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CHAPTER 2 SETTLING THE WEST 1865 -1890
Boomtowns & Mining Leads to Statehood What was the Comstock Lode & what type of ore was found there? Why are they called boomtowns? Who enforced law & justice in boomtowns? What happened to boom towns when mine dried up? What is the correlation between mines & new states? What town had deep deposits of lead & silver? Name states that applied for statehood during time period. Use Abbreviations
Mining Technology Name & describe 4 types of mining What type of mining was ruled by a federal judge to a “public and private nuisance and why?
Ranching & Cattle Drives What type of cow could survive on the tough grasses on the Great Plains? What is the open range? Who owned the open range? What is a long drive and what two things made the long drive profitable? What is the major route to Abilene, Kansas called? What was used to fence off the open range?
Settling the Hispanic Southwest What is a hacienda and who owned them? What caused tensions between English speaking ranchers and Hispanics? What state did the Hispanics have a majority in the population and state legislature? How did barrios keep Spanish culture present in the community?
Silver Ore strike near VA. City, NA that brought many prospectors to the West Quick growing towns around mines with quick economic growth Vigilance committees- self-appointed volunteers who would track down & punish wrongdoers Went bust because economy collapsed
Mines brought people to the West Built railroads to mine towns Enough people in territories to apply for statehood CO, AZ, ND, SD, MT, NM
Placer mining- used simple tools like picks, shovels, and pans Sluice mining- diverted the current of a river into trenches, screens separated the minerals Hydraulic mining- sprayed high pressure water against hill or mountain washing away dirt, gravel, and rock exposing the minerals beneath the surface
Quartz mining- deep mine shafts are dug & miners go underground to extract the minerals Hydraulic mining caused tons of silt, sand, and gravel to wash into local riverbeds causing floods that wrecked property and farmland.
Texas Longhorns Vast area of grasslands that the federal government owned Trains & price up beef went up Chisholm Trail Barbed wire
Landholding elite owned huge ranches that covered thousands of acres Ownership of land caused tensions Barrios had Spanish-speaking businesses and Spanish-language newspapers Barrios kept cultural and religious traditions alive
SETTLING THE WEST 1865 - 1900 Chapter 8
Section 1 Miners and Ranchers Main Idea: Miners and ranchers settled large areas of the West. Growth of the mining industry: * Placer mining - prospectors used picks, shovels, pans, etc; scooped up shallow deposits.
* Quartz mining - dug deep beneath surface. * Henry Comstock discovered the “Comstock Lode” - huge silver vein near Virginia City, Nev. “Boomtown” “Ghost town” Wild mining towns led to vigilance committees (volunteers who enforced law in the West).
Boomtown to Ghost town
Ranching & Cattle Drives * Early 1800 s - People thought that eastern cattle could not survive the Great Plains (water scarce, prairie grasses tough). * Texas longhorns were well-adapted to Plains. * Open range - vast area of gov’t-owned grassland.
* After Civil War - beef was rare & expensive; RRs could carry rounded-up longhorns to markets in the East. * Long drive - cattle was “driven” (herded) long distances to railheads (RR stations) & shipped East.
* Chisholm Trail - Famous long drive route Texas to Abilene, Kansas. * Range Wars broke out when sheep herds moved onto open range & also when farmers moved in. * Barbed wire - enabled huge areas to be fenced in cheaply. (Can you think of another advantage to using barbed wire on the Great Plains? ) from
Why did long drives end? * Fencing-in of the open range. * Brits & European investors poured $$$ into cattle business oversupply prices fell ranchers went bankrupt! * Blizzards in 1886 -87; killed huge numbers of herds. Result……. Fenced-in ranches made long drives difficult.
Section 1 Settling the Hispanic Southwest (cont. ) • In place of the mission system in California, landowners owned vast haciendas. – After the California gold rush, however, Hispanic Californians were vastly outnumbered. – As they had done with the Native Americans, settlers from the East clashed with the Mexican Americans over land.
Section 1 Settling the Hispanic Southwest (cont. ) – As more railroads were built in the 1880 s and 1890 s, the population of the Southwest continued to swell with American, European, and Mexican immigrants. – In the growing cities of the Southwest, Hispanics settled in neighborhoods called barrios.
Southwestern Borderlands After the Mexican War, American ranchers and settlers in the Southwest took over the territorial govts. Forced most of the Spanish-speaking population off the land The Mexican minority tended to become lowpaid day laborers Faced discrimination and periodic violent attacks
Southwestern Borderlands (cont. ) Mexican-Americans fought back by organizing groups such as Las Gorras Blancas (the White Caps) They had little success The Hispanic struggle for justice and equality would continue throughout the 20 th century
Section 2 - Farming the Plains Main Idea: After 1865, settlers staked out homesteads and began farming the Great Plains - from the central Dakotas through Abilene, Texas. Stephen Long - explored the region in 1819 and called it the Great American Desert.
Why did settlement of the Great Plains begin? * RRs - ensured easy access -- Advertised sale of cheap land along RR lines. * Gov’t passed the Homestead Act (1862) - 160 acres free to settlers who would live on the land for five years and make improvements.
Homesteaders on the Great Plains
Challenges for Great Plains settlers: * Lack of trees and water. -- Had to build sod houses (“soddies”). -- Had to drill deep wells. * Heat & drought in summer. * Blizzards in winter. * Prairie fires!!! * Swarms of grasshoppers destroyed crops.
