Скачать презентацию Chapter 6 Enterprise Resource Planning Systems PROBLEMS Скачать презентацию Chapter 6 Enterprise Resource Planning Systems PROBLEMS

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Chapter 6: Enterprise Resource Planning Systems Chapter 6: Enterprise Resource Planning Systems

PROBLEMS WITH NON-ERP SYSTEMS Ø In-house design limits connectivity outside the company Ø Tendency PROBLEMS WITH NON-ERP SYSTEMS Ø In-house design limits connectivity outside the company Ø Tendency toward separate IS’s within firm § Lack of integration limits communication within the company Ø Strategic decision-making not supported Ø Long-term maintenance costs high Ø Limits ability to engage in process reengineering

TRADITIONAL IS MODEL: CLOSED DATABASE ARCHITECTURE Ø Similar in concept to flat-file approach § TRADITIONAL IS MODEL: CLOSED DATABASE ARCHITECTURE Ø Similar in concept to flat-file approach § Data remains the property of the application § Fragmentation limits communications Ø Existence of numerous distinct and independent databases § Redundancy and anomaly problems Ø Paper-based § Requires multiple entry of data § Status of information unknown at key points

BUSINESS ENTERPRISE Products Customer Orders Materials Order Entry System Customer Sales Account Rec Customer BUSINESS ENTERPRISE Products Customer Orders Materials Order Entry System Customer Sales Account Rec Customer Database Manufacturing and Distribution System Procurement System Production Scheduling Shipping Vendor Accts Pay Inventory Manufacturing Database Purchases Procurement Database Traditional Information System with Closed Database Architecture Supplier

WHAT IS ERP? Ø Those activities supported by multi-module application software that help a WHAT IS ERP? Ø Those activities supported by multi-module application software that help a company manage the important parts of its business in an integrated fashion Ø Key features include: § Smooth and seamless flow of information across organizational boundaries § Standardized environment with shared database independent of applications and integrated applications

BUSINESS ENTERPRISE ERP System Legacy Systems Data Warehouse ERP System On-Line Analytical Processing Bolt-On BUSINESS ENTERPRISE ERP System Legacy Systems Data Warehouse ERP System On-Line Analytical Processing Bolt-On Applications (OLAP) (Industry Specific Functions) Suppliers Customers Core Functions [On-Line Transaction Processing (OLTP)] Sales & Distribution Business Planning Shop Floor Control Operational Database Customers, Production, Vendor, Inventory, etc. Logistics

TWO MAIN ERP APPLICATIONS Core applications: Ø A. K. A. On-line Transaction Processing (OLTP) TWO MAIN ERP APPLICATIONS Core applications: Ø A. K. A. On-line Transaction Processing (OLTP) Ø Transaction processing systems Ø Support the day-to-day operational activities of the business Ø Support mission-critical tasks through simple queries of operational databases Ø Include sales and distribution, business planning, production planning, shop floor control, and logistics modules

TWO MAIN ERP APPLICATIONS Business analysis applications: Ø A. K. A. On-line Analytical Processing TWO MAIN ERP APPLICATIONS Business analysis applications: Ø A. K. A. On-line Analytical Processing (OLAP) Ø Decision support tool for management-critical tasks through analytical investigation of complex data associations Ø Supplies management with “real-time” information and permits timely decisions to improve performance and achieve competitive advantage Ø Includes decision support, modeling, information retrieval, ad-hoc reporting/analysis, and what-if analysis

OLAP Ø Supports management-critical tasks through analytical investigation of complex data associations captured in OLAP Ø Supports management-critical tasks through analytical investigation of complex data associations captured in data warehouses: § Consolidation is the aggregation or roll-up of data. § Drill-down allows the user to see data in selective increasing levels of detail. § Slicing and Dicing enables the user to examine data from different viewpoints often performed along a time axis to depict trends and patterns.

