Chapter 2 Kenneth L. Bontrager John P. Lampignano

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Chapter 2 Kenneth L. Bontrager John P. Lampignano Copyright © 2010 by Mosby, Inc. , anChapter 2 Kenneth L. Bontrager John P. Lampignano Copyright © 2010 by Mosby, Inc. , an affiliate of Elsevier Inc.

2 Copyright © 2010 by Mosby, Inc. , an affiliate of Elsevier Inc. 1. Density 2.2 Copyright © 2010 by Mosby, Inc. , an affiliate of Elsevier Inc. 1. Density 2. Contrast 3. Resolution 4. Distortion

3 Copyright © 2010 by Mosby, Inc. , an affiliate of Elsevier Inc. 1. Kilovoltage (k.3 Copyright © 2010 by Mosby, Inc. , an affiliate of Elsevier Inc. 1. Kilovoltage (k. V) 2. Milliamperage (m. A) 3. Exposure time (seconds) – m. As (milliampere- seconds)

4 Copyright © 2010 by Mosby, Inc. , an affiliate of Elsevier Inc. Amount of blackness4 Copyright © 2010 by Mosby, Inc. , an affiliate of Elsevier Inc. Amount of blackness Controlling factors: –– m. As (m. A × time) –– k. V Influencing factors: –– Source image receptor distance (SID) –– Screen and IR speed

5 Copyright © 2010 by Mosby, Inc. , an affiliate of Elsevier Inc. 15 change in5 Copyright © 2010 by Mosby, Inc. , an affiliate of Elsevier Inc. 15% change in k. V (similar to doubling m. As) Examples: 80 k. V . 15 = 12 k. V 60 k. V . 15 = 9 k. V

6 Copyright © 2010 by Mosby, Inc. , an affiliate of Elsevier Inc. Density adjustment rule:6 Copyright © 2010 by Mosby, Inc. , an affiliate of Elsevier Inc. Density adjustment rule: 25% to 30% increase in m. As (minimum change) Density repeat rule: Doubling m. As (to correct density on repeats)

7 Copyright © 2010 by Mosby, Inc. , an affiliate of Elsevier Inc. More intense under7 Copyright © 2010 by Mosby, Inc. , an affiliate of Elsevier Inc. More intense under cathode Increase with – Small focal spot – Shorter SID – Larger IR size Application – Thicker parts at cathode

8 Copyright © 2010 by Mosby, Inc. , an affiliate of Elsevier Inc. Compensating Filters Compensating8 Copyright © 2010 by Mosby, Inc. , an affiliate of Elsevier Inc. Compensating Filters Compensating filters filter out a portion of the primary beam toward the thin or less dense part of the body that is being imaged. Types of compensating filters include the following: Wedge filter Trough Boomerang

9 Copyright © 2010 by Mosby, Inc. , an affiliate of Elsevier Inc. Compensating Filters Wedge9 Copyright © 2010 by Mosby, Inc. , an affiliate of Elsevier Inc. Compensating Filters Wedge filter Boomerang filter

10 Copyright © 2010 by Mosby, Inc. , an affiliate of Elsevier Inc. Benefits of Compensating10 Copyright © 2010 by Mosby, Inc. , an affiliate of Elsevier Inc. Benefits of Compensating Filter

11 Copyright © 2010 by Mosby, Inc. , an affiliate of Elsevier Inc. Differences (variation) in11 Copyright © 2010 by Mosby, Inc. , an affiliate of Elsevier Inc. Differences (variation) in density Controlling factor — k. V

12 Copyright © 2010 by Mosby, Inc. , an affiliate of Elsevier Inc. High contrast: –12 Copyright © 2010 by Mosby, Inc. , an affiliate of Elsevier Inc. High contrast: – Short scale – 50 k. V (800 m. As) Low contrast: – Long scale – 110 k. V (20 m. As)

