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CHAPTER 12 The Production and Distribution of Food © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc.
Introduction to food production • Half of the world’s people eat rice • High in energy; low in vitamins and other nutrients • Vitamin A deficiency: blindness, immune system failure • Affects 195 million children • Iron deficiency: anemia and immune system failure • Causes 100, 000 maternal deaths/year • Golden rice (GR 2): genetically modified rice • Added genes allow rice to synthesize beta carotene (used to synthesize vitamin A) and iron © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc.
Golden rice © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc.
Frankenfoods • The golden rice concept has not been welcomed by all • It is a genetically modified (GM) crop • It contains genes from corn and beans • Greenpeace has waged a campaign against golden rice • Frankenfoods: foods that contain foreign genes • Created in the laboratory • Genetic-engineering technology may be needed to feed billions more, with better nutrition • Decades of rapid population growth have left millions dependent on imported food or food aid © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc.
Successes • Humans have done well at putting food on the table • World food production doubled in the past 30 years • Rising faster than the population • The amount of food in developing countries has increased • World food trade is a major economic production in many countries • More people are overweight than are hungry • But will it be possible to feed 10 billion? • Reaching the MDG goal of halving the number of hungry is in question © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc.
Patterns of food production • 12, 000 years ago the Neolithic Revolution introduced agriculture and animal husbandry • Fostered development of civilization • Major crops and animals were established in the first 1, 000 years • Food exchange and discovery (1450– 1700) • From the New World: potatoes, maize, beans, squash, tomatoes, pineapples, cocoa • From the Orient: rice • From Europe: wheat, onions, sugarcane, animals © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc.
Modern industrialized agriculture • Until 150 years ago, most Americans lived and worked on small farms • Supplied a robust and growing nation • Farmers used traditional approaches to pests and erosion • Crop rotation, multiple crops, animals wastes as fertilizer • People left the farm for jobs in cities and towns • The Industrial Revolution in the mid-1800 s impacted farming © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc.
Traditional versus modern farming © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc.
Transformation of traditional agriculture • The Industrial Revolution profoundly changed agriculture • Three million U. S. farmers feed the nation • Plus produce enough for export • This revolution increased farming efficiency • • Farm numbers went from 6. 8 million to 2. 1 million Farms increased in size fourfold (to 449 acres) Farm jobs account for 15% of the U. S. workforce The U. S. has frequently produced surpluses • Other industrialized nations have had this revolution © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc.
U. S. crop yields © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc.
Components of the agricultural revolution • Infrastructure: transformed agriculture • Rural electrification, roads, university programs, markets, transportation, loans, extension programs • Price and income support subsidies • Subsidies favor corporate farms, not poor farmers • Machinery: handles every need for working soil • Seeding, irrigating, weeding, harvesting • Tractors, combiners, handlers, mowers, toppers, etc. • Farmers can cultivate far more land • Creates a dependency on fossil fuels © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc.
More components of the revolution • Land under cultivation: U. S. pastureland crops comprise one-third (987 million acres) of the total land area • Since 1960, increased yields and surpluses reduced the need for land conversion • Conservation Reserve Program: reimburses farmers for retiring erosion-prone land planting it with trees or grasses • More land will be used to grow corn for ethanol • Globally, valuable and fragile forests and wetlands are converted to cropland © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc.
Components of the agricultural revolution • Fertilizers: increase yields • • One ton of fertilizer increases grain yields 15– 20 tons Current use is higher than ever High demand is tied to high food prices Most increase is in China, India, Brazil • Pesticides: control insect and plant pests • But pests have become resistant to many pesticides • Despite increased use, losses to pests remain constant • Pesticide use is decreasing due to health and environmental effects © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc.
More components of the revolution • Irrigation: occurs on 18% of all cropland • It produces 40% of all food • Irrigation is still expanding but at a slower pace • Problems include groundwater depletion, salinization, and waterlogging • High-yielding varieties of plants: plant geneticists have developed new varieties of wheat, corn, and rice • Yields double or triple that of traditional varieties • Photosynthetic product is diverted to seeds, not stems, leaves, or roots © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc.
