Скачать презентацию Chapter 13 Managing Learning for Quality Improvement S Скачать презентацию Chapter 13 Managing Learning for Quality Improvement S

245ede9ece78e75a7f8f8debf00976fd.ppt

  • Количество слайдов: 69

Chapter 13 Managing Learning for Quality Improvement S. Thomas Foster, Jr. Boise State University Chapter 13 Managing Learning for Quality Improvement S. Thomas Foster, Jr. Boise State University Slides Prepared by Bruce R. Barringer University of Central Florida © 2001 Prentice-Hall

Chapter Overview • Effective Story Telling • Individual Learning and Organizational Learning • A Chapter Overview • Effective Story Telling • Individual Learning and Organizational Learning • A Model to Guide Training Development in Organizations • Adult Learning • Training Tools • Evaluating Training © 2001 Prentice-Hall Transparency 13 -2

Introduction • One major objective of quality management is to enhance organizational learning. • Introduction • One major objective of quality management is to enhance organizational learning. • To create a learning environment, many firms turn to training. • However, many firms find that once they have trained employees, there is still much work to do. • Training often does very little to create culture change, is usually poorly planned, and is often poorly implemented. • The result is much activity with little in the way of results. © 2001 Prentice-Hall Transparency 13 -3

Effective Story Telling Slide 1 of 3 • Importance of Stories – Analogies, metaphors, Effective Story Telling Slide 1 of 3 • Importance of Stories – Analogies, metaphors, and stories go a long way toward helping workers understand quality principles. – An example is Brian Joiner’s whack-a-mole story told in the textbook (Figure 13. 1 and 13. 2 ). The story tells how an assembly operation was suppose to work, contrasted against how it actually worked due to unnecessarily complexity. © 2001 Prentice-Hall Transparency 13 -4

Effective Story Telling Slide 2 of 3 Figure 13. 1 Joiner’s Whack-A-Mole Story: The Effective Story Telling Slide 2 of 3 Figure 13. 1 Joiner’s Whack-A-Mole Story: The Way it Was Suppose to Work Get a Kit of parts A, B, and C Assemble A, B, and C to make D Move D to stock area © 2001 Prentice-Hall Transparency 13 -5

Effective Story Telling Slide 3 of 3 Figure 13. 2 Joiner’s Whack-A-Mole Story: The Effective Story Telling Slide 3 of 3 Figure 13. 2 Joiner’s Whack-A-Mole Story: The Way it Really Worked Real work Get a kit of parts A, B, and C Complexity Assembly A, B, and C to make D Kit complete? Yes No A missing? Yes No B missing? Move D to stock areas Yes Assembly B and C Store on Shelf until missing parts are available Long in computer Assembly A and C No C mission? © 2001 Prentice-Hall Yes Assembly A and B Transparency 13 -6

Effective Story Telling • Not everyone will understand the statistical topic of variation and Effective Story Telling • Not everyone will understand the statistical topic of variation and problems caused by variation. • However, Joiner’s whack-a-mole story makes this subject understandable. © 2001 Prentice-Hall Transparency 13 -7

Effective Story Telling • Organizational learning occurs when ideas are put into action. • Effective Story Telling • Organizational learning occurs when ideas are put into action. • People learned how to get around the process. • At the same time, greater organizational learning could not take place until the assumptions of the original system were questioned. • Real organizational learning took place only after Tim questioned fundamental assumptions and tested his theory by implementing and testing a process change. © 2001 Prentice-Hall Transparency 13 -8

Effective Story Telling • The educator John Dewey understood learning and isolated it into Effective Story Telling • The educator John Dewey understood learning and isolated it into four fundamental stages: -- Discovery: The formation of new insights. -- Inventing: Creating new options. -- Producing: Creating new actions. -- Observing: Seeing the consequences of the actions, leading to new discoveries and continuing the cycle. © 2001 Prentice-Hall Transparency 13 -9

Effective Story Telling • This cycle must be allowed to run its course for Effective Story Telling • This cycle must be allowed to run its course for real learning to take place. • We must be allowed to take risks, make mistakes, and learn by doing. • In quality management training, studying or brainstorming problems in the work environment is one means to create a business case for quality improvement. • This is the process of discovery. © 2001 Prentice-Hall Transparency 13 -10

