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Chapter 17: The West Between the Wars 1919 – 1939 Section 3: Hitler and Nazi Germany
H. Hitler and His Views: - Hitler was born in Austria, failed secondary school and was rejected by the Vienna Academy of Fine Arts Adolf Hitler as an infant Hitler as a young man
Sailboat at Sunset @1908 (9. 0 cm by 14. 0 cm)
Perchtoldsdorg Castle and Church (1910 -1912) (28 cm by 24 cm)
Vienna Opera House 1911 (24. 5 cm by 30 cm)
"Germania" 1912 (25. 6 cm by 45. 2 cm)
The Rotterdam Cathedral 1913 (31. 6 x 42. 1 cm)
Oedensplatz 1914 (19. 0 cm by 13. 5 cm)
The Basler Gate (32 cm by 46 cm) 1933
Sitting Room (25 cm by 34 cm) @1945
- While in Vienna, Hitler developed his ideology – racism was at the core of his beliefs; he was an extreme nationalist and understood the use of propaganda and terror Adolf Hitler in Munich, August 1914
- Hitler served four years during WWI, then entered politics in Germany. In 1919, he joined and eventually controlled the National Socialist German Workers’ Party (Nazi Party) A young Hitler (left) posing with other German soldiers. Nazi Party Flag
- 1923, Hitler staged an uprising in Munich – the Beer Hall Putsch – which was quickly crushed; Hitler was sent to prison Hitler, Ludendorf, and Others After the Beer Hall Putsch
Hitler at Landsberg Prison Hitler's Cell at Landsberg Prison
While in prison, Hitler wrote, Mein Kampf (My Struggle) – in it he outlines his basic ideas and plans His ideas combined: ▪ German nationalism ▪ anti-Semitism ▪ anticommunism ▪ in the book he also embraced the notion that stronger nations should expand to obtain living space and that superior leaders should rule over the masses
I. Rise of Nazism: ▪ Hitler realized that the way to power was through legal means, therefore he worked to expand the Nazi party throughout Germany; by 1929, the Nazi’s had a national party organization and by 1931 was the largest political party in the Reichstag. ▪ Germany’s economic problems helped the Nazi’s come to power; many people were in desperate situations, which made extreme parties popular; Hitler appealed to national pride and militarism to gain support
J. Victory of Nazism: ▪ After 1930, the Reichstag lost power and Hitler gained power; industrial leaders aristocrats, military officers, and high-level bureaucrats wanted Hitler to lead the country ▪ 1933, the Nazis pressured President Hindenburg to allow Hitler to become chancellor and create a new government Hitler is appointed chancellor by Hindenburg
▪ March 1933, the Reichstag passed the Enabling Act, which gave the government the power to ignore the constitution and pass laws to deal with the nation’s problems. The act gave Hitler a legal basis to become a dictator appointed by the Reichstag. ▪ Nazis established control; Jews were purged from the civil service, trade unions were dissolved, concentration camps set up for Nazi opponents, and all political parties except the Nazis were abolished; when Hindenburg died, the Nazis abolished the presidency and Hitler became the only leader known as the Fuhrer (leader)
K. The Nazi State, 1933 -1939: Hitler’s goal was to develop an Aryan racial state to dominate Europe and possibly the world; to reach this goal Nazi’s used economic policies, mass rallies, organizations, and terror; Hitler’s empire was called the Third Reich Hitler as Chancellor of Germany (30 January 1933)
- The State and Terror: ▪ While Hitler ruled absolutely over the Nazi party, there were internal struggles. The SS or “Guard Squadrons” were important for maintaining order ▪ The SS controlled all the police forces and was under the direction of Heinrich Himmler; Himmler’s goal was to further the Aryan race; he used terror tactics to achieve this goal Heinrich Himmler as Reichsfuehrer SS
- Economic Policies: ▪ Hitler put people back to work through public works projects and grants to private construction companies. He also started a massive rearmament program; unemployment dropped; depression comes to an end helping the Nazis be accepted by the Germans The army went from 100, 000 in 1933, to 1. 4 million in 1939.
- Women and Nazism: ▪ Nazis believed women were to be wives and mothers; their role was to bear Aryan children; Nazis also controlled the types of work women could do and strongly encouraged them to stay at home The League of German Girls was a compulsory youth organization for German girls formed in the early 1930 s. The purpose of the organization, along with the Hitler Youth for boys, was to indoctrinate young people into the politics and culture of the Nazi Party.
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