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Chapter 5 Business Organization 5 -1 Business in the U. S. Economy 5 -2 Chapter 5 Business Organization 5 -1 Business in the U. S. Economy 5 -2 Forms of Business Ownership 5 -3 Organizational Structure for Businesses Introduction to Business © Thomson South-Western

LESSON 5 -1 Business in the U. S. Economy Goals n Describe the changing LESSON 5 -1 Business in the U. S. Economy Goals n Describe the changing status of U. S. employment. n Discuss the role of business in the U. S. economy. n Describe three major types of businesses. Chapter 5 Slide 2 Introduction to Business © Thomson South-Western

Key Terms n contingent worker n producer n intermediary n service business Chapter 5 Key Terms n contingent worker n producer n intermediary n service business Chapter 5 Slide 3 Introduction to Business © Thomson South-Western

THE CHANGING U. S. JOB MARKET n Employment data n n n 2002 -144 THE CHANGING U. S. JOB MARKET n Employment data n n n 2002 -144 million people held jobs 2012 -165 million people will hold jobs Baby boomers- large number of people born between 1946 and 1964 Minorities and women employment has significantly grown and will continue to grow more than the white male workers. Current Employment Data n Pressures on employees n Contingent worker-one who has no explicit or implicit contract for long term employment. 5% = 6 million workers Chapter 5 Slide 4 . Introduction to Business © Thomson South-Western

>> C H E C K P O I N T List several groups >> C H E C K P O I N T List several groups that will increase as a percentage of the total U. S. workforce in the next decade. Chapter 5 Slide 5 Introduction to Business © Thomson South-Western

BUSINESS AND THE ECONOMY n Size of businesses n n n Most US businesses BUSINESS AND THE ECONOMY n Size of businesses n n n Most US businesses are small Nearly 18 million have no employees other than owner 5 million employ 20 or less n Roles of business n n Provide employment for millions of people Wages and profits compensate workers and owners Taxes paid are used by the government to provide services such as clean water, hospitals, schools, and police and fire protection. Most important role is to make and distribute products and services needed by consumers, government, and other businesses. n Impact on a community n n n Employees spend money on community businesses Money spent may result in the need for more employees therefore increasing jobs. Successful businesses contribute more jobs, more income, and a thriving economy in the communities where they operate. Chapter 5 Slide 6 Introduction to Business © Thomson South-Western

NUMBER OF EMPLOYEES IN U. S. BUSINESSES Chapter 5 Slide 7 Introduction to Business NUMBER OF EMPLOYEES IN U. S. BUSINESSES Chapter 5 Slide 7 Introduction to Business © Thomson South-Western

BUSINESS ACTIVITIES *All businesses perform 6 basic activities n Generating ideas n Raising capital BUSINESS ACTIVITIES *All businesses perform 6 basic activities n Generating ideas n Raising capital n Employing and training personnel n Buying goods and services n Marketing goods and services n Maintaining business records Chapter 5 Slide 8 Introduction to Business © Thomson South-Western

>> C H E C K P O I N T What are the >> C H E C K P O I N T What are the six basic activities completed by all businesses? Chapter 5 Slide 9 Introduction to Business © Thomson South-Western

TYPES OF BUSINESSES n Producers-create the products and services. n n n Extractors-takes resources TYPES OF BUSINESSES n Producers-create the products and services. n n n Extractors-takes resources from nature for direct consumption Farmers-cultivate land use other natural resources to grow crops and livestock for consumption. Manufacturers-get supplies from other producers and convert them into products. (Jeans) n Intermediaries-businesses involved in selling the goods and services of producers to consumers and other businesses. n Retailers and wholesalers –Examples Sams Club; BJ’s; Best Buy; 7 -11 n Wholesalers/outlets are cheaper because they cut out the middle man! n Service businesses- Carries out activities that are consumed by its customers. n Offers something that is intangible. n Over 60% of all US Employment is now in service producing businesses. n Chapter 5 Slide 10 Dual Income Families- no time Introduction to Business © Thomson South-Western

>> C H E C K P O I N T How does a >> C H E C K P O I N T How does a manufacturer differ from an extractor? Chapter 5 Slide 11 Introduction to Business © Thomson South-Western