Effective Story Telling • New options are created during the inventing stage. As participants Effective Story Telling • New options are created during the inventing stage. As participants become more creative, new ideas open up to them. • Producing means implementing change and testing ideas. People begin to understand how variables in the work environment interact to create process outcomes such as defects. • By observing the effects of implementing change, the outcomes can be observed and the change documented. © 2001 Prentice-Hall Transparency 13 -11

Individual Learning and Organizational Learning • Recent statistics show that less than 1% of Individual Learning and Organizational Learning • Recent statistics show that less than 1% of salary is spent on training in the U. S. • Employee development is an important ingredient in retaining employees. • As long as employment levels remain high, employee satisfaction and retention will become increasing important issues. • According to the Center for Workplace Development, about 70% of what employees learn about their jobs is informally learned. Only 30% is learned through training. © 2001 Prentice-Hall Transparency 13 -12

Individual Learning and Organizational Learning • Most companies provide new-employee orientation, but they offer Individual Learning and Organizational Learning • Most companies provide new-employee orientation, but they offer very little in the way of training about how the job is really performed in a formal sense. • This is the origin of many of the problems associated with confusing and non-repeatable work methods in firms today. © 2001 Prentice-Hall Transparency 13 -13

Individual Learning and Organizational Learning • Organizational Learning – Is equal to the sum Individual Learning and Organizational Learning • Organizational Learning – Is equal to the sum of the change in knowledge among its employees. – In-house training provides greater potential for longterm benefits to an organization. – Training that is relevant to the immediate work environment is more likely to be valued and rated highly by the trainees. – These results suggest that organizations need to develop frameworks so that individual learning and experience can be transferred among employees. © 2001 Prentice-Hall Transparency 13 -14

Individual Learning and Organizational Learning • First-rate universities know and appreciate these facts ( Individual Learning and Organizational Learning • First-rate universities know and appreciate these facts ( see Quality Highlight 13. 1). • They provide resources so that individual initiative can be turned into research and teaching results. • They also provide colloquia where faculty can share ideas and research. © 2001 Prentice-Hall Transparency 13 -15

Individual Learning and Organizational Learning • Effective Planning Quality Training – Like other quality Individual Learning and Organizational Learning • Effective Planning Quality Training – Like other quality efforts, training is a planned process. – Prior to beginning training, firms should embark on a training needs assessment. – The portion of human resources strategic plan that identifies training needs and how the organization will respond to those needs is called the strategic training plan. © 2001 Prentice-Hall Transparency 13 -16

Individual Learning and Organizational Learning • The strategic training plan should be in alignment Individual Learning and Organizational Learning • The strategic training plan should be in alignment with overall company objectives and an integral part of the process through which strategic objectives are achieved. • The assessment consists of two phases. • The first phase is an employee assessment to provide an objective basis to determine and prioritize program goals by directly involving the employees through personal interviews, surveys, and focus groups. © 2001 Prentice-Hall Transparency 13 -17

Individual Learning and Organizational Learning • The second part is an environmental assessment to Individual Learning and Organizational Learning • The second part is an environmental assessment to develop an inventory of available resources, to meet training needs and to determine the characteristics of existing resources, company needs, and employee characteristics. • Training needs assessment lets employees know that the organization is planning its training and thus improves employee acceptance of training programs. © 2001 Prentice-Hall Transparency 13 -18

Individual Learning and Organizational Learning • Needs assessment can be provided from within the Individual Learning and Organizational Learning • Needs assessment can be provided from within the firm or from a variety of external organizations. • Every firm should begin quality initiatives with training. Ultimately, the best training should be performed in-house. • The goal of internal assessment is to provide insights that are used to develop the strategic training plan. © 2001 Prentice-Hall Transparency 13 -19

Individual Learning and Organizational Learning • Some firms are afraid of losing employees as Individual Learning and Organizational Learning • Some firms are afraid of losing employees as a result of developing them and providing them with new know-how. • However, the alternative is to populate the firm with employees that are ill-prepared to meet consumer needs. • Employees appreciate the fact that assessment involves them in developing future plans related to training. © 2001 Prentice-Hall Transparency 13 -20

Individual Learning and Organizational Learning • Many benefits accrue to employees as a result Individual Learning and Organizational Learning • Many benefits accrue to employees as a result of performing training assessment. There are several benefits for the organization as well. • Organizations can know what their training needs are and develop a base for sequencing and phasing in new knowledge. © 2001 Prentice-Hall Transparency 13 -21