13 Copyright © 2010 by Mosby, Inc. , an affiliate of Elsevier Inc. Off-Center Grid Cutoff13 Copyright © 2010 by Mosby, Inc. , an affiliate of Elsevier Inc. Off-Center Grid Cutoff

14 Copyright © 2010 by Mosby, Inc. , an affiliate of Elsevier Inc. Off-Level Grid Cutoff14 Copyright © 2010 by Mosby, Inc. , an affiliate of Elsevier Inc. Off-Level Grid Cutoff

15 Copyright © 2010 by Mosby, Inc. , an affiliate of Elsevier Inc. Off-Focus Grid Cutoff15 Copyright © 2010 by Mosby, Inc. , an affiliate of Elsevier Inc. Off-Focus Grid Cutoff

16 Copyright © 2010 by Mosby, Inc. , an affiliate of Elsevier Inc. Upside-Down Grid Cutoff16 Copyright © 2010 by Mosby, Inc. , an affiliate of Elsevier Inc. Upside-Down Grid Cutoff

17 Copyright © 2010 by Mosby, Inc. , an affiliate of Elsevier Inc. Recorded sharpness of17 Copyright © 2010 by Mosby, Inc. , an affiliate of Elsevier Inc. Recorded sharpness of structures Lack of definition is blur or unsharpness. Motion is greatest deterrent (two types).

18 Copyright © 2010 by Mosby, Inc. , an affiliate of Elsevier Inc. Voluntary motion (breathing)18 Copyright © 2010 by Mosby, Inc. , an affiliate of Elsevier Inc. Voluntary motion (breathing) Involuntary motion (peristalsis)

19 Copyright © 2010 by Mosby, Inc. , an affiliate of Elsevier Inc. 1. Small focal19 Copyright © 2010 by Mosby, Inc. , an affiliate of Elsevier Inc. 1. Small focal spot —— Use small focal spot whenever possible to improve detail. 2. Shorter exposure time —— Use shortest exposure time possible to control voluntary and involuntary motion. 3. Film-screen speed —— Use faster film-screen speed to control voluntary and involuntary motion. 4. SID —— Use longer SID to improve detail. 5. OID —— Use shorter OID to improve detail.

20 Copyright © 2010 by Mosby, Inc. , an affiliate of Elsevier Inc.  20 Copyright © 2010 by Mosby, Inc. , an affiliate of Elsevier Inc.

21 Copyright © 2010 by Mosby, Inc. , an affiliate of Elsevier Inc. Misrepresentatio n of21 Copyright © 2010 by Mosby, Inc. , an affiliate of Elsevier Inc. Misrepresentatio n of object size or shape X-ray beam divergence

22 Copyright © 2010 by Mosby, Inc. , an affiliate of Elsevier Inc. Controlling factors SID22 Copyright © 2010 by Mosby, Inc. , an affiliate of Elsevier Inc. Controlling factors SID (source image receptor distance) OID Object IR alignment CR alignment

23 Copyright © 2010 by Mosby, Inc. , an affiliate of Elsevier Inc. Controlling factors SID23 Copyright © 2010 by Mosby, Inc. , an affiliate of Elsevier Inc. Controlling factors SID OID (object image receptor distance)

24 Copyright © 2010 by Mosby, Inc. , an affiliate of Elsevier Inc. Controlling factors SID24 Copyright © 2010 by Mosby, Inc. , an affiliate of Elsevier Inc. Controlling factors SID Object IR alignment

25 Copyright © 2010 by Mosby, Inc. , an affiliate of Elsevier Inc. Digits parallel —25 Copyright © 2010 by Mosby, Inc. , an affiliate of Elsevier Inc. Digits parallel — joint open Digits not parallel — joints not open

26 Copyright © 2010 by Mosby, Inc. , an affiliate of Elsevier Inc. Controlling factors SID26 Copyright © 2010 by Mosby, Inc. , an affiliate of Elsevier Inc. Controlling factors SID Object IR alignment CR alignment