The Green Revolution • The Green Revolution: technologies that resulted in remarkable increases in crop production • In 1943, Norman Borlaug and others bred dwarf hybrid wheat with a large head and thick stalk • Mexico tripled wheat production • Borlaug was awarded the Nobel Peace Prize in 1970 • Many other countries increased crop yields • Grain production exceeded population growth • The Green Revolution has done more than any other single achievement to prevent hunger and malnutrition © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc.
Traditional versus high-yielding wheat © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc.
Panacea? • High-yielding varieties are now used around the world • Has decreased deforestation in developing nations • The Green Revolution is not a panacea for all difficulties • Grains do best on irrigated fields • But water shortages are increasing • Grains require fertilizer, pesticides, and energyusing mechanized labor • It has not eradicate hunger or poverty • People can’t afford to buy food • There is no safety net © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc.
Impacts of the Green Revolution • Research now focuses on disease, pests, and climatic stresses • The early revolution helped Asia and Latin America • Later years mainly helped Africa and the Middle East • Without a Green Revolution, yields in developing nations would have been lower • Would have led to higher food prices, more cultivated land, increased hunger, and higher infant mortality • Sub-Saharan Africa still lags behind in agriculture • Due to the dominance of subsistence agriculture © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc.
The yield gap for cereals © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc.
Subsistence agriculture • Subsistence farming: developing world farmers use labor-intensive traditional agricultural methods • Practiced on marginal land • Described as the “silent giant” that feeds most of the world’s poor • Subsistence farmers live on small plots of land • They raise food for their household • They may sell a small cash crop • They do not consider themselves poor • Subsistence farming is practiced in regions with rapid population growth • But is best suited for low population densities © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc.
Subsistence farming © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc.
Problems in Africa • 67% of people in sub-Saharan Africa depend on agriculture for their livelihood • They experience low yields, rapid population growth, poverty, hunger, and high child mortality • The World Bank’s World Development Report 2008 states that agriculture carries the potential for lifting rural Africa out of poverty • But most rural farmers lack fertilizer and seeds to improve yields • Government subsidies in Malawi have doubled yields © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc.
Alliance for a Green Revolution • Money from wealthy countries allows subsistence farmers to: • Improve irrigation, soil health, and markets • Grow enough food for their families • Produce enough to encourage economic development • Subsistence agriculture works well in some areas • Slash-and-burn agriculture: involves shifting cultivation within tropical forests • Cleared land supports a few years of crops • Gradually shifts into agroforestry (tree plantations with ground crops) © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc.
Slash-and-burn agriculture © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc.
Animal farming and its consequences • 25% of the world’s croplands feeds domestic animals • 70% of U. S. grain goes to animals • The livestock economy: one of the most important activities • Four billion four-footed animals; 18 billion birds • People enjoy eating meat and dairy products • In the developed world, animals are raised in confined animal feeding operations (CAFOs) • In the developing world, animals are raised on family farms or by subsistence farmers © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc.
Cattle ranching in Australia © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc.
CAFOs hurt the environment and people • Feeding crops to animals causes the same problems as industrialized agriculture • Manure in developing countries is used as fertilizer • It is wasted in developed countries • Manure overwhelms treatment systems and enters water • Fish kills, algal growth, and contamination with pathogens • Crowded animals allow diseases to spread • Even to humans (e. g. , avian flu) • Salmonella causes $2. 5 billion lost/year in the U. S. • Heavy antibiotic use causes bacteria to become resistant © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc.
Rain forest crunched • 58 million acres (23 million hectares) of rain forests in Latin America have been converted to cattle pasture • Most land is held by few ranchers with huge spreads • Government policies encouraged colonization of land to produce meat for domestic use • Cattle production in the Amazon basin has expanded • It is now export driven • Brazilian beef brings in $1. 5 billion/year © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc.
Climate change • Deforestation and other land use changes in the tropics release 1. 6 billion tons/year of CO 2 • Livestock belching and flatulence release 100 million tons of methane/year • Methane is another greenhouse gas • Anaerobic decomposition of manure releases 30 million tons of methane/year • Methane released by livestock makes up 3% of all gases causing global warming © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc.