Individual Learning and Organizational Learning Slide 3 of 3 • Other benefits to the Individual Learning and Organizational Learning Slide 3 of 3 • Other benefits to the firm include: – Knowing what training is being planned and why. – Justifying costs in relation to training benefits. – Evaluating training based on measurable, written objectives. – Encouraging continuous employee participation and enthusiasm for training. – Knowing what resources already exist to meet training objectives and what resources must be purchased. © 2001 Prentice-Hall Transparency 13 -22

Individual Learning and Organizational Learning • Other benefits to the firm include (continued): – Individual Learning and Organizational Learning • Other benefits to the firm include (continued): – Discovering what type of employee development is desired and for which employees. – Confirming how much time and money are needed to achieve the objectives. --- The bottom line of needs assessment is to determine organizational needs, employees needs, and organizational resources to provide needed training. © 2001 Prentice-Hall Transparency 13 -23

A Model to Guide Training Development in an Organization • There is a process A Model to Guide Training Development in an Organization • There is a process for developing training. • This five-phase process involves needs analysis, definition of instructional objectives, training design, implementation, and evaluation ( see Figure 13. 3). © 2001 Prentice-Hall Transparency 13 -24

A Model to Guide Training Development in an Organization Slide 1 of 11 ( A Model to Guide Training Development in an Organization Slide 1 of 11 ( Figure 13. 3) Training needs analysis plan Organizational needs analysis Task needs analysis Individual needs analysis Instructional Objectives Training Program Design Develop training materials Training Support & maintenance system Implementation Evaluation © 2001 Prentice-Hall Transparency 13 -25

A Model to Guide Training Development in an Organization Slide 2 of 11 • A Model to Guide Training Development in an Organization Slide 2 of 11 • Training Needs Analysis – Begins when identifying organizational needs in terms of capabilities, task needs assessment in terms of skill sets that are needed in the firm, and individual needs analysis to determine how employee skills fit with company needs. – A gap analysis shows what skills are needed in an organization and leads to a definition of instruction objectives for the organization. – Once the instruction objectives have been defined, a determination is made as to whether the training resources are available in-house. © 2001 Prentice-Hall Transparency 13 -26

A Model to Guide Training Development in an Organization Slide 3 of 11 • A Model to Guide Training Development in an Organization Slide 3 of 11 • Training Program Design – Includes the specifics of tailoring a course or set of courses to the needs of the company. © 2001 Prentice-Hall Transparency 13 -27

A Model to Guide Training Development in an Organization • In Figure 13. 4, A Model to Guide Training Development in an Organization • In Figure 13. 4, different needs are shown by level in the organization. • Figure 13. 5 shows an outline of a hierarchical training model for the U. S. Army. © 2001 Prentice-Hall Transparency 13 -28

A Model to Guide Training Development in an Organization Slide 4 of 11 Figure A Model to Guide Training Development in an Organization Slide 4 of 11 Figure 13. 4 Hierarchical Approaches to Training Design --Hierarchical Training Needs Level Executives Needs General principles Strategic quality planning Needs resources Managers & Supervisors General principles Facilitator Team management Employees © 2001 Prentice-Hall Quality tools General principles Working in teams Transparency 13 -29

A Model to Guide Training Development in an Organization Slide 5 of 11 Figure A Model to Guide Training Development in an Organization Slide 5 of 11 Figure 13. 5 Training Needs Assessment © 2001 Prentice-Hall Transparency 13 -30

A Model to Guide Training Development in an Organization • Example 13. 1: An A Model to Guide Training Development in an Organization • Example 13. 1: An example of a hierarchical approach to quality management training -- Table 13. 1 shows the topics that were delivered to executives in 2 three-hour sessions. -- The training module contained in Table 13. 2 shows the training that was provided for managers and supervisors at U. S. West. -- Table 13. 3 shows the training that was provided to the rank-and-file employees. © 2001 Prentice-Hall Transparency 13 -31

A Model to Guide Training Development in an Organization Slide 7 of 11 Table A Model to Guide Training Development in an Organization Slide 7 of 11 Table 13. 1 Executive-level Training Topics Module 1 Quality management philosophy Executives What is quality? The three spheres of quality Deming, Juran, and Crosby The importance of leadership Shifting paradigms Services gap model ISO 9000 overview Self-assessment Overview of the improvement process © 2001 Prentice-Hall Transparency 13 -32

A Model to Guide Training Development in an Organization Slide 8 of 11 Table A Model to Guide Training Development in an Organization Slide 8 of 11 Table 13. 2 Manager and Supervisor Training © 2001 Prentice-Hall Transparency 13 -33