ERP SYSTEM CONFIGURATIONS: CLIENT-SERVER NETWORK TOPOLOGY Two-tier: ØCommon server handles both application and database ERP SYSTEM CONFIGURATIONS: CLIENT-SERVER NETWORK TOPOLOGY Two-tier: ØCommon server handles both application and database duties ØUsed especially in LANs

TWO-TIER CLIENT SERVER First Tier User Presentation Layer Second Tier Application and Database Layer TWO-TIER CLIENT SERVER First Tier User Presentation Layer Second Tier Application and Database Layer Applications Server Database

ERP SYSTEM CONFIGURATIONS: CLIENT-SERVER NETWORK TOPOLOGY Three-tier: ØClient links to the application server which ERP SYSTEM CONFIGURATIONS: CLIENT-SERVER NETWORK TOPOLOGY Three-tier: ØClient links to the application server which then initiates a second connection to the database server ØUsed especially in WANs

THREE-TIER CLIENT SERVER User Presentation Layer First Tier Second Tier Third Tier Applications Database THREE-TIER CLIENT SERVER User Presentation Layer First Tier Second Tier Third Tier Applications Database Application Server Database Server Application Layer Database Layer

ERP WITH OLTP AND OLAP CLIENT SERVER USING DATA WAREHOUSE User Presentation Layer First ERP WITH OLTP AND OLAP CLIENT SERVER USING DATA WAREHOUSE User Presentation Layer First Tier Second Tier OLAP Applications OLTP Applications Third Tier OLTP Server Operations Database Server OLAP Server Data Warehouse Application Layer Database Layer

ERP SYSTEM CONFIGURATIONS: DATABASES AND BOLT-ONS Ø Database Configuration § Selection of database tables ERP SYSTEM CONFIGURATIONS: DATABASES AND BOLT-ONS Ø Database Configuration § Selection of database tables in the thousands § Setting the switches in the system Ø Bolt-on Software § Third-party vendors provide specialized functionality software § Supply-Chain Management (SCM) links vendors, carriers, third-party logistics companies, and information systems providers

WHAT IS A DATA WAREHOUSE? Ø A relational or multi-dimensional database that may consume WHAT IS A DATA WAREHOUSE? Ø A relational or multi-dimensional database that may consume hundreds of gigabytes or even terabytes of disk storage § The data is normally extracted periodically from operational database or from a public information service. Ø A database constructed for quick searching, retrieval, ad-hoc queries, and ease of use Ø An ERP system could exist without having a data warehouse. The trend, however, is that organizations that are serious about competitive advantage deploy both. The recommended data architecture for an ERP implementation includes separate operational and data warehouse databases.

DATA WAREHOUSE PROCESS Ø The five essential stages of the data warehousing process are: DATA WAREHOUSE PROCESS Ø The five essential stages of the data warehousing process are: § Modeling data for the data warehouse § Extracting data from operational databases § Cleansing extracted data § Transforming data into the warehouse model § Loading the data into the data warehouse database

DATA WAREHOUSE SYSTEM Legacy Systems Order Entry System Purchases System VSAM Files Hierarchical DB DATA WAREHOUSE SYSTEM Legacy Systems Order Entry System Purchases System VSAM Files Hierarchical DB Network DB ERP System The Data Warehouse us vio Pre ars Ye us vio ers Pre art Qu Sales Data Summarized Annually us vio s Pre eek W Sales Data Summarized Quarterly Operations Database Data Cleansing Process ve e Tim r Current (this weeks) Detailed Sales Data Ar chi o ved

APPLICATIONS OF DATA MINING APPLICATIONS OF DATA MINING

RISKS ASSOCIATED WITH ERP IMPLEMENTATION Ø Pace of implementation § ‘Big Bang’--switch operations from RISKS ASSOCIATED WITH ERP IMPLEMENTATION Ø Pace of implementation § ‘Big Bang’--switch operations from legacy systems to ERP in a single event § ‘Phased-In’--independent ERP units installed over time, assimilated and integrated Ø Opposition to changes to the businesses culture § User reluctance and inertia § Need of (upper) management support