27 Copyright © 2010 by Mosby, Inc. , an affiliate of Elsevier Inc. CR Alignment CR27 Copyright © 2010 by Mosby, Inc. , an affiliate of Elsevier Inc. CR Alignment CR parallel to joint CR not parallel to joint

28 Copyright © 2010 by Mosby, Inc. , an affiliate of Elsevier Inc. Quiz Me Which28 Copyright © 2010 by Mosby, Inc. , an affiliate of Elsevier Inc. Quiz Me Which of the following is NOT a quality factor film-based radiography? A. Density B. Focal spot size C. Contrast D. Distortion E. Resolution

29 Copyright © 2010 by Mosby, Inc. , an affiliate of Elsevier Inc. Quiz Me The29 Copyright © 2010 by Mosby, Inc. , an affiliate of Elsevier Inc. Quiz Me The primary controlling factor for density is A. m. As B. k. V C. SID D. OI

30 Copyright © 2010 by Mosby, Inc. , an affiliate of Elsevier Inc. Quiz Me When30 Copyright © 2010 by Mosby, Inc. , an affiliate of Elsevier Inc. Quiz Me When the anode heel rule is applied, the thicker aspect of the anatomy should be placed under the cathode end of the x-ray tube. A. True B. False

31 Copyright © 2010 by Mosby, Inc. , an affiliate of Elsevier Inc. Quiz Me Which31 Copyright © 2010 by Mosby, Inc. , an affiliate of Elsevier Inc. Quiz Me Which of the following is not a type of compensating filter? A. Wedge B. Boomerang C. Slotted D. Trough

32 Copyright © 2010 by Mosby, Inc. , an affiliate of Elsevier Inc. Quiz Me What32 Copyright © 2010 by Mosby, Inc. , an affiliate of Elsevier Inc. Quiz Me What is the primary controlling factor for radiographic contrast? A. m. As B. k. V C. SID D. Focal spot size

33 Copyright © 2010 by Mosby, Inc. , an affiliate of Elsevier Inc. Quiz Me What33 Copyright © 2010 by Mosby, Inc. , an affiliate of Elsevier Inc. Quiz Me What type of grid cutoff will occur if a shorter SID is used than what is specified for a particular grid? A. Off-center B. Off-level C. Off-focus D. Off-distance

34 Copyright © 2010 by Mosby, Inc. , an affiliate of Elsevier Inc.  34 Copyright © 2010 by Mosby, Inc. , an affiliate of Elsevier Inc.

35 Copyright © 2010 by Mosby, Inc. , an affiliate of Elsevier Inc.  35 Copyright © 2010 by Mosby, Inc. , an affiliate of Elsevier Inc.

36 Copyright © 2010 by Mosby, Inc. , an affiliate of Elsevier Inc. Processing digital image36 Copyright © 2010 by Mosby, Inc. , an affiliate of Elsevier Inc. Processing digital image Exposure controls — k. V, m. As, and time

37 Copyright © 2010 by Mosby, Inc. , an affiliate of Elsevier Inc. Brightness Contrast Resolution37 Copyright © 2010 by Mosby, Inc. , an affiliate of Elsevier Inc. Brightness Contrast Resolution Distortion Exposure index Noise

38 Copyright © 2010 by Mosby, Inc. , an affiliate of Elsevier Inc. AP shoulder —38 Copyright © 2010 by Mosby, Inc. , an affiliate of Elsevier Inc. AP shoulder — high brightness AP shoulder — less brightness. Intensity of light representing individual pixels in image

39 Copyright © 2010 by Mosby, Inc. , an affiliate of Elsevier Inc. Differences in brightness39 Copyright © 2010 by Mosby, Inc. , an affiliate of Elsevier Inc. Differences in brightness between light and dark areas of image AP shoulder — higher contrast AP shoulder — lower contrast

40 Copyright © 2010 by Mosby, Inc. , an affiliate of Elsevier Inc. Controlling factors: 40 Copyright © 2010 by Mosby, Inc. , an affiliate of Elsevier Inc. Controlling factors: Acquisition pixel size – Inherent to the digital imaging detector Display matrix – D ependent on capabilities of the display monitor Recorded Sharpness of Structures on Image