A Model to Guide Training Development in an Organization Slide 10 of 11 Table A Model to Guide Training Development in an Organization Slide 10 of 11 Table 13. 3 Employee-Level Training © 2001 Prentice-Hall Transparency 13 -34

A Model to Guide Training Development in an Organization • Example 13. 2: An A Model to Guide Training Development in an Organization • Example 13. 2: An example of a real-life training session -- Figure 13. 6 shows the cover slide for the presentation ( please see textbook). -- Figure 13. 7 is the overhead that provides a brief overview of the session ( please see textbook). -- Figure 13. 8 shows the names, divisions within the organization, and an interesting fact about the instructor ( please see textbook). © 2001 Prentice-Hall Transparency 13 -35

A Model to Guide Training Development in an Organization • Example 13. 2 ( A Model to Guide Training Development in an Organization • Example 13. 2 ( continued) -- Figure 13. 9, 13. 10, 13. 11 provide definition of processes, glows, and business processes ( please see textbook). -- Figure 13. 12 and 13. 13 shows the instructor provided classroom work on using Microsoft Power. Point to draw flowcharts ( please see textbook). -- Figure 13. 14 to Figure 13. 17 show the four step process for drawing a flowchart ( please see textbook). © 2001 Prentice-Hall Transparency 13 -36

A Model to Guide Training Development in an Organization • Example 13. 2 ( A Model to Guide Training Development in an Organization • Example 13. 2 ( continued) -- Figure 13. 18 to Figure 13. 20 show the overheads used in training employees on the basic of flowcharting ( please see textbook). -- Figure 13. 21 and 13. 22 outline the class exercise. -- Figure 13. 23 to Figure 13. 25 show the overheads used in this training ( please see textbook). -- Figure 13. 26 and 13. 27 show the actually begin to flowchart a process within the organization ( please see textbook). © 2001 Prentice-Hall Transparency 13 -37

Adult Learning • Course design for adult training is fundamentally different from course design Adult Learning • Course design for adult training is fundamentally different from course design for a college course or a high school course. • Malcolm Knowles discusses four assumptions regarding the adult learner. • These assumptions help to design and shape training to meet the needs of the employee and the organization. © 2001 Prentice-Hall Transparency 13 -38

Adult Learning 1. Self-Direction – Adults like self-direction; they want to take control or Adult Learning 1. Self-Direction – Adults like self-direction; they want to take control or at least have some say in their training agenda or plan. They want to have choices and make decisions about training that affect them. – Employees like to be asked about their needs, expectations, and preferences. © 2001 Prentice-Hall Transparency 13 -39

Adult Learning 2. Experiential Training Techniques – Are useful for adults who prefer to Adult Learning 2. Experiential Training Techniques – Are useful for adults who prefer to learn by doing. Therefore, training should include plenty of hands-on-practice. – This follows the age-old, four-step training philosophy of tell, show, do, and feedback. © 2001 Prentice-Hall Transparency 13 -40

Adult Learning 3. Adults will know when they have to learn something and when Adult Learning 3. Adults will know when they have to learn something and when they will be motivated to learn. -- Therefore real-life events help in providing effective training. 4. The final assumption of application is that people want to learn things they can use. -- Learning should have some application that is related to what the employee presently is doing or will be expected to do in the near future. © 2001 Prentice-Hall Transparency 13 -41

Adult Learning • Adults are motivated to learn what is in their personal interest. Adult Learning • Adults are motivated to learn what is in their personal interest. • Adults can also be motivated to learn by appealing to personal growth objectives. • This might be accomplished by putting together a development plan that identifies the skills that will be required for the employee to move up in the company. © 2001 Prentice-Hall Transparency 13 -42

Adult Learning • The training should: -- consider carefully the assumptions noted previously. -- Adult Learning • The training should: -- consider carefully the assumptions noted previously. -- take into account the individual’s personal needs. -- be an active, experiential process that keeps the learner involved and engaged. -- be transferable to the job or the capacity the employee will have to fulfill. © 2001 Prentice-Hall Transparency 13 -43

Adult Learning • Some techniques that increase involvement include question and answer sessions, subgroups, Adult Learning • Some techniques that increase involvement include question and answer sessions, subgroups, case studies, debating, and role playing. © 2001 Prentice-Hall Transparency 13 -44