Good cow • Although livestock contribute to the methane problem, they enhance people’s diets and quality of life • Heifer Project International distributes livestock, bee hives, fowl, and fish to families • Local people oversee the projects • Projects improve the environment • Recipients must pass livestock offspring to others • Animal farming is more sustainable in rural farms in developing countries than CAFOs in developed nations © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc.
Heifer Project International © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc.
Biofuels and food production • Burning fossil fuels causes climate change • Releases CO 2 (a greenhouse gas) • Biofuel: a renewable fuel made from ethanol and oil derived from crops • Can mitigate climate change • No new CO 2 is released • With rising oil prices, biofuel prices are competitive • Ethanol: made from corn (in the U. S. ) and sugar (Brazil) • One-third of U. S. corn is devoted to ethanol production • Food prices have risen worldwide © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc.
Consequences • Critics say ethanol diverts corn from food production • The U. S. produces 40% of the world’s corn and 55– 60% of the corn on the market • Price increases take food away from children • Does ethanol production decrease food? • Wheat, rice, and soy prices have risen more than corn • Land previously planted in soybeans is planted in corn • Field corn is used to produce ethanol • Only cornstarch is used for ethanol, leaving proteins, vitamins, and fiber to produce food © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc.
Factors contributing to high food costs • Increased costs of oil for farm machinery and fertilizer • China and India are competing for oil • Bad weather and poor harvests in Australia • A major wheat exporter • Rising demand for meat and animal products from emerging economies • 30% of increased prices from 2000 to 2007 is due to biofuels • Ethanol could be produced from grasses and timber instead of corn © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc.
Future prospects for reducing hunger • Projections predict grain production to remain the same • Will slightly outpace population growth • Also predict increased meat consumption in developing countries • Developing countries will not be able to meet rising grain demands • • Most suitable land is already farmed Increases in grain yields are slowing down Many countries can’t afford to pay for grain imports Sub-Saharan Africa will continue to have hunger © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc.
Population and grain and meat production © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc.
Global picture • There are only two ways to increase food production: • Increase crop yields • Grow food crops on land now being used for feedstock crops, biofuels, or cash crops • Yields differ because of weather • Soil, rainfall, and sunlight limit productivity • It is impossible to predict how climate change will affect rainfall patterns • Developing countries could lose 334 million acres of farmland due to tropical temperature increases © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc.
Less meat and biofuels • What is the possibility of switching from feed grain and cash crops to food for people? • Feed grain is a buffer against world hunger • More people could eat lower on the food chain • The trend is in the opposite direction • Land could be converted from cash crops to food • But land reform and a balance of trade are needed • Biofuel production will increase • By using marginal land switching from other crops • Less corn will be available for animal feed and exports © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc.
A second Green Revolution • A Doubly Green Revolution would • Be more productive than the first Green Revolution • Conserve natural resources and the environment • It must repeat the first revolution’s successes • Be equitable, sustainable, and environmentally friendly • This new revolution is possible through biotechnology and genetic manipulation © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc.
From Green Revolution to Gene Revolution • Genetic engineering incorporates desired traits into plants and animals • Producing transgenic (generically modified [GM]) organisms • Genetic research of the Green Revolution used genes that already existed or mutated in a species • Genes can now be exchanged among plants, animals, and bacteria • This technology can help produce more food • But there are concerns about its development and use © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc.
The promise • The earliest and most common genetically altered crops • Pest-resistant cotton • Herbicide-resistant corn and soybeans • More recent crops include • Sorghum resistant to a parasitic plant (witchweed) • Insect-resistant corn, potatoes, cotton • Rapidly growing trees and salmon • Farmers have grown transgenic corn, soybeans, and cotton • 282 million acres were planted with bioengineered crops in 2007 © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc.
Global area of genetically modified crops © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc.
Objectives of agricultural biotechnology • Stacked products: a crop containing two or more biotech genes • Traits directed toward different pests • For example, pest resistance plus herbicide tolerance • Agricultural technology aims to: • Incorporate disease and pest resistance in tropical plants • Increase tolerance to drought, salt, etc. • Improve the nutritional quality of crops (e. g. , golden rice) • Produce pharmaceutical products (“pharma crops”) © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc.