41 Copyright © 2010 by Mosby, Inc. , an affiliate of Elsevier Inc. Controlling factors: 41 Copyright © 2010 by Mosby, Inc. , an affiliate of Elsevier Inc. Controlling factors: SID OID CR alignment Misrepresentation of Object Size or Shape

42 Copyright © 2010 by Mosby, Inc. , an affiliate of Elsevier Inc. A numeric value42 Copyright © 2010 by Mosby, Inc. , an affiliate of Elsevier Inc. A numeric value that is representative of the exposure the image receptor received May be inversely or directly proportional to radiation striking the image receptor Key in verifying optimal digital image is obtained with least dose to patient

43 Copyright © 2010 by Mosby, Inc. , an affiliate of Elsevier Inc. Dependent on the43 Copyright © 2010 by Mosby, Inc. , an affiliate of Elsevier Inc. Dependent on the intensity of the radiation striking the detector, which is the effect of – m. As – k. V – Total detector area irradiated – Objects exposed (air, metal implants, patient anatomy)

44 Copyright © 2010 by Mosby, Inc. , an affiliate of Elsevier Inc. Low exposure index44 Copyright © 2010 by Mosby, Inc. , an affiliate of Elsevier Inc. Low exposure index (high “S” number) — Underexposed Acceptable exposure index

45 Copyright © 2010 by Mosby, Inc. , an affiliate of Elsevier Inc. High exposure index45 Copyright © 2010 by Mosby, Inc. , an affiliate of Elsevier Inc. High exposure index (low “S” number) Acceptable exposure index

46 Copyright © 2010 by Mosby, Inc. , an affiliate of Elsevier Inc. Random disturbance that46 Copyright © 2010 by Mosby, Inc. , an affiliate of Elsevier Inc. Random disturbance that obscures image clarity High signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) is desirable. Low signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) is undesirable.

47 Copyright © 2010 by Mosby, Inc. , an affiliate of Elsevier Inc. Acceptable SNR 47 Copyright © 2010 by Mosby, Inc. , an affiliate of Elsevier Inc. Acceptable SNR (good image quality) Low SNR (poor image quality)

48 Copyright © 2010 by Mosby, Inc. , an affiliate of Elsevier Inc. Changing or enhancing48 Copyright © 2010 by Mosby, Inc. , an affiliate of Elsevier Inc. Changing or enhancing the electronic image to improve diagnostic quality Algorithms applied to improve diagnostic quality of image Post-processing cannot improve low SNR image.

49 Copyright © 2010 by Mosby, Inc. , an affiliate of Elsevier Inc. Windowing Smoothing Magnification49 Copyright © 2010 by Mosby, Inc. , an affiliate of Elsevier Inc. Windowing Smoothing Magnification Edge enhancement Subtraction Image reversal Annotation

50 Copyright © 2010 by Mosby, Inc. , an affiliate of Elsevier Inc. Chest without any50 Copyright © 2010 by Mosby, Inc. , an affiliate of Elsevier Inc. Chest without any post-processing Chest with image reversal

51 Copyright © 2010 by Mosby, Inc. , an affiliate of Elsevier Inc. Nonsubtracted AP shoulder51 Copyright © 2010 by Mosby, Inc. , an affiliate of Elsevier Inc. Nonsubtracted AP shoulder Subtracted and magnified shoulder angiogram

52 Copyright © 2010 by Mosby, Inc. , an affiliate of Elsevier Inc. Quiz Me Highly52 Copyright © 2010 by Mosby, Inc. , an affiliate of Elsevier Inc. Quiz Me Highly complex mathematical formulas are called A. Binary codes B. Exposure indices C. Equalization filters D. Algorithms

