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Chapter 13 The Impending Crisis Chapter 13 The Impending Crisis

Manifest Destiny Manifest Destiny

TEXAS TEXAS

Mexico wants American to settle in Mexico 1. Strengthen economy & tax base 2. Mexico wants American to settle in Mexico 1. Strengthen economy & tax base 2. Provide buffer against Native Americans

Empresarios Moses Austin Stephen Empresarios Moses Austin Stephen

Problems: 1. Won’t learn the language 2. Religion 3. Slaves Problems: 1. Won’t learn the language 2. Religion 3. Slaves

American population in Texas 1830 - 7, 000 1835 - 30, 000 American population in Texas 1830 - 7, 000 1835 - 30, 000

Antonio Lopez de Santa Ana Antonio Lopez de Santa Ana

Goliad Col. James Fannin and over 200 men executed on Santa Ana’s orders Goliad Col. James Fannin and over 200 men executed on Santa Ana’s orders

San Antonio de Bexar San Antonio de Bexar

 Crockett Bowie Travis Crockett Bowie Travis

March 6, 1836 March 6, 1836

Over 183 killed including Crockett Over 183 killed including Crockett

Sam Houston Sam Houston

Runaway Scrape March 13 – April 21 Runaway Scrape March 13 – April 21

Battle of San Jucinto April 21, 1836 900 Texans Vs 1500 Mexicans Battle of San Jucinto April 21, 1836 900 Texans Vs 1500 Mexicans

Texas Mexico 8 killed 30 wounded 0 captured 630 730 Texas Mexico 8 killed 30 wounded 0 captured 630 730

Santa Ana captured Santa Ana captured

The Republic of Texas President Sam Houston Really want to be part of the The Republic of Texas President Sam Houston Really want to be part of the US

Jackson against bringing Texas in as a state *cause sectional conflict *cause war with Jackson against bringing Texas in as a state *cause sectional conflict *cause war with Mexico

Van Buren and Harrison also decline Tyler tries to get annexation treaty through Congress Van Buren and Harrison also decline Tyler tries to get annexation treaty through Congress Blocked by Northern Senators & Reps

Western migration About 300, 000 move to West from 1840 -60 Trip lasted 6 Western migration About 300, 000 move to West from 1840 -60 Trip lasted 6 months

Santa Fe Trail Santa Fe Trail

Oregon Trail Oregon Trail

OREGON TRAIL OREGON TRAIL

Oregon Trail today Oregon Trail today

Those who took the trip were relatively young and had some money Those who took the trip were relatively young and had some money