A Great Plains “Soddie”
Interior of a sod home
Wheat Belt - eastern edge of Great Plains. * New farming techniques. -- Dry farming - planted seeds deep for moisture. -- Steel plows (John Deere), seed drills, reapers, & threshers. -- Mechanical reapers - faster harvest. * Bonanza farms - huge wheat farms up to 50, 000 acres; often owned by big corporations.
New farming techniques made farming possible in the Great Plains.
The New Steel Plow by John Deere
Problem: * Better farming techniques * Oversupply of crop * A drop in crop prices * Farmers had to mortgage the land * Often led to farm foreclosures by the banks because farmers could not pay off their mortgages.
Section 3 - Native Americans Main Idea: Settlement of the West dramatically changed the way of life of the Plains Indians. Most were nomads wandered the Plains following the buffalo.
How many ways did the Native Americans use the buffalo?
Native Americans and their Life Most Natives were lumped together in areas of the West Despite their different language, beliefs, and ways of life o. One thing in common: view themselves as part of nature and viewed nature as sacred Food was grown according to their geography Hunted buffalo Homes were built out of mud or clay, and in high cliffs for protection (from aggressive neighbors)
Hunting grounds were disrupted by white settlers. Indians often attacked the settlers. * Dakota Sioux Uprising -- Gov’t delayed payment of promised annuities (pmts to Indians on reservations). -- Chief Little Crow asked traders for food on credit; was turned down. -- Sioux attacked, killing hundreds of white settlers. Little Crow
1864 - Sand Creek Massacre - Colorado militia attacked Cheyenne and Arapaho at Sand Creek - Indians thought they were under the protection of a nearby government outpost - Over 100 Indians were slaughtered (including women and children)
Sand Creek Massacre (Colorado)
Indian Peace Commission (1867) proposed: * Two large reservations on the Great Plains. * Bureau of Indian Affairs would run them. * Forced Indians to sign treaty. * Bad living conditions for the Indians on reservations; they received what was seen as the least desirable land.
Fighting begins 1866 - Chief Red Cloud (Sioux: ) defeated Captain W. J. Fetterman and 80 U. S. army soldiers Led them into a trap and killed them
Fighting begins Little Bighorn (most famous battle of the Indian wars) The Black Hills of South Dakota had been set aside for the Sioux and Northern Cheyenne
1874 - U. S. Army exploring party found gold - Settlers went looking for gold - Gov. tried to buy the Black Hills (Sioux considered land sacred) - 1875 and 1876 - Sioux warriors left their reservations and united under the leadership of two Sioux chiefs (Sitting Bull and Crazy Horse)
Fighting begins June 25, 1876 - George Armstrong Custer and several hundred army soldiers found a Sioux camp near the Little Bighorn River - Custer gained fame fighting in Civil War - Admirers considered him a daring brilliant officer
- Critics considered him a dangerous showoff Custer had orders to attack any Indians he came into contact with When he attacked he was actually stepping into a trap Custer and all of his men were killed - Became known as "Custer's Last Stand"
* Battle of Little Bighorn (1876) Lakota & Cheyenne vs. General George Armstrong Custer & 210 soldiers. Custer & all his men were killed. General George Armstrong Custer
Fighting begins People in the East were shocked by the news of the Battle of Little Bighorn - U. S. Gov. sent 1000's of troops to fight the Indians The Battle of Little Bighorn was the last Indian Victory in the Indian Wars - 1876 - U. S. Army defeated the Sioux - Sitting Bull and his followers escaped to Canada Crazy Horse was arrested - He was fatally stabbed as he was being arrested - Not sure if guard or another Indian stabbed him
Nez Perce lived in northwest (Oregon and Idaho) - Fished for salmon, gathered food, and hunted Chief Joseph refused to sell land to government 1877 - Gov. ordered the Nez Perce people to move to a reservation - They fled and tried to evade the army Captured about 40 miles south of Canada - Chief Joseph made speech - Said that he would fight no more forever Chief Joseph
I am tired of fighting. Our chiefs are killed…. The old men are all dead. It is the young men who say no and yes. He who led the young men is dead. It is cold and we have no blankets. The little children are freezing to death. Some of my people have run away to the hills And have no blankets, no food. No one knows where they are Perhaps they are freezing to death. I want to have time to look for my children… Maybe I shall find them among the dead.
Hear me my chiefs, I am tired My heart is sad and sick From where the sun now stands I will fight no more…forever. Chief Joseph Nez Perce Indians 1877
* Wounded Knee - 1890 -- Lakota ignored orders and continued to perform the Ghost Dance (ritual celebrating the day when whites would be gone, buffalo would return, etc…) -- Battle - 25 US soldiers and 200 Lakota men, women, and children killed. -- Last major Indian battle.
Aftermath of the Battle of Wounded Knee --- the last major battle of the Indian Wars
Assimilation Conditions grew worse as more Indians were forced on to reservations Reformers began calling for changes Many white though that only solution was to make the Indians become more like the whites - Assimilation - to adopt the culture of the people around you
Assimilation Dawes Act (1887) - intended to make Indians give up their traditions and accept White customs - Reservation lands were divided up in farm plots for families and individuals (40 to 160 acres) - Any remaining land was sold to white settlers - Profits used to pay for Indian schools - Indians who accepted the plots of land could become citizens for the 1 st time
Dawes Act failed - Many western Indians didn't want to settle down as farmers - Lacked tools and training - Many sold their plots to white settlers cheap End 1800's - situation of the American Indians was tragic - Lost land, people, and culture - 20 th century U. S. government finally realizes importance of Indian way of life
Last Native American Wars: * Buffalo were rapidly disappearing through rampant killing by buffalo hunters.
Carlisle Indian School Carlisle, Pennsylvania 1915