RISKS ASSOCIATED WITH ERP IMPLEMENTATION Ø Choosing the wrong ERP § Goodness of fit: RISKS ASSOCIATED WITH ERP IMPLEMENTATION Ø Choosing the wrong ERP § Goodness of fit: no ERP system is best for all industries § Scalability: system’s ability to grow Ø Choosing the wrong consultant § Common to use a third-party (the Big Five) § Be thorough in interviewing potential consultants § Establish explicit expectations

RISKS ASSOCIATED WITH ERP IMPLEMENTATION Ø High cost and cost overruns § Common areas RISKS ASSOCIATED WITH ERP IMPLEMENTATION Ø High cost and cost overruns § Common areas with high costs: q. Training q. Testing and integration q. Database conversion Ø Disruptions to operations § ERP is reengineering--expect major changes in how business is done

IMPLICATIONS FOR INTERNAL CONTROL AND AUDITING Ø Transaction authorization § Controls are needed to IMPLICATIONS FOR INTERNAL CONTROL AND AUDITING Ø Transaction authorization § Controls are needed to validate transactions before they are accepted by other modules § ERPs are more dependent on programmed controls than on human intervention Ø Segregation of duties § Manual processes that normally require segregation of duties are often eliminated § User role: predefined user roles limit a user’s access to certain functions and data

IMPLICATIONS FOR INTERNAL CONTROL AND AUDITING Ø Supervision § Supervisors need to acquire a IMPLICATIONS FOR INTERNAL CONTROL AND AUDITING Ø Supervision § Supervisors need to acquire a technical and operational understanding of the new system § Employee-empowered philosophy should not eliminate supervision Ø Accounting records § Corrupted data may be passed from external sources and from legacy systems § Loss of paper audit trail

IMPLICATIONS FOR INTERNAL CONTROL AND AUDITING Ø Access controls § Critical concern with confidentiality IMPLICATIONS FOR INTERNAL CONTROL AND AUDITING Ø Access controls § Critical concern with confidentiality of information § Who should have access to what? Ø Access to data warehouse § Data warehouses often involve sharing information with suppliers and customers.

IMPLICATIONS FOR INTERNAL CONTROL AND AUDITING Ø Contingency planning § How to keep business IMPLICATIONS FOR INTERNAL CONTROL AND AUDITING Ø Contingency planning § How to keep business going in case of disaster § Key role of servers requires backup plans: redundant servers or shared servers Ø Independent verification § Traditional verifications are meaningless § Need to shift from transaction level to overall performance level

Auditing and Assurance 2 e, Hall & Singleton Auditing and Assurance 2 e, Hall & Singleton

Auditing and Assurance 2 e, Hall & Singleton Auditing and Assurance 2 e, Hall & Singleton

Auditing and Assurance 2 e, Hall & Singleton Auditing and Assurance 2 e, Hall & Singleton

Auditing and Assurance 2 e, Hall & Singleton Auditing and Assurance 2 e, Hall & Singleton

Auditing and Assurance 2 e, Hall & Singleton Auditing and Assurance 2 e, Hall & Singleton

ERP PRODUCTS Ø SAP: largest ERP vendor § Modules can be integrated or used ERP PRODUCTS Ø SAP: largest ERP vendor § Modules can be integrated or used alone § New features include SCM, B 2 B, ecommerce, XML § Began with MRP systems ERP Ø J. D. Edwards § Flexibility: users can change features; less of a pre-set structure than SAP’s § Modularity: accept modules (bolt-ons) from other vendors

ERP PRODUCTS Ø Oracle § Tailored to e-business focus § Internet based vs. client-server ERP PRODUCTS Ø Oracle § Tailored to e-business focus § Internet based vs. client-server based applications Ø People. Soft § Open, modular architecture allows rapid integration with existing systems Ø Baan § Use of “best-of-class” applications

Chapter 6: ERP Chapter 6: ERP