Training Tools Slide 1 of 4 • On-the-Job Training – Can be used as Training Tools Slide 1 of 4 • On-the-Job Training – Can be used as a part of a structured training program. – Even though on-the-job training seems informal, it can be used to teach a single task or skill, multiple programs, or work processes, or it can occur in conjunction with other training. © 2001 Prentice-Hall Transparency 13 -45

Training Tools • On-the-Job-Training – The most common means of using on the job Training Tools • On-the-Job-Training – The most common means of using on the job training is as a single training program that addresses a specific set of skills. – Approaches may include the use of a supervisor or an experienced employee to teach a task or skill to a person. © 2001 Prentice-Hall Transparency 13 -46

Training Tools • On-the-Job-Training – Multiple programs is a package of specific skills in Training Tools • On-the-Job-Training – Multiple programs is a package of specific skills in which an employee choose to become qualified that can be addressed by developing a curriculum of several topics. – On-the-job training can be used to help teach tasks within a work process as well. © 2001 Prentice-Hall Transparency 13 -47

Training Tools • Cross-Training – Training employees to do multiple jobs within an organization. Training Tools • Cross-Training – Training employees to do multiple jobs within an organization. – Employees can be taught to operate specific equipment or perform all the tasks involved in the process, effectively cross-training the entire group. • Finally, on-the-job training can be used in combination with other types of training. © 2001 Prentice-Hall Transparency 13 -48

Training Tools • Five selection criteria can help determine that onthe-job training is appropriate Training Tools • Five selection criteria can help determine that onthe-job training is appropriate as a training tool in a given situation. • These include the nature of the task, available resources, constraints in the workplace, financial considerations, and individual differences. • These variables need to be considered in conjunction with the task that employees need to learn ( see Table 13. 4). © 2001 Prentice-Hall Transparency 13 -49

Training Tools • Table 13. 4 Five factors to consider in training adults © Training Tools • Table 13. 4 Five factors to consider in training adults © 2001 Prentice-Hall Transparency 13 -50

Training Tools Slide 2 of 4 • Internet/Intranet Training – The Internet provides another Training Tools Slide 2 of 4 • Internet/Intranet Training – The Internet provides another approach for meeting the training needs of an organization. – The Internet can be easy, convenient, and affordable way to get information and training materials out to large groups. – Table 13. 5 show five ways in which the Internet can be used to deliver training information. © 2001 Prentice-Hall Transparency 13 -51

Training Tools • Table 13. 5 Internet training © 2001 Prentice-Hall Transparency 13 -52 Training Tools • Table 13. 5 Internet training © 2001 Prentice-Hall Transparency 13 -52

Training Tools • Computer-based training and CD ROM – Computer-based training uses specialized software Training Tools • Computer-based training and CD ROM – Computer-based training uses specialized software known as courseware that addresses specific topics. – This training can be delivered quickly and cost effectively, reducing training time. – The disadvantage of computer-based training is that there is no peer interaction or personal feedback. © 2001 Prentice-Hall Transparency 13 -53

Training Tools Slide 3 of 4 • Distance Learning – Incorporates technologies such as Training Tools Slide 3 of 4 • Distance Learning – Incorporates technologies such as videoconferencing and satellite delivery of courses. This kind of training still has the drawback of being a passive learning experience. • Electronic Performance Support Systems (EPSS) – Are a type of just-in-time training. Examples include Microsoft’s Wizard and technical queue cards. . © 2001 Prentice-Hall Transparency 13 -54

Training Tools • Multimedia -- Is accomplished by incorporating several of the tools already Training Tools • Multimedia -- Is accomplished by incorporating several of the tools already mentioned into an interactive process focusing on several senses. -- Multimedia productions also can reduce training time by 40% to 60%. © 2001 Prentice-Hall Transparency 13 -55

Training Tools Slide 4 of 4 • Other Training Tools -- Training relies on Training Tools Slide 4 of 4 • Other Training Tools -- Training relies on many less formal tools. -- Competent instructors are required for training to be effective. -- Humor is a training tools that some trainers have learned to use very well. Incorporating humor into training allows the audience to relax and enjoy the material being presented. -- If material is funny, it is likely to be remembered. -- Finally, games are often used in training to reinforce concepts. © 2001 Prentice-Hall Transparency 13 -56

Evaluating Training • An important component of a training program is evaluation. • Figure Evaluating Training • An important component of a training program is evaluation. • Figure 13. 28 shows a sample training evaluation form. • These form should measure the applicability of the training, the relevance to the job, the materials, and the performance of the instructor in presenting the materials. © 2001 Prentice-Hall Transparency 13 -57