Papaya plants in Hawaii © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc.
Environmental benefits of bioengineered crops • Reduced pesticide use • Crops are already resistant to pests • Less erosion • No-till cropping • Herbicide-resistant crops • Less land brought into production • Existing agricultural land produces more food © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc.
Marker-assisted breeding • New technologies improve crops without transgenic traits • Marker-assisted breeding: DNA sequencing locates genes of desirable traits in crops or their wild ancestors • Plants with these traits are bred with modern crops • High-calcium carrots; higher-yield pigeon peas • DNA screening of seedlings for the desired genes means plants don’t need to grow to maturity to see if they were transformed • This approach does not need special testing or permits • It is also cheaper, faster, and less controversial © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc.
Problems of genetic engineering: environmental concerns • Pests may become resistant to the toxin in pestresistant transgenic crops • The crop loses its advantage • Resistance has been found in weeds that infest fields • Resistant weeds can spread rapidly • Pollen from transgenic crops can spread to natural areas • Kills beneficial insects • This occurred in monarch butterflies in the lab • Genes can spread by pollen to ordinary plants • Create “super” weeds © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc.
Problems of genetic engineering: safety issues • Transgenic crops contain proteins from other organisms • This could trigger an allergic reaction in people • Brazil nut genes incorporated in soybeans induced an allergic reaction to people allergic to the nuts • Antibiotic-resistant genes are put into organisms • This could convey resistance to pathogens • Antibiotics could become ineffective • Plants could produce new substances in response to foreign genes • None of these concerns has become evident in the field © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc.
Pharma crops • Pharmaceuticals are produced by engineering genes for desirable products into crops • The U. S. Department of Agriculture (USDA) has given 200 permits for field tests • Involving hormones, enzymes, drugs, etc. • The Union of Concerned Scientists (UCS) asked the USDA to stop outdoor production of these crops • Pharma crops could contaminate other crops • Corn that produces pig vaccine was almost used in food • So instead, produce pharmaceuticals with noncrop plants © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc.
Problems of genetic engineering: access in the developing world • Large agricultural-industrial firms developed early genetically modified organisms • Profit is their major motive • Poor farmers can’t afford to buy the seeds • Some noncommercial and donor-funded labs are helping • Research in other countries allows farmers access to crops • Genetically modified seeds are spreading through “piracy” • The UN FAO reports that benefits are still mostly theoretical • But millions have benefited from higher yields, etc. © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc.
Maize streak virus © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc.
Fear vs. acceptance • Concerns and fear have generated controversy over genetically modified food • Protests are strongest in Europe • Concerns are made worse by other scares (e. g. , mad cow) • Governments may use the controversy to prevent importing cheaper food • The U. S. is far less concerned • 60% of food contains genetically modified substances • U. S. policy does not require mandatory labeling © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc.
The policies • In the U. S. , the EPA, USDA, and FDA (Food and Drug Administration) regulate genetically modified food crops • Conclusions of the National Research Council’s report Genetically Modified Pest-Protected Plants: Science and Regulation • Transgenic crops have been adequately tested • Agencies need to better coordinate and present information to the public • No evidence that these foods are unsafe • Need more research on environmental and safety issues © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc.
Cartegena Protocol • UN Convention on Biodiversity’s conference in 2000 • Dealt with trade in genetically modified organisms • The Cartagena Protocol on Biosafety • Was welcomed by governments, the private sector, and environmental groups • Covered how technologies should be regulated • Critics of biotechnology wanted proof that genetically modified organisms are safe • Advocates wanted proof of their dangers before they are denied access to overseas markets © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc.
Stipulations of the Cartagena Protocol • Countries can prevent entry of genetically modified organisms • But must base decisions on sound science • The precautionary principle: if there are threats of serious or irreversible damage, lack of scientific certainty is not a reason for failing to take measures to prevent damage • Shipments of food made of genetically modified organisms must be clearly labeled • 147 countries (not the U. S. ) have ratified the protocol © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc.