LESSON 5 -2 Forms of Business Ownership Goals n Understand the three major forms LESSON 5 -2 Forms of Business Ownership Goals n Understand the three major forms of business ownership. n Determine when each form of business ownership is most appropriate. n Recognize other specialized business ownership forms. Chapter 5 Slide 12 Introduction to Business © Thomson South-Western

Key Terms n proprietorship n partnership n corporation n partnership agreement n articles of Key Terms n proprietorship n partnership n corporation n partnership agreement n articles of incorporation n franchise Chapter 5 Slide 13 Introduction to Business © Thomson South-Western

BUSINESS OWNERSHIP n n Proprietorship-owned and operated by 1 person. n All profits, all BUSINESS OWNERSHIP n n Proprietorship-owned and operated by 1 person. n All profits, all decisions n Responsible for all debts (personally) Partnership-owned and operated by 2 or more people. n n n All profits and decisions shared All are responsible for debts of business. Corporation- separate legal entity formed by documents (charter) filed with state. n n n Owned by shareholders and managed by board of directors. Difficult to form (must meet legal requirements, and very costly) Only responsible for the amount of invested by stockholders. Chapter 5 Slide 14 Introduction to Business © Thomson South-Western

FORMS OF OWNERSHIP Chapter 5 Slide 15 Introduction to Business © Thomson South-Western FORMS OF OWNERSHIP Chapter 5 Slide 15 Introduction to Business © Thomson South-Western

>> C H E C K P O I N T What are the >> C H E C K P O I N T What are the differences between the three main forms of business ownership? Chapter 5 Slide 16 Introduction to Business © Thomson South-Western

CHOOSING A FORM OF BUSINESS OWNERSHIP n Choosing a proprietorship n n n Choosing CHOOSING A FORM OF BUSINESS OWNERSHIP n Choosing a proprietorship n n n Choosing a partnership n n n Very easy to start No government permits or licenses (mostly) Tax advantage because they tax your business as personal income Business expenses reduce personal income Unlimited Liability (Personal responsibility) Similar to proprietorship Must sign partnership agreement 2 or more people invest in company and share all decisions Unlimited Liability (Personal responsibility) Choosing a corporation n n Treated as individuals by the state. Must file articles of incorporation (charter) with state. Limited liability (Not personally responsible) Decision making is shared Double taxation (Taxed on business and shareholders on their dividends) Chapter 5 Slide 17 Introduction to Business © Thomson South-Western

>> C H E C K P O I N T Which form of >> C H E C K P O I N T Which form of business ownership is the most complex and difficult to form? Chapter 5 Slide 18 Introduction to Business © Thomson South-Western

n Specialized partnerships and corporations n n LLC’s – Limited Liability Corporations Joint Venture- n Specialized partnerships and corporations n n LLC’s – Limited Liability Corporations Joint Venture- a strategic alliance where two or more parties, usually businesses, form a partnership to share markets, intellectual property, assets, knowledge, and, of course, profits. n S corporation- a corporation that makes a valid election to be taxed under Subchapter S of Chapter 1 of the Internal Revenue Code. In general, S corporations do not pay any federal income taxes. Instead, the corporation's income or losses are divided among and passed through to its shareholders. The shareholders must then report the income or loss on their own individual income tax returns. n Non profit organizations (Churches, YMCA) n Cooperatives and franchises n n Cooperative-a business organization owned and operated by a group of individuals for their mutual benefit (Credit unions) Franchise-the right or license granted by a company to an individual or group to market its products or services in a specific territory. (Mc. Donalds; Eagles) n Franchiser and franchisee Chapter 5 Slide 19 Introduction to Business © Thomson South-Western

>> C H E C K P O I N T What are the >> C H E C K P O I N T What are the other specialized forms of business ownership? Chapter 5 Slide 20 Introduction to Business © Thomson South-Western

LESSON 5 -3 Organizational Structure for Businesses Goals n Understand important principles in designing LESSON 5 -3 Organizational Structure for Businesses Goals n Understand important principles in designing an effective organization. n Compare alternative organizational structures for businesses. Chapter 5 Slide 21 Introduction to Business © Thomson South-Western