53 Copyright © 2010 by Mosby, Inc. , an affiliate of Elsevier Inc. Quiz Me The53 Copyright © 2010 by Mosby, Inc. , an affiliate of Elsevier Inc. Quiz Me The intensity of light that represents the individual pixels in the digital image on the monitor is the definition for A. Brightness B. Contrast C. Density D. Noise

54 Copyright © 2010 by Mosby, Inc. , an affiliate of Elsevier Inc. Quiz Me Random54 Copyright © 2010 by Mosby, Inc. , an affiliate of Elsevier Inc. Quiz Me Random disturbance that obscures or reduces clarity is the definition for A. Noise B. Resolution C. SNR D. Distortion

55 Copyright © 2010 by Mosby, Inc. , an affiliate of Elsevier Inc. Quiz Me A55 Copyright © 2010 by Mosby, Inc. , an affiliate of Elsevier Inc. Quiz Me A low SNR digital image can be enhanced through post-processing techniques. A. True B. False

56 Copyright © 2010 by Mosby, Inc. , an affiliate of Elsevier Inc. Computed tomography (CT),56 Copyright © 2010 by Mosby, Inc. , an affiliate of Elsevier Inc. Computed tomography (CT), one of the first applications of computers in radiography

57 Copyright © 2010 by Mosby, Inc. , an affiliate of Elsevier Inc.  57 Copyright © 2010 by Mosby, Inc. , an affiliate of Elsevier Inc.

58 Copyright © 2010 by Mosby, Inc. , an affiliate of Elsevier Inc.  58 Copyright © 2010 by Mosby, Inc. , an affiliate of Elsevier Inc.

59 Copyright © 2010 by Mosby, Inc. , an affiliate of Elsevier Inc. Why is it59 Copyright © 2010 by Mosby, Inc. , an affiliate of Elsevier Inc. Why is it important to collimate and use lead blockers with CR?

60 Copyright © 2010 by Mosby, Inc. , an affiliate of Elsevier Inc.  60 Copyright © 2010 by Mosby, Inc. , an affiliate of Elsevier Inc.

61 Copyright © 2010 by Mosby, Inc. , an affiliate of Elsevier Inc.  61 Copyright © 2010 by Mosby, Inc. , an affiliate of Elsevier Inc.

62 Copyright © 2010 by Mosby, Inc. , an affiliate of Elsevier Inc.  62 Copyright © 2010 by Mosby, Inc. , an affiliate of Elsevier Inc.

63 Copyright © 2010 by Mosby, Inc. , an affiliate of Elsevier Inc. Film-screen Computed radiography63 Copyright © 2010 by Mosby, Inc. , an affiliate of Elsevier Inc. Film-screen Computed radiography (CR) Direct digital radiography (DR)

64 Copyright © 2010 by Mosby, Inc. , an affiliate of Elsevier Inc.  64 Copyright © 2010 by Mosby, Inc. , an affiliate of Elsevier Inc.

65 Copyright © 2010 by Mosby, Inc. , an affiliate of Elsevier Inc. PACS RIS HL65 Copyright © 2010 by Mosby, Inc. , an affiliate of Elsevier Inc. PACS RIS HL 7 DICOM IP IR SNR

66 Copyright © 2010 by Mosby, Inc. , an affiliate of Elsevier Inc. What is the66 Copyright © 2010 by Mosby, Inc. , an affiliate of Elsevier Inc. What is the difference between “window level” and “window width”? What is the difference between “density” and “brightness”? Define the term “noise. ”

67 Copyright © 2010 by Mosby, Inc. , an affiliate of Elsevier Inc. Patient Fellow workers67 Copyright © 2010 by Mosby, Inc. , an affiliate of Elsevier Inc. Patient Fellow workers Self

68 Copyright © 2010 by Mosby, Inc. , an affiliate of Elsevier Inc. Roentgen (R) 68 Copyright © 2010 by Mosby, Inc. , an affiliate of Elsevier Inc. Roentgen (R) used for measurements in air Rad (radiation absorbed dose) used for patient dose purposes Rem (radiation equivalent man) used for worker protection purposes

