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Chapter 6 Personality and Lifestyles By Michael R. Solomon Consumer Behavior Buying, Having, and Chapter 6 Personality and Lifestyles By Michael R. Solomon Consumer Behavior Buying, Having, and Being Sixth Edition 6 -1

Consumer Behavior on the Couch: Freudian Theory • Freudian Systems: – Id: Oriented toward Consumer Behavior on the Couch: Freudian Theory • Freudian Systems: – Id: Oriented toward immediate gratification • Pleasure principle: Behavior is guided by the primary desire to maximize pleasure and avoid pain • The id is selfish, illogical, and ignores consequences – Superego: A person’s conscience – Ego: The system that mediates between the id and the superego • Reality principle: The ego finds ways to gratify the id that will be acceptable to the outside world. 6 -3

Ad Portraying the Forces of the Id 6 -5 Ad Portraying the Forces of the Id 6 -5

Motivational Research • Motivational Research: – Attempts to use Freudian ideas to understand the Motivational Research • Motivational Research: – Attempts to use Freudian ideas to understand the deeper meanings of products and advertisements – Depth Interviews: Technique that probes deeply into a few consumers’ purchase motivations – Latent motives: Underlying motives • Appeal of Motivational Research – Less expensive than quantitative survey research – Uncovers deep seated needs which can be targeted with advertising – Findings seem intuitively plausible after the fact 6 -6

Motives for Consumption 6 -7 Motives for Consumption 6 -7

Neo-Freudian Theories • Karen Horney: – Described people as moving toward others (compliant), away Neo-Freudian Theories • Karen Horney: – Described people as moving toward others (compliant), away from others (detached), or against others (aggressive). • Carl Jung: – Disciple of Freud but did not accept Freud’s emphasis on sexual aspects of personality – Analytical psychology: Jung’s own method of psychotherapy – Collective unconscious: A storehouse of memories inherited from our ancestral past – Believed people are shaped by cumulative experiences of past generations – Archetypes: Universally shared ideas and behavior patterns created by shared memories universally shared ideas and behavior patterns. These memories would be about birth, death, and the devil (as shown in myths, stories, and dreams) 6 -8

Trait Theory • Trait Theory: – An approach to personality that focuses on the Trait Theory • Trait Theory: – An approach to personality that focuses on the quantitative measurement of personality traits • Personality Traits: – Identifiable characteristics that define a person. – Extroversion: Trait of being socially outgoing • Extrovert: A person that possesses the trait of extroversion – Introversion: Trait of being quiet and reserved • Introvert: A person that possesses the trait of introversion 6 -9

Trait Theory • Personality theory with a focus on psychological characteristics • Trait - Trait Theory • Personality theory with a focus on psychological characteristics • Trait - any distinguishing, relatively enduring way in which one individual differs from another • Personality is linked to how consumers make their choices or to consumption of a broad product category - not a specific brand. 6 - 10

Traits Specific to Consumer Behavior • Innovativeness: – The degree to which a person Traits Specific to Consumer Behavior • Innovativeness: – The degree to which a person likes to try new things • Materialism: – Amount of emphasis placed on acquiring and owning products • Self-consciousness: – The degree to which a person deliberately monitors and controls the image of the self that is projected to others • Need for cognition: – The degree to which a person likes to think about things (i. e. , expend the necessary effort to process brand information) • Frugality: – Deny short-term purchasing whims and resourcefully use what one already owns 6 - 11

Discussion Question • This classic ad starts off with the line: “The Datsun 240 Discussion Question • This classic ad starts off with the line: “The Datsun 240 -Z is not exactly what you would call a common site. ” • What consumer personality trait is this ad appealing to? 6 - 13

Idiocentrism or Allocentrism • Idiocentrics: – Individuals who have an individualist orientation • Allocentrics: Idiocentrism or Allocentrism • Idiocentrics: – Individuals who have an individualist orientation • Allocentrics: – Individuals who have a group orientation • Differences between idiocentrics and allocentrics: – Contentment: Idiocentrics tend to be more content with life and their financial situation – Health Consciousness: Allocentrics are more likely to avoid unhealthy foods – Food preparation: Allocentrics spend more time preparing food – Travel and Entertainment: Idiocentrics are more interested in traveling. Allocentrics are more likely to work on crafts. 6 - 14

Problems with Trait Theory in CB • Explanations for the inability of traits to Problems with Trait Theory in CB • Explanations for the inability of traits to predict consumer behaviors in research: – Scales which are not valid or reliable. – Scales misapplied to the general population – Tests not administered under the proper conditions – Ad hoc changes to the measures dilute the validity of the measures – Generalized trait measures used to make predictions about specific behaviors – Shotgun approach using a number of scales 6 - 15

