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Chapter 2: Tools for Healthy Eating Presentation created by Jill Goode Englett, University of Alabama and Ellen Brennan, San Antonio College © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc.
Components of a Healthy Diet Include: • Adequacy • Balance • Variety • Moderation © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc.
Healthy Eating Principles Ø Adequacy • Diet provides all the essential nutrients, fiber, and energy • Inadequacy Undernutrition Malnutrition Ø Balance • Diet provides the correct proportion of nutrients • Overnutrition Overweight and Obesity © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc.
Healthy Eating Principles Ø Variety • Diet contains a mixture of different food groups and foods within each group Ø Moderation • Diet provides reasonable but not excessive amounts or foods and nutrients • Be aware of portion size and number of servings © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc.
Nutrient-Dense Foods Ø Nutrient density refers to • The measurement of the nutrients in a food compared to its kilocalorie content • Foods which provide more nutrients per kilocalorie • Foods which are lower in fat and added sugar © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc.
Which Is More Nutrient Dense? Figure 2. 2
Energy Dense Foods: Ø Energy density refers to the measurement of kilocalories compared with weight (grams) of the food Ø High energy dense foods tend to be higher in fat and sugar (More Calories packed into less weight). Sometimes called “empty calorie foods” Ø Low-energy-dense foods • Lower in fat and high in nutrient content • Means one can eat larger portions without exceeding kilocalorie need • Will “fill you up before they fill you out” © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc.
Portion Distortion Ø Portion – the amount of a food eaten in one sitting Ø Serving size – the standard amount or recommended portion of food for which the nutrient composition is presented Ø Portion sizes have increased over the years © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc.
Portion Distortion Ø Increased portion sizes have contributed to • Increased kcal intake • Increased weight • Increased risk of developing - Cardiovascular disease - Diabetes - Joint problems - Cancers © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc.
Resources for Planning a Healthy Diet Ø Dietary Reference Intakes (DRIs) • Reference values for nutrients developed by the Food and Nutrition Board (FNB) of the Institute of Medicine • These reference values are used to - suggest nutrient intake levels for different population groups - plan and evaluate the diets of healthy people in the United States and Canada © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc.
Dietary Reference Intakes (DRIs) Ø Focus on • Maintaining good health • Reducing the risk of developing chronic disease • Avoiding unhealthy excess (toxic amounts of nutrients) Ø Nutrient recommendations for different life stages • Age • Gender • Pregnant • Lactating Ø Periodically updated © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc.
DRIs Include Several Reference Values © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Figure 2. 4
DRI Reference Values Ø Estimated Average Requirements (EAR) • Amount of a nutrient projected to meet the needs of 50% of healthy Americans by age and gender • Requirements are based on measurements that indicate whether the individual is at risk of a deficiency • If there isn’t enough research to develop appropriate measurements for a nutrient, EAR is not established • Used to calculate RDAs © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc.
DRI Reference Values Ø Recommended Dietary Allowance (RDA) • Recommendation for each nutrient that should meet the needs of nearly all (97 to 98%) the healthy individuals in a specific gender and age group • Allowances are set higher than the EARs • Not established for all nutrients © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc.
DRI Reference Values Ø Adequate Intakes (AI) • Set when there is not enough scientific evidence to determine an RDA • Estimate based on the judgment of the FNB members when an EAR cannot be determined • Next best scientific estimate of the amount of a nutrient that groups of similar individuals should consume to maintain good health © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc.
DRI Reference Values Ø Ø Tolerable Upper Intake Level (UL) • Highest amount of a nutrient that is unlikely to cause harm if consumed daily • Consumption above this level increases risk of toxicity • Not all nutrients have ULs Estimated Energy Requirements (EER) • Amount of daily energy needed to maintain a healthy body and meet energy needs based on - Age - Weight - Activity Level - Gender - Height © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc.
DRI Reference Values Ø Acceptable Macronutrient Distribution Ranges (AMDR) • Addresses the recommended balance of fuel nutrients to meet physiological needs - Carbohydrates - Fats - Proteins © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. 45– 65% of daily kcal 20– 35% of daily kcal 10– 35% of daily kcal
2 Views of RDA: Danger of toxicity of Toxicity Marginal Safety Tolerable Upper Intake Level RDA or AI Estimated Marginal Average Requirement Danger Deficiency Danger of of Deficiency deficiency Naive view Accurate view RDA © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc.
Goal of the Dietary Reference Intakes: Defining a Safe or Optimal Zone for Nutrient Intake © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc.
Resources for Planning a Healthy Diet Ø The DRIs provide a basis for diet planning resources including: • The Dietary Guidelines for Americans • Choose. My. Plate (replaces Food Guide Pyramid) • Daily Values (DVs) on food labels Ø These guides help consumers • Plan an adequate, varied, moderate, and balanced diet • Decide what foods to buy © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc.
Quick Review Ø Healthy eating • Consuming - Right amount of food - Food from a variety of food groups - Adequate nutrients - Moderate level of energy • Choosing nutrient-dense and low-energy-dense foods Ø Reference values, guidelines, and tools have been developed to help individuals make healthy choices © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc.
Quick Review Ø Ø DRIs are specific reference values that help individuals determine the daily nutrient needs to maintain good health, prevent chronic diseases, and avoid unhealthy excesses • Reference values include - EAR - RDA (try to meet) - UL (consume below) - AI (try to meet) - AMDR EER help determine appropriate amount of energy needed to maintain healthy body weight based on - Age - Gender - Weight - Height - Activity level © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc.