Evaluating Training • Figure 13. 28 sample course evaluation © 2001 Prentice-Hall Transparency 13 Evaluating Training • Figure 13. 28 sample course evaluation © 2001 Prentice-Hall Transparency 13 -58

Evaluating Training Slide 1 of 5 • The Learning Curve – In a nutshell, Evaluating Training Slide 1 of 5 • The Learning Curve – In a nutshell, the learning curve can be interpreted as, “the more you do something, the better you become at doing it. ” – It means that “that which we persist in doing becomes easier, not that the thing has changed, but that our power to do has increased. ” – An objective of training must be to increase employee’s “power to do. ” © 2001 Prentice-Hall Transparency 13 -59

Evaluating Training • The Learning Curve – Improvement occurs as a job is repeated. Evaluating Training • The Learning Curve – Improvement occurs as a job is repeated. If the improvement is repeatable and predictable after time, it is likely to be the result of learning. – Progress depends on the continuation of learning in an organization. © 2001 Prentice-Hall Transparency 13 -60

Evaluating Training ( The learning Effect) • The philosophy of the learning curve is Evaluating Training ( The learning Effect) • The philosophy of the learning curve is as follows: -- Where there is life, there can be learning. -- The more complex the life, the greater the rate of learning. -- The rate of learning can be sufficiently regular to be predictive. © 2001 Prentice-Hall Transparency 13 -61

Evaluating Training Slide 2 of 5 • Profound Organizational Learning – Quality-based learning occurs Evaluating Training Slide 2 of 5 • Profound Organizational Learning – Quality-based learning occurs as people discover the causes of errors, defects, and poor customer service in a firm. Once these causes of errors are discovered, systems are put in place to ensure that the causes of error never reoccurs. – Such learning is termed profound organizational learning and is permanent. © 2001 Prentice-Hall Transparency 13 -62

Evaluating Training Slide 3 of 5 • The Relationship between Organizational Learning and Quality Evaluating Training Slide 3 of 5 • The Relationship between Organizational Learning and Quality Costs – As learning takes place, various costs of quality are reduced. • Prevention costs are reduced as use of preventive action becomes more efficient and focused. • Appraisal costs decrease as the need for inspection decreases. • External and internal failure costs are decreased by the fewer number of errors and defects. © 2001 Prentice-Hall Transparency 13 -63

Evaluating Training Slide 4 of 5 • Pay-for-Learning Programs – Pay-for-learning programs compensate employees Evaluating Training Slide 4 of 5 • Pay-for-Learning Programs – Pay-for-learning programs compensate employees for knowledge and skills rather than for the job they actually perform. – Other names of pay for learning include payfor-knowledge, skill-based compensation, knowledge-based pay, and pay-for-skill. © 2001 Prentice-Hall Transparency 13 -64

Evaluating Training • Pay-for-Learning Programs – There are two basic forms of pay-for-learning schemes, Evaluating Training • Pay-for-Learning Programs – There are two basic forms of pay-for-learning schemes, knowledge-growth systems and multiple skills systems. © 2001 Prentice-Hall Transparency 13 -65

Evaluating Training Slide 5 of 5 • Knowledge-growth systems increase employees’ pay as they Evaluating Training Slide 5 of 5 • Knowledge-growth systems increase employees’ pay as they establish competence at different levels relating to job knowledge in a single job classification. These are sometimes called technical skills ladders. © 2001 Prentice-Hall Transparency 13 -66

Evaluating Training • Multiple skills systems • Are much more experimental and use training Evaluating Training • Multiple skills systems • Are much more experimental and use training for job skills in a variety of job classifications This promises the advantages of greater labor flexibility and job mobility for employees. © 2001 Prentice-Hall Transparency 13 -67

Evaluating Training • The benefits of skill-based pay include: -- better employee development, -- Evaluating Training • The benefits of skill-based pay include: -- better employee development, -- increased cross-training, -- increased labor flexibility, -- lower levels of staff, -- improved problem solving, and -- increased job satisfaction. © 2001 Prentice-Hall Transparency 13 -68

Evaluating Training • The disadvantages of pay-for-learning system include increased costs in training, salaries, Evaluating Training • The disadvantages of pay-for-learning system include increased costs in training, salaries, and administration of the program. • If there is a lack of focus in implementation, the quality management program can result in increased salaries with negligible benefits. © 2001 Prentice-Hall Transparency 13 -69