A regulatory framework for new technology • The public response to this regulatory framework in the EU is negative; it is positive in the U. S. • The EU lifted a ban on genetically modified foods • But require clear labeling • The trend is favorable toward adopting this technology • 23 countries currently grow biotech crops • The future will include advances in biotech crops • Will likely benefit developing countries • “Responsible biotechnology is not the enemy; starvation is” © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc.
Food distribution and trade • For centuries, the rule for food was self-sufficiency • Climate, blight, and wars interrupted agriculture, leading to famine and death • The Industrial Revolution intensified trade • Nations shipped foodstuffs around the world • The need for self-sufficiency decreased • Food became globalized • World trade in agriculture: $1 trillion in 2008 © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc.
Patterns in food trade • Some nations (U. S. , Canada) produce more than the people need • Other nations (developing world) export special crops • Coffee, fruit, sugar, spices, palm oil, cocoa, nuts • Trade helps the exporter • Importers obtain out-of-season or specialty food • Trade works only if the importing nation can pay cash • Japan imports $48 billion/year of food and feed • But it exports $596 billion/year in manufactured goods © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc.
Grain on the move • Grain: the most important foodstuff on the market • Wheat, rice, corn, barley, rye, sorghum, oilseeds (soybeans) • In 1935, only western Europe imported grain • Asia, Africa, Latin America were self-sufficient • By 1950, North America became a major food exporter • The world’s breadbasket and meat market • The U. S. , Argentina, and Brazil export oilseeds • Europe and China import them for animal feeds © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc.
Increasing dependence on food imports • Asia and Africa have become more dependent on imports • They also have increased population growth • Much food is internally supplied • But persistent dependence is ominous • If developing countries double grain imports, exporters have to increase production or decrease use • The world’s grain supply has never run out • But in 2008 use exceeded production • Enough grain was available by using carryover stocks • 2007– 2008 became known as the global food crisis © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc.
Production and use of world grains, 1998– 2008 © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc.
The global food crisis • Between 2006 and 2007, food prices roses 100% • Triggered riots and emergency measures in many countries • Food supply could not keep up with demand • Higher petroleum and fertilizer costs increase production costs • Diversion of corn and other crops to biofuels • Demand for higher-quality diets (meat, dairy) in Asia • Weather-related shortfalls in exporting nations • Declining carryover stocks © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc.
Future food prices • Some factors of decreased food production are temporary • Better weather and technologies can increase yields • The downturn in the economy reduced fuel prices • Biofuels and the demand for better diets will not go away • The outlook for future food prices? • Food prices will decline to new, higher levels • Developed nations get higher prices • But developing nations can’t afford to import food • Increased undernourishment and malnutrition © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc.
Food security • Food security: assured access for every person to enough nutritious food for an active and healthy life • Three levels of responsibility for food security • The family, the nation, the global community • In a market economy, food flows in the direction of economic demand • Need is not considered • A cash economy provides the opportunity to buy food • But not the food itself • The next level may or may not buy food for a poor person © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc.
Responsibility for food security © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc.
Family level • The most important level of responsibility • The goal: meet the nutritional needs of everyone • Provide freedom from hunger and malnutrition • Four options for obtaining food security • • Buy the food Raise the food Gather it from natural ecosystems Have the food provided by someone else • The fourth option implies a safety net of policies or programs to provide food security needs of all in society © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc.
National level • Safety-net policies and programs • Official policies: welfare measures (food stamps, Supplemental Security Income program) • Voluntary aid through hunger-relief programs • Feeding America: food banks that feed 25 million Americans • Many working poor and elderly must choose between paying bills and buying food • Charity, Aid, Recovery, and Empowerment Act (2003) • Farmers, ranchers, etc. can deduct the cost of food donated to agencies © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc.
Policies in developing countries • The goal at the national level: self-sufficiency in food • Enough food for everyone in the country • To meet this goal, a nation can grow enough food or buy it • Policies must exist to eliminate chronic hunger and malnutrition • Just land distribution • A functioning market economy • Many nations must turn to the global community for food aid and technical development assistance © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc.