Key Terms n mission statement n goal n policies n procedures n organization chart Key Terms n mission statement n goal n policies n procedures n organization chart Chapter 5 Slide 22 Introduction to Business © Thomson South-Western

DESIGNING AN EFFECTIVE BUSINESS ORGANIZATION n Setting direction n Direction comes from mission statement DESIGNING AN EFFECTIVE BUSINESS ORGANIZATION n Setting direction n Direction comes from mission statement (short, specific written statement of the reason a business exists and what it wants to achieve). n n n After mission statement, the business sets goals (precise statement of results the business expects to achieve). Goals are used to define what needs to be accomplished and to determine if the business is successful. n n EX: “to produce the top-rated brand for quality and customer satisfaction” Finally, the business sets policies and procedures for the organization n Chapter 5 Slide 23 EX: “To provide economy-and quality-minded travelers with a premier, moderate-priced lodging facility which is consistently perceived as clean, comfortable, well-maintained and attractive, staffed by friendly, attentive, and efficient people” Policies- guidelines used in making consistent decisions Procedures- descriptions of the way work is to be done. Effective policies and procedures provide guidance and direction to people working in the organization Introduction to Business © Thomson South-Western

Principles of Effective Organization n Responsibility, Authority, and Accountability n n n Responsibility is Principles of Effective Organization n Responsibility, Authority, and Accountability n n n Responsibility is the obligation to complete specific work. Authority is the right to make decisions about how responsibilities should be accomplished. Accountability is taking responsibility for the results achieved. In an effective organization, all managers and employees have a set of responsibilities as a part of their jobs. With every job assignment, they know they have the authority to make the decisions and obtain resources needed to complete the assignment. They know they will be recognized and rewarded if they are successful AND/OR be held accountable if the work is not completed well. Chapter 5 Slide 24 Introduction to Business © Thomson South-Western

Principles of Effective Organization n Unity of Command n n There is a clear Principles of Effective Organization n Unity of Command n n There is a clear reporting relationship for all staff of a business. If there is confusion in assignments and unclear relationships among people who are working together, it will be hard for people to know what to do or where to go for help. For each work assignment, people need to know who is the leader and how decisions will be made. n Span Of Control n n n The number of employees who are assigned a particular work task and manager. Organizations need to make sure that workers have a balance of supervision and freedom to do their work. The span of control for well trained, experienced, and motivated employees can be much greater than for new and inexperienced employees who are not enthused about their work. Chapter 5 Slide 25 Introduction to Business © Thomson South-Western

>> C H E C K P O I N T What is the >> C H E C K P O I N T What is the difference between a mission statement and a goal? Chapter 5 Slide 26 Introduction to Business © Thomson South-Western

TYPES OF ORGANIZATIONAL STRUCTURES There needs to be an agreement on what work each TYPES OF ORGANIZATIONAL STRUCTURES There needs to be an agreement on what work each person will do and if one person has authority over the work of others. Organization chart is a diagram that shows the structure of an organization, classifications of work and jobs, and the relationships among those classifications. n Functional organization structure n n n In this type of organizational structure, work is arranged within main business functions such as production, operations, marketing, and human resources. All of the people with jobs related to one of the functions will work together. They report to managers who are responsible for that function. Advantage- people work with others who have same work skills. Disadvantage- people become focused on their specific function than on the success of the whole business. n Matrix organizational structure n n Work is structured around specific projects, products, or customer groups. People with varied backgrounds are assigned together because their expertise is required for the project or to serve the customer. Advantage-interesting and motivating for employees; focused on task; work with many different people. Disadvantage- it can be confusing and inefficient without effective leadership and communication. Chapter 5 Slide 27 Introduction to Business © Thomson South-Western

BUSINESS ORGANIZATION CHART Chapter 5 Slide 28 Introduction to Business © Thomson South-Western BUSINESS ORGANIZATION CHART Chapter 5 Slide 28 Introduction to Business © Thomson South-Western

>> C H E C K P O I N T What problems can >> C H E C K P O I N T What problems can result from the use of a functional organizational structure? Chapter 5 Slide 29 Introduction to Business © Thomson South-Western