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Chapter 7 Balancing Nationalism and Sectionalism Chapter 7 Balancing Nationalism and Sectionalism

Refers to the mass production of Machine made goods and the rise of factories Refers to the mass production of Machine made goods and the rise of factories Began in England in the Late 1700’s Signaled a change from hand made goods to machine made goods ◦ Cottage Industry – method of production in which tasks are done by individuals in their rural homes Also ushered in a significant change in society and everyday life for its citizens. The Industrial Revolution

In Britain inventors created machines that were powered by coal and water. These inventions In Britain inventors created machines that were powered by coal and water. These inventions sped up the cloth (textile) making process. Factories were built to house these machines and workers were hired to operate them. Ex of New Textile Inventions ◦ Spinning Jenny, Powered Loom Flying Shuttle New Inventions of the Ind. Rev.

Trade had always dominated the American economy. Farmers and merchants shipped goods such as Trade had always dominated the American economy. Farmers and merchants shipped goods such as tobacco, grain, and cotton to Britain and other European countries. There was very little manufacturing capabilities in the U. S. A. The Embargo Act of 1807 and the War of 1812 (British blockades) convinced Americans (mainly New Englanders) of the need to industrialize Situation in the U. S.

The Embargo Act, passed by Thomas Jefferson, prohibited goods from being shipped to Europe. The Embargo Act, passed by Thomas Jefferson, prohibited goods from being shipped to Europe. This caused farmers not to be able to sell most of their crop and seriously damaged the economy. During the War of 1812, the British Navy blockaded the much of the American coast and ships could not get out of harbors to reach the foreign markets. Industrializing factors

Samuel Slater immigrated to the U. S. from Britain in. Slater had worked in Samuel Slater immigrated to the U. S. from Britain in. Slater had worked in a British factory and memorized the machinery and the layout of the factory. In 1793 Slater builds the first American factory in Pawtucket, Rhode Island. Since cash crops didn’t grow well in the North, most investors sought to build factories. Soon the Northeast’s economy and society was centered around industrialization The Northeast Industrializes

Geography: ◦ North- harsh and unforgiving land ◦ South- Warm and fertile land ◦ Geography: ◦ North- harsh and unforgiving land ◦ South- Warm and fertile land ◦ West-forests and mountains Tariffs: ◦ North- favored tariffs to ensure their factories could compete with foreign manufacturers. ◦ South- opposed tariffs b/c they weren’t a manufacturing region and they would have to pay more for their goods. ◦ West- favored tariffs *Slavery: ◦ North- Opposed slavery and its expansion into the west. ◦ South- supported slavery and its expansion into the west. Both sides were adamantly divided over the issue. Summary of why sectionalism developed

Eli Whitney invented the cotton gin in 1793. It was used to clean seeds Eli Whitney invented the cotton gin in 1793. It was used to clean seeds out of cotton. The Cotton gin, in effect, made the cultivation of cotton much easier and caused the cotton industry in the south to boom. Many southern farmers raced to get more land slaves, so that they could rake in the profits Cotton transforms the South

The economic differences between the North and the South was causing a rift to The economic differences between the North and the South was causing a rift to develop between the regions A plan was developed to unify the regions, and create a strong economy, independent of Europe. Henry Clay, the speaker of the House, promoted it as The American System ◦ Develop transportation system ◦ Establish a protective tariff ◦ Resurrect the National Bank (BUS) Henry Clay’s American System

 As part of the Am. System, Railroads, canals, and roads were built. ◦ As part of the Am. System, Railroads, canals, and roads were built. ◦ In 1811 The federal government started construction on a National Road, which would stretch from Maryland to Illinois. ◦ The Erie Canal was completed in 1825. It ran over 363 miles connecting the Hudson River to Lake Erie or in other terms the Atlantic Ocean to the Great lakes. Internal Improvements

The Purpose of the tariff was to increase the cost of European goods, which The Purpose of the tariff was to increase the cost of European goods, which were generally much cheaper than American manufactured goods. The higher priced imported goods would cause Americans to buy more American made goods This would strengthen our economy Northerners usually favored tariffs, whereas southerners and westerners resented them The Tariff of 1816

In 1817 James Monroe was inaugurated as the new president. Robert Fulton invented and In 1817 James Monroe was inaugurated as the new president. Robert Fulton invented and tested the first steamboat – the Clermont Era of good feelings