The Donner Party The Donner Party

```````````````````` Expansion and War ```````````````````` Expansion and War

Election of 1844 Election of 1844

 Democrat Whig Van Buren Polk Clay Democrat Whig Van Buren Polk Clay

DARK HORSE DARK HORSE

Polk’s Platform • Annexation of Texas • Claim all of disputed Oregon Territory Polk’s Platform • Annexation of Texas • Claim all of disputed Oregon Territory

Platform appeals to both North and South Platform appeals to both North and South

Polk 170 Clay 105 Polk 170 Clay 105

Tyler steals some of Polk’s glory by getting annexation bill thru Congress Texas a Tyler steals some of Polk’s glory by getting annexation bill thru Congress Texas a state December 1844

54° 40’ Or Fight 54° 40’ Or Fight

Why settle for less that was demanded? Why settle for less that was demanded?

Nueces Rio Grande Nueces Rio Grande

New Mexico • Mexico invites American to New Mexico in 1820’s • Trade develops New Mexico • Mexico invites American to New Mexico in 1820’s • Trade develops between Santa Fe and Independence, Mo

California American come to California *Maritime Traders & Whalers *Merchants *Families California American come to California *Maritime Traders & Whalers *Merchants *Families

Americans in both California and New Mexico want to join the US Americans in both California and New Mexico want to join the US

Polk has a Plan • Fleet ready to take California ports if War • Polk has a Plan • Fleet ready to take California ports if War • Tries to buy disputed area from Mexico • Send Gen Taylor across Nueces

Polk gets declaration of war May 13, 1846 40 -2 Senate 174 -14 House Polk gets declaration of war May 13, 1846 40 -2 Senate 174 -14 House

Some concerns over war: *Whigs charge Polk maneuvered country into war *charge that concerns Some concerns over war: *Whigs charge Polk maneuvered country into war *charge that concerns over Texas allowed US to settle for less in Oregon

Zachary Taylor Zachary Taylor

*Battle of Monterrey *Battle of Buena Vista Polk worries about Taylor becoming too successful *Battle of Monterrey *Battle of Buena Vista Polk worries about Taylor becoming too successful

Stephen Kearny Stephen Kearny

John C. Fremont John C. Fremont

Winfield Scott Winfield Scott

* Scott captures Vera Cruz * Captures Mexico City * Scott captures Vera Cruz * Captures Mexico City

Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo 1848 Mexico Cedes California and New Mexico Rio Grande border Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo 1848 Mexico Cedes California and New Mexico Rio Grande border of Texas U. S. Pays $15 million Assumes citizens claims against Mexico

WILMOT PROVISO *David Wilmot-Pennsylvania *Prohibits slavery in any territory acquired from Mexico *Passes House WILMOT PROVISO *David Wilmot-Pennsylvania *Prohibits slavery in any territory acquired from Mexico *Passes House Fails in Senate

Impact of War with Mexico 1. Begins period of sectional debate over slavery *Many Impact of War with Mexico 1. Begins period of sectional debate over slavery *Many different positions: Polk supports extension of 36° 30’ line *Popular Sovereignty

2. People who participate in War: Zachary Taylor Jefferson Davis Robert E. Lee Ulysses 2. People who participate in War: Zachary Taylor Jefferson Davis Robert E. Lee Ulysses S. Grant James Longstreet William Sherman Thomas Jackson

ELECTION OF 1848 ELECTION OF 1848

Lewis Cass Democrat Lewis Cass Democrat

Zachary Taylor Whig Zachary Taylor Whig

FREESOIL PARTY *Opponents of slavery *Unhappy with major parties *Endorse Wilmot Proviso *Run Martin FREESOIL PARTY *Opponents of slavery *Unhappy with major parties *Endorse Wilmot Proviso *Run Martin Van Buren

 • Taylor wins!!! • Free soil Party gets 10% of vote and 10 • Taylor wins!!! • Free soil Party gets 10% of vote and 10 members in Congress

Gold discovered in California 1848 Gold discovered in California 1848

People rush to California 49 ers People rush to California 49 ers

Population of California 1848 14, 000 1852 220, 000 95% are male Population of California 1848 14, 000 1852 220, 000 95% are male

California writes Constitution NO SLAVERY!!!!! California writes Constitution NO SLAVERY!!!!!

Other Problems: *Slavery in DC *Northern laws preventing return of slaves *California & Oregon Other Problems: *Slavery in DC *Northern laws preventing return of slaves *California & Oregon