Diet Planning Tools for the Consumer: Ø Dietary Guidelines for Americans Ø “My. Plate” Guide Ø Food Label Information © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc.
Dietary Guidelines for Americans Ø Set nutritional goals for Americans based on current scientific evidence Ø By law must be updated every five years by committee appointed by the U. S. Department of Agriculture (USDA) and the Department of Health and Human Services (DHHS) Ø Shapes all federally funded nutritional programs in areas of research and labeling Ø Educates and guides consumers concerning healthy diet and lifestyle choices © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc.
Dietary Guidelines for Americans 2010 Ø The most current nutrition and physical activity recommendations for good health Ø Designed to help individuals aged 2 and over • Improve the quality of diet • Lower the risk of chronic disease and unhealthy conditions Selected messages for consumers: http: //www. cnpp. usda. gov/Publications/Dietary. Guideline s/2010/Policy. Doc/Selected. Messages. pdf © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc.
What Is My. Plate? Ø Food guidance system • Graphics used to summarize guidelines to healthy eating Ø Visual depiction of the recommendations in the Dietary Guidelines for Americans 2010 Ø Online components provide personalized diet plan based on the latest nutrition and health recommendations from • Dietary Guidelines Advisory Committee Report • DRIs Ø Illustrates the diet and lifestyle themes © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc.
My. Plate: www. choosemyplate. gov © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc.
Fitting Empty Calories into a Balanced Diet Figure 2. 9
Discretionary Calories = Empty Calories
Quick Review Ø My. Plate • Latest food guidance system developed by the USDA • Tool to help individuals choose a well-balanced diet • Emphasizes - Varied diet rich in fruits, vegetables, whole grains, and lean protein and low fat or fat free dairy products - Diet that includes only moderate amounts of foods high in sofas (solid fats and added sugars) - Encourages gradual, small changes to improve diet and lifestyle © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc.
Does Eating Pattern Impact Health? Ø Eating breakfast may decrease the total number of kilocalories eaten in a day • Increases satiety (feeling of fullness) • May help with weight management • Helps regulate blood glucose and serum cholesterol levels Ø Eating later in the day may increase kilocalorie intake Ø Eating more fat and consuming more alcohol on the weekends can result in weight gain © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc.
Some Suggestions: Ø Start every day with a nutrient-dense breakfast Ø Choose breakfast foods that are more satisfying Ø Control kilocalorie intake on nights and weekends © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc.
Most Food Labels Are Regulated by the FDA Ø Every packaged food must be labeled with • Name of food • Net weight, the weight of the food in the package, excluding weight of the package or packing material • Name and address of the manufacturer or distributor • List of ingredients in descending order by weight Ø Nutrition Labeling and Education Act mandated in 1990 • Uniform nutritional information • Serving sizes • Set criteria for most label claims and health claims © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc.
Food labels regulated by the USDA Ø Meats Ø Poultry Ø Some differences in label requirements © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc.
Food Labels Regulated by the FDA Ø Requirements include: • Nutrition information: total kilocalories, kilocalories from fat, total fat, saturated fat, trans fats, cholesterol, sodium, total carbohydrate, dietary fiber, sugars, vitamin A, vitamin C, calcium, and iron • Uniform serving sizes among similar products • Indication of how a serving of the food fits into an overall daily diet (Daily Value) • Uniform definitions for descriptive label terms such as “light” and “fat free” • Health claims that are accurate and science based or they require a qualification (disclaimer) on the label © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc.
Nutrition Fact Panel Area on the food label that provides a list of specific nutrients obtained in one serving of food Very few foods are exempt from carrying the Nutrition Facts panel Use as a shopping guide to make healthier decisions Figure 2. 12
Daily Values (DVs) Ø Labeling standard only; gives a general idea of how the nutrients in a food fit into the overall diet Ø Based on a 2, 000 kilocalorie diet Ø Food is considered high in nutrient if DV is > 20% Ø Food is considered low in nutrient if DV is < 5% Ø There is no DV for trans fat, sugars, and protein* Ø Some Nutrient Facts Panels have a footnote at the bottom that provides a summary of DVs for 2, 000 and 2, 500 kilocalorie diets * 2 exceptions © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc.
Reading Labels | Reading Labels
Label Claims Can Reveal Potential Health Benefits Ø FDA mandates that most claims on labels follow strict guidelines Ø Currently three types of claims are allowed • Nutrient content claims • Health claims: - Authorized – more valid - Authoritative – more valid - Qualified – require a qualification or disclaimer • Structure/function claims © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc.
This Term Not Defined • Natural – Can mean just about anything. – Always read the ingredient and nutrition information when you see “Natural” on the label.
A Structure/Function Label Claim Figure 2. 14
Quick Review Ø Ø Ø FDA regulates the labeling on all packaged foods Every food label must contain the name of the food, net weight, name and address of the manufacturer or distributor, a list of ingredients, and standardized nutrition information FDA allows and regulates the use of • Nutrient content claims • Health claims • Structure/function claims • Foods or dietary supplements displaying these - Must meet specified criteria - Claims must be truthful © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc.
© 2010 Pearson Education, Inc.
© 2010 Pearson Education, Inc.