Supreme Court case dealing with power of the federal govt. and interstate commerce Original Supreme Court case dealing with power of the federal govt. and interstate commerce Original case one steamboat operator sued another because he was violating his exclusive state charter. Ruling ◦ The federal government has power over states concerning goods that cross state lines Gibbons v. Ogden

Andrew Jackson wins popular vote, but didn’t have majority in the electoral college. John Andrew Jackson wins popular vote, but didn’t have majority in the electoral college. John Q Adams wins the election with the help of Henry Clay (speaker of the house). Jackson claims it was a “Corrupt Bargain” b/c Clay was later named Secretary of State Adams presidency wasn’t very successful b/c of the rift being caused by Jacksonian Democrats The Election of 1824

Andrew Jackson wins the election of 1828 1 st mudslinging election Election of 1828 Andrew Jackson wins the election of 1828 1 st mudslinging election Election of 1828

 The Man ◦ Orphaned at age 14 ◦ Called candidate of the people The Man ◦ Orphaned at age 14 ◦ Called candidate of the people ◦ Born in log cabin on frontier (NC) ◦ Killed a man in a dual. ◦ He was fiery and bad temper ◦ Not as well educated as T. Jefferson or J. Adams ◦ A gentleman and a soldier ◦ Hero of battle of New Orleans Andrew Jackson

 He became a symbol of the growing power of democracy b/c he made He became a symbol of the growing power of democracy b/c he made it entirely on his own and made it to the highest office from humble beginnings. Jacksonian Democracy

 Jackson’s treatment of Indians ◦ Jackson forced Indians to move off of lands Jackson’s treatment of Indians ◦ Jackson forced Indians to move off of lands west of the Mississippi ◦ The trail of tears- Osceola and the Seminoles ◦ The great silence Cherokee use the legal system ◦ Worcester v. Georgia Indian Removal Act

 Theory of nullification- The idea that state’s have the right to declare federal Theory of nullification- The idea that state’s have the right to declare federal acts/ laws null and void if that state thinks that the govt. is over stepping their boundaries. There was some controversy over the tariffs of 1816, 1824 and 1828. The south, especially South Carolina, resented the tariffs. S. Carolina got so upset over the tariff of 1828 (“tariff of abomination”) that it almost left the union. Jackson went against the nullification theory by saying “our union must be preserved”. Congress passed a new tariff in 1832 and S. Carolina declared the tariff “null and void”. Nullification Controversy

Nullification Controversy cont. Nullification Controversy cont.

Martin Van Buren Whig Party William Henry Harrison “Tippicanoe and Tyler too” John Tyler Martin Van Buren Whig Party William Henry Harrison “Tippicanoe and Tyler too” John Tyler

 Opener- Trivia ◦ Why is the White House white? In Class Schedule ◦ Opener- Trivia ◦ Why is the White House white? In Class Schedule ◦ Notes (QS 1 -8) ◦ Free Reading – SSR ◦ Mc Cullough v. Maryland Handout ◦ Map p. 217 Homework Day 1

 Opener ◦ “I can get up at 9 a. m and be rested Opener ◦ “I can get up at 9 a. m and be rested or I can get up at 6 a. m and be president” Jimmy Carter In Class Schedule ◦ Notes (QS 9 -14) ◦ Gibbons v. Ogden Handout ◦ Election of 1828 Geog handout ◦ Map p. 221& 223 Homework Day 2

 Opener Trivia -What grinning, spunky president coined the phrase “Speak softly and carry Opener Trivia -What grinning, spunky president coined the phrase “Speak softly and carry a big stick”? In Class Schedule ◦ ◦ Notes (QS 15 -18) Free Reading – SSR Trail of Tears map w. p. 227 Map p. 217 Homework Day 3

 Opener- DQ ◦ What was the effect of the Railroad and other industrial Opener- DQ ◦ What was the effect of the Railroad and other industrial inventions on the U. S. ? In Class Schedule ◦ Notes (QS 19 -23) ◦ Andrew Jackson political cartoons ◦ Osceola Handout ◦ Map p. 217 Homework Day 4

 Opener ◦ “The world is full of wiling people to work others willing Opener ◦ “The world is full of wiling people to work others willing to let you” R. Frost In Class Schedule ◦ Cherokee legal fight handout ◦ Free Reading – SSR ◦ Early era presidents list ◦ Pol. Cartoon project ◦ Test Homework Day 5