28 Fig. 7 -37 Microfiche — small sheet of film, usually 4” 6” Next

Microfilm and Microfiche Applications? v Libraries use to store back issues of newspapers, magazines, Microfilm and Microfiche Applications? v Libraries use to store back issues of newspapers, magazines, and genealogy records v Large organizations use to archive inactive files v Banks use to store transactions and canceled checks v US Army uses to store personnel records Advantages? v Reduce the amount of paper usage v Inexpensive v Have the longest life of any storage media

Microfilm and Microfiche How do life expectancies of various media compare? Ø Microfilm and Microfilm and Microfiche How do life expectancies of various media compare? Ø Microfilm and microfiche have longest life of any storage media Media Life Expectancies Media Type Magnetic disks CDs and DVDs discs Microfilm p. 7. 29 Fig. 7 -38 Guaranteed Life Expectancy Potential Life Expectancy 3 to 5 years 5 to 10 years 100 years 20 to 30 years 50 to 100 years 500 years Next

Putting It All Together What are recommended storage devices for home users? § § Putting It All Together What are recommended storage devices for home users? § § § 3. 5 -inch high-density floppy disk drive 250 MB Zip drive 60 GB hard disk Internet hard drive CD or DVD drive Card reader Home p. 7. 29 Fig. 7 -39 Next

Putting It All Together What are recommended storage devices for small office/home office (SOHO) Putting It All Together What are recommended storage devices for small office/home office (SOHO) users? Small Office/ Home Office (SOHO) p. 7. 29 Fig. 7 -39 § § § 3. 5 -inch high-density floppy disk drive 250 MB Zip drive 100 GB hard disk Internet hard drive CD or DVD drive External hard drive for backup Next

Putting It All Together What are recommended storage devices for mobile users? Mobile p. Putting It All Together What are recommended storage devices for mobile users? Mobile p. 7. 29 Fig. 7 -39 § § § § 3. 5 -inch high-density floppy disk drive 2 GB PC Card hard disk or USB Drive 40 GB hard disk Internet hard drive CD or DVD drive Card reader External or removable hard disk for backup Next

Putting It All Together What are recommended storage devices for large business users? § Putting It All Together What are recommended storage devices for large business users? § § § 3. 5 -inch high-density floppy disk drive 160 GB hard disk CD or DVD drive Microfilm or microfiche Smart card reader Tape drive Large Business p. 7. 29 Fig. 7 -39 Next

Putting It All Together What are recommended storage devices for power users? § § Putting It All Together What are recommended storage devices for power users? § § § 3. 5 -inch high-density floppy disk drive CD or DVD drive 160 GB hard disk Internet hard drive External or removable hard disk for backup Power p. 7. 29 Fig. 7 -39 Next

Summary of Storage Floppy disks DVD-ROMs Zip disks DVD+RWs Internal hard disks Tape External Summary of Storage Floppy disks DVD-ROMs Zip disks DVD+RWs Internal hard disks Tape External hard disks PC Cards Removable hard disks CD-ROMs Flash memory cards and other miniature mobile storage media Microfilm and microfiche CD-RWs Chapter 7 Complete