Global level • Food aid flows from rich, developed nations to poor nations • Developing nations import and pay for food • The World Trade Organization (WTO) brings together developed and developing nations for negotiations and policy decisions • Developed nations use tariffs (taxes on imports) and subsidies to protect their agricultural sectors • And call on developing nations to liberalize their policies © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc.
Subsidies hurt the developing nations • In 2005 Haiti cut its rice tariff • Imported U. S. -subsidized rice (“dumping”) • By 2000, Haitian rice production was cut in half • Thousands of rice farmers lost their livelihoods • Haiti became third largest importer of U. S. rice • The U. S. pays $1 billion/year in rice subsidies • The newest U. S. farm bill still subsidizes products • The EU has high tariffs and subsidies ($41 billion/year) © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc.
Other needs • There are other initiatives to help poorer countries become food self-sufficient • Relieving the debt crisis • Resolving the trade imbalance between developed and developing nations • Developing nations export raw materials (cash crops, mineral ores, petroleum) cheaply • They pay higher prices for imported products • Using labor in developing countries is helping • Even low wages help workers improve their lives © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc.
Hunger, malnutrition, and famine • The objective of the UN World Food Conference in 1974 was to end hunger and malnutrition within a decade • The 2008 UN World Food Summit addressed the food crisis that added 75 million to the 848 million hungry • The MDG’s more modest goal is to reduce hunger by half in developing nations by 2015 • There is enough food to feed everyone • Along with global markets • So why is there still so much hunger and malnutrition? © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc.
Malnutrition vs. hunger • Hunger: a lack of basic food for energy and nutritional needs so the person cannot lead a normal, healthy life • Malnutrition: the lack of essential nutrients • Amino acids, vitamins, minerals • Undernourishment: the lack of food energy (Calories) • Overnourishment: even in developing countries • One-third of Americans are clinically obese (> 30 lbs overweight) • An Internet-based food pyramid tailors the food groups and amounts to age and physical activity © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc.
The new food guide pyramid © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc.
Extent of hunger • Accurate, reliable figures on hunger are unavailable • Governments do not document such figures • Two-thirds of the undernourished (642 million) are in Asia and the Pacific • India, Bangladesh, Pakistan, China • Sub-Saharan Africa: the highest percent of undernourished • One-third of the population is afflicted • The effects of hunger and malnutrition are greatest in children and women • Seriously limits growth and intellectual development © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc.
Consequences of hunger • Sickness and death are companions of hunger • Poor nutrition lowers resistance • Diseases (measles, malaria, diarrhea) become common • 5. 5 million children die each year in developing nations • Children rarely starve to death • They are weak, underweight, and vulnerable to disease • People in rural areas suffer seasonal hunger until the next harvest • They are thin and spare from hard work and little food © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc.
Malnourished children © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc.
Root cause of hunger • The root cause of hunger is poverty • Hungry and malnourished people can’t buy or grow food • 1. 4 billion people live in absolute poverty (income < $1. 25/day) • They are rural, illiterate; spend ½ their income on food • They suffer discrimination due to race, tribe, religion • One measure of progress of reducing hunger is the proportion of children under 5 who are underweight • Only a few countries have reached the MDG goal • Eastern Asia, Latin America, the Caribbean, North Africa • There are still 140 million underweight children © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc.
Underweight children © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc.
Reducing poverty and hunger • China, Indonesia, and Thailand reduced hunger and poverty • Oil exports, Green Revolution technology, rural development, social infrastructure • Voucher programs for seeds and fertilizer • Societies must address the needs of the hungry poor • Public policies • Countries and whole regions face food emergencies • International responsibility is most important © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc.
Famine • Famine: a severe shortage of food • Accompanied by significant increase in deaths • Signals that society is unwilling or unable to feed all • Immediate causes: drought and conflict • Drought caused famine in the Sahel (1968– 1974; 1984– 1985) • Seasonal, unpredictable rainfall • Crops withered, forage declined, livestock died • Farmers and pastoralists moved to refugee camps in cities © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc.