Brand Personality • Brand personality: – The set of traits people attribute to a Brand Personality • Brand personality: – The set of traits people attribute to a product as if it were a person • Brand equity: – The extent to which a consumer holds strong, favorable, and unique associations with a brand in memory. Examples of personality dimensions include old fashioned, wholesome, traditional, and lively, etc. • Advertisers are keenly interested in how people think about brands. 6 - 16

Animism • Consumers seem to have little difficulty in assigning personality qualities to all Animism • Consumers seem to have little difficulty in assigning personality qualities to all sorts of inanimate products. The creation and communication of a distinctive brand personality is one of the primary ways marketers can make a product stand out from the competition and inspire years of loyalty to it. This is called animism (whereby inanimate objects are given qualities that make them somehow alive). It is an old practice. 6 - 17

Brand Personality • Personality-like traits associated with brands • Volvo - safety • Perdue Brand Personality • Personality-like traits associated with brands • Volvo - safety • Perdue - freshness • Nike - the athlete • BMW - performance • Levi’s 501 - dependable and rugged 6 - 18

Animism • Animism: – The practice found in many cultures whereby inanimate objects are Animism • Animism: – The practice found in many cultures whereby inanimate objects are given qualities that make them somehow alive • Two types of animism: – Level 1: People believe the object is possessed by the soul of the being (e. g. celebrity spokespersons) – Level 2: Objects are anthropomorphized, or given human characteristics. (e. g. Charlie the Tuna, Keebler Elves, or the Michelin Man) 6 - 20

Lifestyle: Who We Are, What We Do • Lifestyle: – A pattern of consumption Lifestyle: Who We Are, What We Do • Lifestyle: – A pattern of consumption reflecting a person’s choices of how he or she spends time and money • Lifestyle Marketing Perspective: – Recognizes that people sort themselves into groups on the basis of things they like to do, how they like to spend their leisure time, and how they choose to spend their disposable income • Lifestyles as Group Identities: – Self-definitions of group members 6 - 21

Lifestyle is a statement of who one is and who one is not… • Lifestyle is a statement of who one is and who one is not… • Products are the building blocks of lifestyles. Many choices are made on this basis. Because a goal of lifestyle marketing is to allow consumers to pursue their chosen ways to enjoy their lives and express their social identities, a key aspect of this strategy is to focus on product usage in desirable social settings. 6 - 24

Products are the Building Blocks of Lifestyles • Choosing products: – We often choose Products are the Building Blocks of Lifestyles • Choosing products: – We often choose products because of their association with a certain lifestyle. • Goal of Lifestyle Marketing: – To allow consumers to pursue their chosen ways to enjoy life and express their social identities. • Adopting Lifestyle Marketing: – Implies that we must look at patterns of behavior to understand consumers 6 - 25

Linking Products to Lifestyles Figure 6. 2 6 - 26 Linking Products to Lifestyles Figure 6. 2 6 - 26

Product-Lifestyle Linkages • Co-branding strategies: – Strategies that recognize that even unattractive products are Product-Lifestyle Linkages • Co-branding strategies: – Strategies that recognize that even unattractive products are more attractive when evaluated with other, liked products • Porsche – Fairmont Hotel • Unilever – Dove • Nike – Polaroid • Product complementarity: – Occurs when symbolic meanings of products are related to each other • Consumption constellations: – Sets of complementary products used to define, communicate and perform social roles 6 - 27

Psychographics • Psychographics: – Use of psychological, sociological, and anthropological factors for market segmentation Psychographics • Psychographics: – Use of psychological, sociological, and anthropological factors for market segmentation • The Roots of Psychographics: – Developed in the 1960’s and ’ 70’s to address the shortcomings of motivational research and quantitative survey research • Forms of Psychographic Studies: – – Lifestyle profile Product-specific profile General lifestyle segmentation profile Product-specific segmentation 6 - 29

Psycho. . • Psychographics focuses on why people buy. Demographics tells us who buys. Psycho. . • Psychographics focuses on why people buy. Demographics tells us who buys. Psychographics involves the use of psychological, sociological, and anthropological factors to determine how the market is segmented by the propensity of groups within the market (and their reasons) to make a particular decision about a product, person, ideology, or otherwise hold an attitude or use a medium. Psychographics can help a marketer fine-tune its offerings to meet the needs of different segments. 6 - 30