69 Copyright © 2010 by Mosby, Inc. , an affiliate of Elsevier Inc. Traditional SI Units69 Copyright © 2010 by Mosby, Inc. , an affiliate of Elsevier Inc. Traditional SI Units Roentgen Coulombs/kg of air Rad Gray (Gy) Rem Sievert (Sv)

70 Copyright © 2010 by Mosby, Inc. , an affiliate of Elsevier Inc. Occupationally exposed workers70 Copyright © 2010 by Mosby, Inc. , an affiliate of Elsevier Inc. Occupationally exposed workers Annual: 5 rem (50 m. Sv) per year (ED) Cumulative: 1 rem (10 m. Sv) times years of ageage General population –– . 1 rem (1 m. Sv) per year

71 Copyright © 2010 by Mosby, Inc. , an affiliate of Elsevier Inc. What is the71 Copyright © 2010 by Mosby, Inc. , an affiliate of Elsevier Inc. What is the dose limit for a pregnant technologist per month? What is it for the entire gestational period?

72 Copyright © 2010 by Mosby, Inc. , an affiliate of Elsevier Inc. Film badge TLD72 Copyright © 2010 by Mosby, Inc. , an affiliate of Elsevier Inc. Film badge TLD (thermoluminesce nt dosimeter) OSL (optically stimulated luminescence) *Worn at waist or chest level or on collar during fluoroscopy * Consult RSO.

73 Copyright © 2010 by Mosby, Inc. , an affiliate of Elsevier Inc. 1. Always wear73 Copyright © 2010 by Mosby, Inc. , an affiliate of Elsevier Inc. 1. Always wear a personnel monitor. 2. Radiology personnel should not restrain patients. 3. Sound radiographic exposure factors 4. Cardinal rules of radiation protection: – Time – Distance – Shielding Mobile fluoroscopy or C-arm

74 Copyright © 2010 by Mosby, Inc. , an affiliate of Elsevier Inc. Fluoroscopy exposure patterns74 Copyright © 2010 by Mosby, Inc. , an affiliate of Elsevier Inc. Fluoroscopy exposure patterns (without tower drape shields in place)

75 Copyright © 2010 by Mosby, Inc. , an affiliate of Elsevier Inc. Fluoroscopy exposure patterns75 Copyright © 2010 by Mosby, Inc. , an affiliate of Elsevier Inc. Fluoroscopy exposure patterns (with tower drape shields in place)

76 Copyright © 2010 by Mosby, Inc. , an affiliate of Elsevier Inc. Bucky slot cover76 Copyright © 2010 by Mosby, Inc. , an affiliate of Elsevier Inc. Bucky slot cover Lead drape . 5 mm lead apron Exposure limit: 10 R/min

77 Copyright © 2010 by Mosby, Inc. , an affiliate of Elsevier Inc. Thyroid shield with77 Copyright © 2010 by Mosby, Inc. , an affiliate of Elsevier Inc. Thyroid shield with protective apron

78 Copyright © 2010 by Mosby, Inc. , an affiliate of Elsevier Inc. 1. Minimum repeat78 Copyright © 2010 by Mosby, Inc. , an affiliate of Elsevier Inc. 1. Minimum repeat radiographs – Clear instructions – Positioning and exposure factors

79 Copyright © 2010 by Mosby, Inc. , an affiliate of Elsevier Inc. 1. Minimum repeat79 Copyright © 2010 by Mosby, Inc. , an affiliate of Elsevier Inc. 1. Minimum repeat radiographs 2. Correct filtration – Inherent and added – 2. 5 mm Al total

80 Copyright © 2010 by Mosby, Inc. , an affiliate of Elsevier Inc. Close four-sided collimation:80 Copyright © 2010 by Mosby, Inc. , an affiliate of Elsevier Inc. Close four-sided collimation: One of the best ways of reducing patient exposure! (Remember divergence of x-ray beam. )

81 Copyright © 2010 by Mosby, Inc. , an affiliate of Elsevier Inc. 1. Minimum repeat81 Copyright © 2010 by Mosby, Inc. , an affiliate of Elsevier Inc. 1. Minimum repeat radiographs 2. Correct filtration 3. Accurate collimation Types of collimators – Manual type – Positive-beam limitation (PBL)

82 Copyright © 2010 by Mosby, Inc. , an affiliate of Elsevier Inc. 1. Minimum repeat82 Copyright © 2010 by Mosby, Inc. , an affiliate of Elsevier Inc. 1. Minimum repeat radiographs 2. Correct filtration 3. Accurate collimation 4. Specific area shielding – Shadow shields – Contact shields

83 Copyright © 2010 by Mosby, Inc. , an affiliate of Elsevier Inc. Vinyl-covered lead shield83 Copyright © 2010 by Mosby, Inc. , an affiliate of Elsevier Inc. Vinyl-covered lead shield

84 Copyright © 2010 by Mosby, Inc. , an affiliate of Elsevier Inc. Gonadal contact shields84 Copyright © 2010 by Mosby, Inc. , an affiliate of Elsevier Inc. Gonadal contact shields – 1 mm lead equivalent – Reduces dose 50% to 90%

85 Copyright © 2010 by Mosby, Inc. , an affiliate of Elsevier Inc. 1. Minimum repeat85 Copyright © 2010 by Mosby, Inc. , an affiliate of Elsevier Inc. 1. Minimum repeat radiographs 2. Correct filtration 3. Accurate collimation 4. Specific area shielding 5. Protection for pregnancies

86 Copyright © 2010 by Mosby, Inc. , an affiliate of Elsevier Inc. Quiz Me The86 Copyright © 2010 by Mosby, Inc. , an affiliate of Elsevier Inc. Quiz Me The SI unit equivalent for Rad is A. Coulombs/kg of air B. Gray C. Sievert D. Curie

87 Copyright © 2010 by Mosby, Inc. , an affiliate of Elsevier Inc. Quiz Me What87 Copyright © 2010 by Mosby, Inc. , an affiliate of Elsevier Inc. Quiz Me What is the annual dose limit for a technologist per year? A. 5 m. Sv B. 15 m. Sv C. 50 m. Sv D. 500 m. Sv

88 Copyright © 2010 by Mosby, Inc. , an affiliate of Elsevier Inc. Quiz Me What88 Copyright © 2010 by Mosby, Inc. , an affiliate of Elsevier Inc. Quiz Me What minimum lead thickness or equivalency must a protective apron possess when worn for a fluoroscopy procedure? A. . 5 mm Pb/Eq B. 1. 0 mm Pb/Eq C. 1. 5 mm Pb/Eq D. 2. 5 mm Pb/Eq

89 Copyright © 2010 by Mosby, Inc. , an affiliate of Elsevier Inc. Quiz Me What89 Copyright © 2010 by Mosby, Inc. , an affiliate of Elsevier Inc. Quiz Me What is the most effective way to reduce patient dose? A. Use of high k. V B. Increase in added filtration in x-ray tube C. Use of gonadal shielding D. Close four-sided collimation

90 Copyright © 2010 by Mosby, Inc. , an affiliate of Elsevier Inc. - The End90 Copyright © 2010 by Mosby, Inc. , an affiliate of Elsevier Inc. — The End -Chapter

91 Copyright © 2010 by Mosby, Inc. , an affiliate of Elsevier Inc. - The End91 Copyright © 2010 by Mosby, Inc. , an affiliate of Elsevier Inc. — The End -Chapter

92 Bontrager, K. L. , Lampignano, J. P.  Textbook of Positioning and Related Anatomy, 92 Bontrager, K. L. , Lampignano, J. P. Textbook of Positioning and Related Anatomy, 7 th Edition, Copyright 2010 : Mosby/Elsevier Inc. , ISBN 978 -0 -323 -05410 -2 Copyright © 2010 by Mosby, Inc. , an affiliate of Elsevier Inc.