Refugee camps • Unsanitary conditions in refugee camps led to diseases • Dysentery, cholera • A million died in Ethiopia in 1984– 1985 • International aid prevented even more from dying • Favorable weather can lead to locust infestations • Drought and deforestation result in desertification • Triggering massive dust storms • Rainfall is currently normal in western Sahel • Eastern Sahel (the Horn of Africa) is still in drought • Cattle are dying and malnutrition is increasing © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc.
Warning systems about food insecurity • The FAO’s Global Information and Early Warning System (GIEWS) • Monitors food supply and demand • Issues reports and alerts when supply difficulties are happening or could happen • The U. S. Agency for International Development’s Famine Early Warning System Network (FEWS NET) • Involves satellite operations focusing on sub-Saharan Africa • Measures rainfall and agricultural conditions • Issues bulletins and special reports on the Internet • Gives accurate and timely assessments on food security © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc.
Conflict • Famines caused by war in the 1990 s occurred in Ethiopia, Eritrea, Somalia, Rwanda, Sudan, Mozambique, Congo • Put millions of Africans at risk • Wars disrupt planting and harvesting • Millions are displaced • Governments control food and relief supplies • Relief workers operate, and die, under dangerous conditions • 15 sub-Saharan countries have food emergencies because of internal conflicts © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc.
Famines are preventable • India, Brazil, Kenya, and southern Africa have coped with droughts • They mobilized relief: food, clothing, medicine • The early 1990 s drought in Mozambique helped the peace process • Helped change the political landscape of south Africa • Cooperation between southern African nations to prevent famine lowered barriers • Helped bring democracy to South Africa © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc.
Hunger hot spots • Much of Africa has long-term, severe droughts and wars • Climate change is causing erratic weather and warming • 20 countries are in crisis and require external help • Ethiopia: 11 million need help to prevent famine • Drought, government ownership of all land • Increased malnutrition and livestock deaths • Somalia: the worst humanitarian disaster in the world • Three million (45%) need emergency food • Lawlessness • Armed groups attack aid workers and hijack food © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc.
More hunger hot spots • Zimbabwe: once a major breadbasket • Now a humanitarian disaster area • President Mugabe’s “land reform” gave farmland to supporters with little knowledge of agriculture • Drought, internal unrest, prohibition of aid workers • Five million (40%) are desperately hungry • Sudan’s civil war and drought put 1 million in peril • Food aid shipments were blocked to starve rebels • 32 countries are in crisis and need external help • North Korea, Haiti, Bangladesh © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc.
Food aid © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc.
Food aid • Widespread, severe hunger and famine are being prevented only because of external assistance (food aid) • The World Food Program (WFP) of the UN coordinates global food aid • The U. S. , Japan, and the EU donate food • Other countries conduct their own food aid programs • Food aid was cut in half between 1993 and 1996 • It is at its lowest levels in 30 years • Food aid is given to countries all over the world • Not just to areas with famine © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc.
Global food aid © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc.
When aid doesn’t help • Efforts to end hunger have occurred for 50 years • The U. S. and Canada are leaders in donating food • Famines have been averted or moderated • But using food aid to alleviate chronic hunger is not good • Free or very cheap foreign food hurts local farmers • They stop producing food, hurting those who sell to them • The entire local economy deteriorates • Donating food aggravates the conditions it tries to alleviate © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc.
When it does • The WFP targets most food aid to emergency situations • Some aid goes to “development projects” • The poor can concentrate on other activities • The WFP makes 80% of its food purchases from developing countries • Local farmers get income • Needy people are fed • The U. S. Congress requires food aid from the U. S. to be American-grown © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc.
The future of food aid • It will continue to be an international responsibility • Buffers against famine • Is part of local development aid • Helps against malnutrition • Food aid is not enough • Economic arrangements between rich and poor nations need to be restructured • Development aid must foster food self-sufficiency and sustainable interactions with the environment © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc.
Closing thoughts on hunger • In 1980, a Presidential Commission reported that the U. S. has a moral obligation to respond to hunger • Alleviating hunger is a matter of addressing poverty • In a market economy, short-term profit crowds out longterm sustainable management of natural resources • National self-interest in rich nations promotes subsidies • Developing nations need enlightened, uncorrupt leaders • We do not need new science or technology to end hunger • Political and social action at all levels is needed © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc.