Clay tries Compromise: *Mexico cession slave territory *Texas yields border to N. Mexico *Slave Clay tries Compromise: *Mexico cession slave territory *Texas yields border to N. Mexico *Slave trade abolished in DC *Fugitive Slave Law *California Free State

Calhoun’s Speech *Fugitive Slave law *Grant South = rights in Terr. *Stop attacking slavery Calhoun’s Speech *Fugitive Slave law *Grant South = rights in Terr. *Stop attacking slavery *Amendment balancing power *Dual Pres(N&S) with veto power

Daniel Webster th of March Address 7 *Supports compromise *New England mad *leaves Senate Daniel Webster th of March Address 7 *Supports compromise *New England mad *leaves Senate – made Sec of State

 New Leadership Jefferson Davis Miss William Seward NY Stephen Douglas New Leadership Jefferson Davis Miss William Seward NY Stephen Douglas

President Taylor will veto the Compromise President Taylor will veto the Compromise

Following the Whig Tradition: Taylor dies Taylor Following the Whig Tradition: Taylor dies Taylor

New President Millard Fillmore signs Compromise of 1850 New President Millard Fillmore signs Compromise of 1850

Election of 1852 Franklin Pierce Winfield Scott Election of 1852 Franklin Pierce Winfield Scott

Young America *Spread American Democracy in Europe *Expand American commerce in the Pacific *Acquire Young America *Spread American Democracy in Europe *Expand American commerce in the Pacific *Acquire new territory in Western Hemisphere

Ostend Manifesto *Reps in Europe tell Pierce take Cuba *Leaked to Public *Anti-slave North Ostend Manifesto *Reps in Europe tell Pierce take Cuba *Leaked to Public *Anti-slave North mad

South blocks any attempt to get non-slave territory *Hawaii *Canada South blocks any attempt to get non-slave territory *Hawaii *Canada

People moving West of Miss. R. *Much of this land given to Indians *Communication/Transportation People moving West of Miss. R. *Much of this land given to Indians *Communication/Transportation will need to expand

Gadsden Purchase $10, 000 for land along southern border of New Mexico and Arizona Gadsden Purchase $10, 000 for land along southern border of New Mexico and Arizona

Stephen Douglas Wants RR thru Chicago Stephen Douglas Wants RR thru Chicago

Kansas-Nebraska Act *repeals Missouri Compromise *divides into 2 territories *Slavery by Popular Sovereignty Kansas-Nebraska Act *repeals Missouri Compromise *divides into 2 territories *Slavery by Popular Sovereignty

K-N has following effects: *destroys Whig Party *divides Northern Democrats *Creation of new Party K-N has following effects: *destroys Whig Party *divides Northern Democrats *Creation of new Party

Republican Party *1854 Jackson, Mi et al *Strictly sectional party Republican Party *1854 Jackson, Mi et al *Strictly sectional party

1855 *election of Terr. Legislature *1500 voters *6000 votes *’Border Ruffians’ 1855 *election of Terr. Legislature *1500 voters *6000 votes *’Border Ruffians’

Lawrence, Kansas Anti-slavery capital Lawrence, Kansas Anti-slavery capital

John Brown John Brown

Pottawatomie Creek *Captures 5 pro-slavery settlers *Hacks them to death Pottawatomie Creek *Captures 5 pro-slavery settlers *Hacks them to death

BLEEDING KANSAS BLEEDING KANSAS

Bloody Sumner Charles Sumner attacked by Rep. Preston Brooks Bloody Sumner Charles Sumner attacked by Rep. Preston Brooks

Why did this sectional dispute come about? Each section wants it’s vision of America Why did this sectional dispute come about? Each section wants it’s vision of America to be the dominate one

These visions were different due to the differing economic and sectional interests These visions were different due to the differing economic and sectional interests

NORTH Views on society based on: Free soil Free labor NORTH Views on society based on: Free soil Free labor

Slavery is bad because of what it does to whites Ideal society is small Slavery is bad because of what it does to whites Ideal society is small scale capitalism where society was mobile and all could improve

The North sees the South is a closed society. The slave system preserves entrenched The North sees the South is a closed society. The slave system preserves entrenched aristocracy. Common whites have no chance of advancement

North sees themselves as progress and South as stagnation North sees themselves as progress and South as stagnation

North feels South wants to spread slavery and destroy openness of capitalist society Threatens North feels South wants to spread slavery and destroy openness of capitalist society Threatens future of free white labor Heart of Republican Party

SOUTH Southern position gets more hard line as time goes on *Nat Turner *Expansion SOUTH Southern position gets more hard line as time goes on *Nat Turner *Expansion of slavery to deep South *Abolition literature

South thinks abolition is the majority opinion in the North Feels need to work South thinks abolition is the majority opinion in the North Feels need to work up intellectual defense of slavery

Slavery good for slaves: *Need guidance of whites *better off than “wage slaves” Only Slavery good for slaves: *Need guidance of whites *better off than “wage slaves” Only way races can live together Good for economy

South sees North as abandoning American values and replacing with greed South orderly society South sees North as abandoning American values and replacing with greed South orderly society without the unrest of North

Election of 1856 *Democrats only national party left *Need candidate that is not controversial Election of 1856 *Democrats only national party left *Need candidate that is not controversial

James Buchanan James Buchanan

Republican John C. Fremont Republican John C. Fremont

American Party Millard Fillmore American Party Millard Fillmore

Buchanan 174 Fremont 114 Fillmore 8 Buchanan 174 Fremont 114 Fillmore 8

Dred Scott v. Sanford Dred Scott v. Sanford

*Slaves are not citizens *Slaves are property *Can not take away property th without *Slaves are not citizens *Slaves are property *Can not take away property th without due process of law 5 Amendment *Congress has no power to stop slavery in territories

President Buchanan supports Scott decision and wants to solve Kansas problem by admitting it President Buchanan supports Scott decision and wants to solve Kansas problem by admitting it as a slave state

Anti-slavery people boycott election for constitutional convention Only 10% vote Anti-slavery people boycott election for constitutional convention Only 10% vote

Lecompton Constitution 1857 Pro-slavery Lecompton Constitution 1857 Pro-slavery

Next election for legislature, anti-slavery people vote – win majority New legislature puts Lecompton Next election for legislature, anti-slavery people vote – win majority New legislature puts Lecompton constitution up for vote by people Rejected by 10, 000 votes

Buchanan tells Congress Admit Kansas as a slave state anyway Buchanan tells Congress Admit Kansas as a slave state anyway

Compromise: *Lecompton const. Resubmitted *if approved become a state *if rejected wait until population Compromise: *Lecompton const. Resubmitted *if approved become a state *if rejected wait until population is 93, 600

Illinois Senate Election 1858 Lincoln Douglas Illinois Senate Election 1858 Lincoln Douglas

Freeport Doctrine *Asks Douglas if people of a territory can exclude slavery Freeport Doctrine *Asks Douglas if people of a territory can exclude slavery

John Brown at Harper’s Ferry John Brown at Harper’s Ferry

October 16, 1859 *seizes Federal arsenal at Harper’s Ferry *Federal troops surround fort *Brown October 16, 1859 *seizes Federal arsenal at Harper’s Ferry *Federal troops surround fort *Brown is captured

*Brown found guilty *Hanged Dec 2, 1859 *Brown found guilty *Hanged Dec 2, 1859

Election of 1860 Democrats have a problem: *Douglas wants nomination *South doesn’t want him Election of 1860 Democrats have a problem: *Douglas wants nomination *South doesn’t want him *South walks out of convention

Northern Democrats Southern Democrats Stephen Douglas C. John Breckinridge Northern Democrats Southern Democrats Stephen Douglas C. John Breckinridge

*High tariff Manufacturers *Internal improvements Ex-Whigs *Homestead Bill Farmers *Transcontinental RR Merchants *States decide *High tariff Manufacturers *Internal improvements Ex-Whigs *Homestead Bill Farmers *Transcontinental RR Merchants *States decide slavery *No slaves in territories Freesoilers

Republican frontrunners William Seward Edward Bates Salmon P. Chase Republican frontrunners William Seward Edward Bates Salmon P. Chase

Convention picks Lincoln Convention picks Lincoln

Compromisers form Constitutional Union Party John Bell Compromisers form Constitutional Union Party John Bell

South promises they will secede if Lincoln is elected!! South promises they will secede if Lincoln is elected!!

Popular vote Electoral vote Lincoln 39. 9% 180 Douglas 29. 5% 12 Breckenridge 18. Popular vote Electoral vote Lincoln 39. 9% 180 Douglas 29. 5% 12 Breckenridge 18. 1% 72 12. 6% 39 Bell