A Graphic Motive. . . • The roots of psychographics were in: Motivational research, A Graphic Motive. . . • The roots of psychographics were in: Motivational research, which involves intensive one-to-one interviews and projective tests (yields a lot of information on a few people). Quantitative survey research (at the other extreme), which uses large-scale demographic research techniques. 6 - 31

Contemporary Psycho. . . • Most contemporary psychographic research attempts to group consumers according Contemporary Psycho. . . • Most contemporary psychographic research attempts to group consumers according to some combination of three categories of variables— Activities, Interests, and Opinions (AIOs) 6 - 32

AIOs • AIOs: – Psychographic research groups consumers according to activities, interests, and opinions AIOs • AIOs: – Psychographic research groups consumers according to activities, interests, and opinions (AIOs) • 80/20 Rule: – Only 20 percent of a product’s users account for 80 percent of the volume of product sold – Researchers attempt to identify the heavy users of a product – Heavy users can then be subdivided in terms of the benefits they derive from the product or service. 6 - 33

AIOs and Lifestyle Dimensions 6 - 34 AIOs and Lifestyle Dimensions 6 - 34

Uses of Psychographic Segmentation • Psychographic segmentation can be used: – To define the Uses of Psychographic Segmentation • Psychographic segmentation can be used: – To define the target market – To create a new view of the market – To position the product – To better communicate product attributes – To develop overall strategy – To market social and political issues 6 - 35

Discussion Question • The pictures at the right depict two very different “ideal” vacations. Discussion Question • The pictures at the right depict two very different “ideal” vacations. • How can psychographic segmentation help identify target markets for each type of vacation? 6 - 37

VALS 2 • The Values and Lifestyles System • Three Self-Orientations: – Principle orientation: VALS 2 • The Values and Lifestyles System • Three Self-Orientations: – Principle orientation: Guided by a belief system – Status orientation: Guided by opinions of peers – Action orientation: Desire to impact the world around them • VALS Groups: - Actualizers - Fulfilleds - Achievers - Experiencers - Believers - Strivers - Makers - Strugglers 6 - 38

Valsing Mathilda…. • 1) Actualizers—successful with many resources open to change. • 2) Fulfilled—satisfied, Valsing Mathilda…. • 1) Actualizers—successful with many resources open to change. • 2) Fulfilled—satisfied, reflective, comfortable, practical. • 3) Achievers—career-oriented, avoid risk, self -discovery. • 4) Experiencers—impulsive, young, offbeat, love risk. • 5) Believers—strong principles, favor proven brands. • 6) Strivers—like achievers, but with fewer resources, need approval. • 7) Makers—action-oriented, self-sufficiency, do-it-yourselfers. • 8) Strugglers—bottom-of-the-ladder, immediate gratification. 6 - 39

VALS 2 Segmentation System Figure 6. 3 6 - 40 VALS 2 Segmentation System Figure 6. 3 6 - 40

Lifestyle Classification of Consumers • Global MOSAIC: – Developed by a British Firm called Lifestyle Classification of Consumers • Global MOSAIC: – Developed by a British Firm called Experian – Analyzes consumers in 19 countries – Identified 14 common lifestyles • RISC (Research Institute on Social Change): – Identifies 10 segments based on three axes: • Exploration/Stability • Social/Individual • Global/Local 6 - 41

The Ten RISC Segments Figure 6. 5 6 - 43 The Ten RISC Segments Figure 6. 5 6 - 43

Choice of Brand for the Next New Car Figure 6. 7 6 - 44 Choice of Brand for the Next New Car Figure 6. 7 6 - 44

Regional Consumption Differences: You Are What You Eat! • Food Culture: – A pattern Regional Consumption Differences: You Are What You Eat! • Food Culture: – A pattern of food and beverage consumption that reflects the values of a social group • Geodemography: – Analytical techniques that combine data on consumer expenditures and other socioeconomic factors with geographic info about areas in which people live to identify consumers with common consumption patterns • Cluster Analysis: – A statistical technique for market segmentation • Single Source Data: – Information about purchase history is combined with geodemographic data to learn more about people 6 - 45

PRIZM • PRIZM (Potential Rating Index by Zip Market): – Classifies every U. S. PRIZM • PRIZM (Potential Rating Index by Zip Market): – Classifies every U. S. Zip Code into one of 62 categories – Rankings in terms of income, home value, and occupation on a ZQ (Zip Quality) Scale – Categories range from most affluent “Blue-Blood Estates” to the least well-off “Public Assistance” – Different clusters exhibit different consumption patterns 6 - 46