CHAPTER 12 The Production and Distribution of Food Active Lecture Questions © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc.
Review Question-1 Which of the following was an impact of the Green Revolution in developing countries? a. It led to an increased focus on developing disease- and pest-resistant varieties of food. b. It contributed to expanded food production. c. It reduced deforestation. d. all of the above © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc.
Review Question-1 Answer Which of the following was an impact of the Green Revolution in developing countries? a. It led to an increased focus on developing disease- and pest-resistant varieties of food. b. It contributed to expanded food production. c. It reduced deforestation. d. all of the above © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc.
Review Question-2 ______ farmers live on small parcels of land that provide them with the food for their households and a small cash crop. a. Neolithic b. Commercial c. Subsistence d. Development © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc.
Review Question-2 Answer ______ farmers live on small parcels of land that provide them with the food for their households and a small cash crop. a. Neolithic b. Commercial c. Subsistence d. Development © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc.
Review Question-3 When ethanol and oils are derived from agricultural crops to replace fossil fuels, they are called a. biofuels. b. solarfuels. c. hydrofuels. d. sustainafuels. © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc.
Review Question-3 Answer When ethanol and oils are derived from agricultural crops to replace fossil fuels, they are called a. biofuels. b. solarfuels. c. hydrofuels. d. sustainafuels. © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc.
Review Question-4 Concerns about genetic engineering technology include a. the safety of genetically modified food. b. possible environmental problems. c. lack of access to the new techniques. d. all of the above. © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc.
Review Question-4 Answer Concerns about genetic engineering technology include a. the safety of genetically modified food. b. possible environmental problems. c. lack of access to the new techniques. d. all of the above. © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc.
Review Question-5 ______ is the general term referring to a lack of basic food required to meet nutritional needs, while ______ is a lack of essential nutrients. a. Malnutrition; undernourishment b. Hunger; malnutrition c. Undernourishment; overnourishment d. Overnourishment; hunger © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc.
Review Question-5 Answer ______ is the general term referring to a lack of basic food required to meet nutritional needs, while ______ is a lack of essential nutrients. a. Malnutrition; undernourishment b. Hunger; malnutrition c. Undernourishment; overnourishment d. Overnourishment; hunger © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc.
Interpreting Graphs and Data-1 According to Fig. 12 -14, in 2002, a. crop production was greater than crop utilization. b. crop production was lower than crop utilization. c. crop production was 2100 million tons. d. crop production was 1500 million tons. © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc.
Interpreting Graphs and Data-1 Answer According to Fig. 12 -14, in 2002, a. crop production was greater than crop utilization. b. crop production was lower than crop utilization. c. crop production was 2100 million tons. d. crop production was 1500 million tons. © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc.
Interpreting Graphs and Data-2 According to Fig. 12 -18, which region had the least change in the proportion of children under age 5 who were underweight between 1990 and 2006? a. Southern Asia b. Sub-Saharan Africa c. Western Asia d. Northern Africa © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc.
Interpreting Graphs and Data-2 Answer According to Fig. 12 -18, which region had the least change in the proportion of children under age 5 who were underweight between 1990 and 2006? a. Southern Asia b. Sub-Saharan Africa c. Western Asia d. Northern Africa © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc.
Thinking Environmentally-1 The USDA created an Internet-based interactive food pyramid that accounts for ______ and ______ to give the recommended balance of calories and food types for each person. a. diet; nutrition b. age; diet c. physical activity; age d. medical history; age © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc.
Thinking Environmentally-1 Answer The USDA created an Internet-based interactive food pyramid that accounts for ______ and ______ to give the recommended balance of calories and food types for each person. a. diet; nutrition b. age; diet c. physical activity; age d. medical history; age © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc.
Thinking Environmentally-2 Food security must be met on three levels, which are a. internet, family, and the global community. b. individual, family, and educational. c. educational, national, and global. d. family, national, and global. © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc.
Thinking Environmentally-2 Answer Food security must be met on three levels, which are a. internet, family, and the global community. b. individual, family, and educational. c. educational, national, and global. d. family, national, and global. © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc.