Chapter 12 The Cell Cycle. Overview: The Key

Скачать презентацию Chapter 12 The Cell Cycle. Overview: The Key Скачать презентацию Chapter 12 The Cell Cycle. Overview: The Key

12_lecture_presentation.ppt

  • Количество слайдов: 82

>Chapter 12 The Cell Cycle Chapter 12 The Cell Cycle

>Overview: The Key Roles of Cell Division The ability of organisms to reproduce best Overview: The Key Roles of Cell Division The ability of organisms to reproduce best distinguishes living things from nonliving matter The continuity of life is based on the reproduction of cells, or cell division Copyright © 2008 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Pearson Benjamin Cummings

>Fig. 12-1 Fig. 12-1

>In unicellular organisms, division of one cell reproduces the entire organism Multicellular organisms depend In unicellular organisms, division of one cell reproduces the entire organism Multicellular organisms depend on cell division for: Development from a fertilized cell Growth Repair Cell division is an integral part of the cell cycle, the life of a cell from formation to its own division Copyright © 2008 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Pearson Benjamin Cummings

>Fig. 12-2 100 µm 200 µm 20 µm (a) Reproduction (b) Growth and development Fig. 12-2 100 µm 200 µm 20 µm (a) Reproduction (b) Growth and development (c) Tissue renewal

>Fig. 12-2a 100 µm (a) Reproduction Fig. 12-2a 100 µm (a) Reproduction

>Fig. 12-2b 200 µm (b) Growth and development Fig. 12-2b 200 µm (b) Growth and development

>Fig. 12-2c 20 µm (c) Tissue renewal Fig. 12-2c 20 µm (c) Tissue renewal

>Concept 12.1: Cell division results in genetically identical daughter cells Most cell division results Concept 12.1: Cell division results in genetically identical daughter cells Most cell division results in daughter cells with identical genetic information, DNA A special type of division produces nonidentical daughter cells (gametes, or sperm and egg cells) Copyright © 2008 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Pearson Benjamin Cummings

>Cellular Organization of the Genetic Material All the DNA in a cell constitutes the Cellular Organization of the Genetic Material All the DNA in a cell constitutes the cell’s genome A genome can consist of a single DNA molecule (common in prokaryotic cells) or a number of DNA molecules (common in eukaryotic cells) DNA molecules in a cell are packaged into chromosomes Copyright © 2008 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Pearson Benjamin Cummings

>Fig. 12-3 20 µm Fig. 12-3 20 µm

>Every eukaryotic species has a characteristic number of chromosomes in each cell nucleus Somatic Every eukaryotic species has a characteristic number of chromosomes in each cell nucleus Somatic cells (nonreproductive cells) have two sets of chromosomes Gametes (reproductive cells: sperm and eggs) have half as many chromosomes as somatic cells Eukaryotic chromosomes consist of chromatin, a complex of DNA and protein that condenses during cell division Copyright © 2008 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Pearson Benjamin Cummings

>Distribution of Chromosomes During Eukaryotic Cell Division In preparation for cell division, DNA is Distribution of Chromosomes During Eukaryotic Cell Division In preparation for cell division, DNA is replicated and the chromosomes condense Each duplicated chromosome has two sister chromatids, which separate during cell division The centromere is the narrow “waist” of the duplicated chromosome, where the two chromatids are most closely attached Copyright © 2008 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Pearson Benjamin Cummings

>Fig. 12-4 0.5 µm Chromosomes Chromosome duplication (including DNA synthesis) Chromo- some arm Centromere Fig. 12-4 0.5 µm Chromosomes Chromosome duplication (including DNA synthesis) Chromo- some arm Centromere Sister chromatids DNA molecules Separation of sister chromatids Centromere Sister chromatids

>Eukaryotic cell division consists of: Mitosis, the division of the nucleus Cytokinesis, the division Eukaryotic cell division consists of: Mitosis, the division of the nucleus Cytokinesis, the division of the cytoplasm Gametes are produced by a variation of cell division called meiosis Meiosis yields nonidentical daughter cells that have only one set of chromosomes, half as many as the parent cell Copyright © 2008 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Pearson Benjamin Cummings

>Concept 12.2: The mitotic phase alternates with interphase in the cell cycle In 1882, Concept 12.2: The mitotic phase alternates with interphase in the cell cycle In 1882, the German anatomist Walther Flemming developed dyes to observe chromosomes during mitosis and cytokinesis Copyright © 2008 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Pearson Benjamin Cummings

>Phases of the Cell Cycle The cell cycle consists of Mitotic (M) phase (mitosis Phases of the Cell Cycle The cell cycle consists of Mitotic (M) phase (mitosis and cytokinesis) Interphase (cell growth and copying of chromosomes in preparation for cell division) Copyright © 2008 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Pearson Benjamin Cummings

>Interphase (about 90% of the cell cycle) can be divided into subphases: G1 phase Interphase (about 90% of the cell cycle) can be divided into subphases: G1 phase (“first gap”) S phase (“synthesis”) G2 phase (“second gap”) The cell grows during all three phases, but chromosomes are duplicated only during the S phase Copyright © 2008 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Pearson Benjamin Cummings

>Fig. 12-5 S (DNA synthesis) MITOTIC (M) PHASE Mitosis Cytokinesis G1 G2 INTERPHASE Fig. 12-5 S (DNA synthesis) MITOTIC (M) PHASE Mitosis Cytokinesis G1 G2 INTERPHASE

>Mitosis is conventionally divided into five phases: Prophase Prometaphase Metaphase Anaphase Telophase Cytokinesis is Mitosis is conventionally divided into five phases: Prophase Prometaphase Metaphase Anaphase Telophase Cytokinesis is well underway by late telophase BioFlix: Mitosis Copyright © 2008 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Pearson Benjamin Cummings

>Fig. 12-6 G2 of Interphase Centrosomes (with centriole pairs) Chromatin (duplicated) Nucleolus Nuclear envelope Fig. 12-6 G2 of Interphase Centrosomes (with centriole pairs) Chromatin (duplicated) Nucleolus Nuclear envelope Plasma membrane Early mitotic spindle Aster Centromere Chromosome, consisting of two sister chromatids Prophase Prometaphase Fragments of nuclear envelope Nonkinetochore microtubules Kinetochore Kinetochore microtubule Metaphase Metaphase plate Spindle Centrosome at one spindle pole Anaphase Daughter chromosomes Telophase and Cytokinesis Cleavage furrow Nucleolus forming Nuclear envelope forming

>Prophase Fig. 12-6a Prometaphase G2 of Interphase Prophase Fig. 12-6a Prometaphase G2 of Interphase

>Fig. 12-6b Prometaphase Prophase G2 of Interphase Nonkinetochore microtubules Fragments of nuclear envelope Aster Fig. 12-6b Prometaphase Prophase G2 of Interphase Nonkinetochore microtubules Fragments of nuclear envelope Aster Centromere Early mitotic spindle Chromatin (duplicated) Centrosomes (with centriole pairs) Nucleolus Nuclear envelope Plasma membrane Chromosome, consisting of two sister chromatids Kinetochore Kinetochore microtubule

>Fig. 12-6c Metaphase Anaphase Telophase and Cytokinesis Fig. 12-6c Metaphase Anaphase Telophase and Cytokinesis

>Fig. 12-6d Metaphase Anaphase Telophase and Cytokinesis Cleavage furrow Nucleolus forming Metaphase plate Centrosome Fig. 12-6d Metaphase Anaphase Telophase and Cytokinesis Cleavage furrow Nucleolus forming Metaphase plate Centrosome at one spindle pole Spindle Daughter chromosomes Nuclear envelope forming

>The Mitotic Spindle: A Closer Look The mitotic spindle is an apparatus of microtubules The Mitotic Spindle: A Closer Look The mitotic spindle is an apparatus of microtubules that controls chromosome movement during mitosis During prophase, assembly of spindle microtubules begins in the centrosome, the microtubule organizing center The centrosome replicates, forming two centrosomes that migrate to opposite ends of the cell, as spindle microtubules grow out from them Copyright © 2008 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Pearson Benjamin Cummings

>An aster (a radial array of short microtubules) extends from each centrosome The spindle An aster (a radial array of short microtubules) extends from each centrosome The spindle includes the centrosomes, the spindle microtubules, and the asters Copyright © 2008 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Pearson Benjamin Cummings

>During prometaphase, some spindle microtubules attach to the kinetochores of chromosomes and begin to During prometaphase, some spindle microtubules attach to the kinetochores of chromosomes and begin to move the chromosomes At metaphase, the chromosomes are all lined up at the metaphase plate, the midway point between the spindle’s two poles Copyright © 2008 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Pearson Benjamin Cummings

>Fig. 12-7 Microtubules Chromosomes Sister chromatids Aster Metaphase plate Centrosome Kineto- chores Kinetochore microtubules Fig. 12-7 Microtubules Chromosomes Sister chromatids Aster Metaphase plate Centrosome Kineto- chores Kinetochore microtubules Overlapping nonkinetochore microtubules Centrosome 1 µm 0.5 µm

>In anaphase, sister chromatids separate and move along the kinetochore microtubules toward opposite ends In anaphase, sister chromatids separate and move along the kinetochore microtubules toward opposite ends of the cell The microtubules shorten by depolymerizing at their kinetochore ends Copyright © 2008 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Pearson Benjamin Cummings

>Fig. 12-8 EXPERIMENT Kinetochore RESULTS CONCLUSION Spindle pole Mark Chromosome movement Kinetochore Microtubule Motor Fig. 12-8 EXPERIMENT Kinetochore RESULTS CONCLUSION Spindle pole Mark Chromosome movement Kinetochore Microtubule Motor protein Chromosome Tubulin subunits

>Fig. 12-8a Kinetochore Spindle pole Mark EXPERIMENT RESULTS Fig. 12-8a Kinetochore Spindle pole Mark EXPERIMENT RESULTS

>Fig. 12-8b Kinetochore Microtubule Tubulin Subunits Chromosome Chromosome movement Motor protein CONCLUSION Fig. 12-8b Kinetochore Microtubule Tubulin Subunits Chromosome Chromosome movement Motor protein CONCLUSION

>Nonkinetochore microtubules from opposite poles overlap and push against each other, elongating the cell Nonkinetochore microtubules from opposite poles overlap and push against each other, elongating the cell In telophase, genetically identical daughter nuclei form at opposite ends of the cell Copyright © 2008 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Pearson Benjamin Cummings

>Cytokinesis: A Closer Look In animal cells, cytokinesis occurs by a process known as Cytokinesis: A Closer Look In animal cells, cytokinesis occurs by a process known as cleavage, forming a cleavage furrow In plant cells, a cell plate forms during cytokinesis Animation: Cytokinesis Copyright © 2008 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Pearson Benjamin Cummings

>Video: Sea Urchin (Time Lapse) Video: Animal Mitosis Copyright © 2008 Pearson Education, Inc., Video: Sea Urchin (Time Lapse) Video: Animal Mitosis Copyright © 2008 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Pearson Benjamin Cummings

>Fig. 12-9 Cleavage furrow 100 µm Contractile ring of microfilaments Daughter cells (a) Cleavage Fig. 12-9 Cleavage furrow 100 µm Contractile ring of microfilaments Daughter cells (a) Cleavage of an animal cell (SEM) (b) Cell plate formation in a plant cell (TEM) Vesicles forming cell plate Wall of parent cell Cell plate Daughter cells New cell wall 1 µm

>Cleavage furrow Fig. 12-9a 100 µm Daughter cells (a) Cleavage of an animal cell Cleavage furrow Fig. 12-9a 100 µm Daughter cells (a) Cleavage of an animal cell (SEM) Contractile ring of microfilaments

>Fig. 12-9b Daughter cells (b) Cell plate formation in a plant cell (TEM) Vesicles Fig. 12-9b Daughter cells (b) Cell plate formation in a plant cell (TEM) Vesicles forming cell plate Wall of parent cell New cell wall Cell plate 1 µm

>Fig. 12-10 Chromatin condensing Metaphase Anaphase Telophase Prometaphase Nucleus Prophase 1 2 3 5 Fig. 12-10 Chromatin condensing Metaphase Anaphase Telophase Prometaphase Nucleus Prophase 1 2 3 5 4 Nucleolus Chromosomes Cell plate 10 µm

>Fig. 12-10a Nucleus Prophase 1 Nucleolus Chromatin condensing Fig. 12-10a Nucleus Prophase 1 Nucleolus Chromatin condensing

>Fig. 12-10b Prometaphase 2 Chromosomes Fig. 12-10b Prometaphase 2 Chromosomes

>Fig. 12-10c Metaphase 3 Fig. 12-10c Metaphase 3

>Fig. 12-10d Anaphase 4 Fig. 12-10d Anaphase 4

>Fig. 12-10e Telophase 5 Cell plate 10 µm Fig. 12-10e Telophase 5 Cell plate 10 µm

>Binary Fission Prokaryotes (bacteria and archaea) reproduce by a type of cell division called Binary Fission Prokaryotes (bacteria and archaea) reproduce by a type of cell division called binary fission In binary fission, the chromosome replicates (beginning at the origin of replication), and the two daughter chromosomes actively move apart Copyright © 2008 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Pearson Benjamin Cummings

>Fig. 12-11-1 Origin of replication Two copies of origin E. coli cell Bacterial chromosome Fig. 12-11-1 Origin of replication Two copies of origin E. coli cell Bacterial chromosome Plasma membrane Cell wall

>Fig. 12-11-2 Origin of replication Two copies of origin E. coli cell Bacterial chromosome Fig. 12-11-2 Origin of replication Two copies of origin E. coli cell Bacterial chromosome Plasma membrane Cell wall Origin Origin

>Fig. 12-11-3 Origin of replication Two copies of origin E. coli cell Bacterial chromosome Fig. 12-11-3 Origin of replication Two copies of origin E. coli cell Bacterial chromosome Plasma membrane Cell wall Origin Origin

>Fig. 12-11-4 Origin of replication Two copies of origin E. coli cell Bacterial chromosome Fig. 12-11-4 Origin of replication Two copies of origin E. coli cell Bacterial chromosome Plasma membrane Cell wall Origin Origin

>The Evolution of Mitosis Since prokaryotes evolved before eukaryotes, mitosis probably evolved from binary The Evolution of Mitosis Since prokaryotes evolved before eukaryotes, mitosis probably evolved from binary fission Certain protists exhibit types of cell division that seem intermediate between binary fission and mitosis Copyright © 2008 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Pearson Benjamin Cummings

>Fig. 12-12 (a) Bacteria Bacterial chromosome Chromosomes Microtubules Intact nuclear envelope (b) Dinoflagellates Kinetochore Fig. 12-12 (a) Bacteria Bacterial chromosome Chromosomes Microtubules Intact nuclear envelope (b) Dinoflagellates Kinetochore microtubule Intact nuclear envelope (c) Diatoms and yeasts Kinetochore microtubule Fragments of nuclear envelope (d) Most eukaryotes

>Fig. 12-12ab Bacterial chromosome Chromosomes Microtubules (a) Bacteria (b) Dinoflagellates Intact nuclear envelope Fig. 12-12ab Bacterial chromosome Chromosomes Microtubules (a) Bacteria (b) Dinoflagellates Intact nuclear envelope

>Fig. 12-12cd Kinetochore microtubule (c) Diatoms and yeasts Kinetochore microtubule (d) Most eukaryotes Fragments Fig. 12-12cd Kinetochore microtubule (c) Diatoms and yeasts Kinetochore microtubule (d) Most eukaryotes Fragments of nuclear envelope Intact nuclear envelope

>Concept 12.3: The eukaryotic cell cycle is regulated by a molecular control system The Concept 12.3: The eukaryotic cell cycle is regulated by a molecular control system The frequency of cell division varies with the type of cell These cell cycle differences result from regulation at the molecular level Copyright © 2008 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Pearson Benjamin Cummings

>Evidence for Cytoplasmic Signals The cell cycle appears to be driven by specific chemical Evidence for Cytoplasmic Signals The cell cycle appears to be driven by specific chemical signals present in the cytoplasm Some evidence for this hypothesis comes from experiments in which cultured mammalian cells at different phases of the cell cycle were fused to form a single cell with two nuclei Copyright © 2008 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Pearson Benjamin Cummings

>Fig. 12-13 Experiment 1 Experiment 2 EXPERIMENT RESULTS S G1 M G1 M M Fig. 12-13 Experiment 1 Experiment 2 EXPERIMENT RESULTS S G1 M G1 M M S S When a cell in the S phase was fused with a cell in G1, the G1 nucleus immediately entered the S phase—DNA was synthesized. When a cell in the M phase was fused with a cell in G1, the G1 nucleus immediately began mitosis—a spindle formed and chromatin condensed, even though the chromosome had not been duplicated.

>The Cell Cycle Control System The sequential events of the cell cycle are directed The Cell Cycle Control System The sequential events of the cell cycle are directed by a distinct cell cycle control system, which is similar to a clock The cell cycle control system is regulated by both internal and external controls The clock has specific checkpoints where the cell cycle stops until a go-ahead signal is received Copyright © 2008 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Pearson Benjamin Cummings

>Fig. 12-14 S G1 M checkpoint G2 M Control system G1 checkpoint G2 checkpoint Fig. 12-14 S G1 M checkpoint G2 M Control system G1 checkpoint G2 checkpoint

>For many cells, the G1 checkpoint seems to be the most important one If For many cells, the G1 checkpoint seems to be the most important one If a cell receives a go-ahead signal at the G1 checkpoint, it will usually complete the S, G2, and M phases and divide If the cell does not receive the go-ahead signal, it will exit the cycle, switching into a nondividing state called the G0 phase Copyright © 2008 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Pearson Benjamin Cummings

>Fig. 12-15 G1 G0 G1 checkpoint Cell receives a go-ahead signal G1 (b) Cell Fig. 12-15 G1 G0 G1 checkpoint Cell receives a go-ahead signal G1 (b) Cell does not receive a go-ahead signal

>The Cell Cycle Clock: Cyclins and Cyclin-Dependent Kinases Two types of regulatory proteins are The Cell Cycle Clock: Cyclins and Cyclin-Dependent Kinases Two types of regulatory proteins are involved in cell cycle control: cyclins and cyclin-dependent kinases (Cdks) The activity of cyclins and Cdks fluctuates during the cell cycle MPF (maturation-promoting factor) is a cyclin-Cdk complex that triggers a cell’s passage past the G2 checkpoint into the M phase Copyright © 2008 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Pearson Benjamin Cummings

>Fig. 12-16 Protein kinase activity (– ) % of dividing cells (– ) Time Fig. 12-16 Protein kinase activity (– ) % of dividing cells (– ) Time (min) 300 200 400 100 0 1 2 3 4 5 30 500 0 20 10 RESULTS

>Fig. 12-17 M G1 S G2 M G1 S G2 M G1 MPF activity Fig. 12-17 M G1 S G2 M G1 S G2 M G1 MPF activity Cyclin concentration Time (a) Fluctuation of MPF activity and cyclin concentration during the cell cycle Degraded cyclin Cdk G1 S G2 M Cdk G2 checkpoint Cyclin is degraded Cyclin MPF (b) Molecular mechanisms that help regulate the cell cycle Cyclin accumulation

>Fig. 12-17a Time (a) Fluctuation of MPF activity and cyclin concentration during the cell Fig. 12-17a Time (a) Fluctuation of MPF activity and cyclin concentration during the cell cycle Cyclin concentration MPF activity M M M S S G1 G1 G1 G2 G2

>Fig. 12-17b Cyclin is degraded Cdk MPF Cdk M S G1 G2 checkpoint Degraded Fig. 12-17b Cyclin is degraded Cdk MPF Cdk M S G1 G2 checkpoint Degraded cyclin Cyclin (b) Molecular mechanisms that help regulate the cell cycle G2 Cyclin accumulation

>Stop and Go Signs: Internal and External Signals at the Checkpoints An example of Stop and Go Signs: Internal and External Signals at the Checkpoints An example of an internal signal is that kinetochores not attached to spindle microtubules send a molecular signal that delays anaphase Some external signals are growth factors, proteins released by certain cells that stimulate other cells to divide For example, platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF) stimulates the division of human fibroblast cells in culture Copyright © 2008 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Pearson Benjamin Cummings

>Fig. 12-18 Petri plate Scalpels Cultured fibroblasts Without PDGF cells fail to divide With Fig. 12-18 Petri plate Scalpels Cultured fibroblasts Without PDGF cells fail to divide With PDGF cells prolifer- ate 10 µm

>Another example of external signals is density-dependent inhibition, in which crowded cells stop dividing Another example of external signals is density-dependent inhibition, in which crowded cells stop dividing Most animal cells also exhibit anchorage dependence, in which they must be attached to a substratum in order to divide Copyright © 2008 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Pearson Benjamin Cummings

>Fig. 12-19 Anchorage dependence Density-dependent inhibition Density-dependent inhibition (a) Normal mammalian cells (b) Cancer Fig. 12-19 Anchorage dependence Density-dependent inhibition Density-dependent inhibition (a) Normal mammalian cells (b) Cancer cells 25 µm 25 µm

>Cancer cells exhibit neither density-dependent inhibition nor anchorage dependence Copyright © 2008 Pearson Education, Cancer cells exhibit neither density-dependent inhibition nor anchorage dependence Copyright © 2008 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Pearson Benjamin Cummings

>Loss of Cell Cycle Controls in Cancer Cells Cancer cells do not respond normally Loss of Cell Cycle Controls in Cancer Cells Cancer cells do not respond normally to the body’s control mechanisms Cancer cells may not need growth factors to grow and divide: They may make their own growth factor They may convey a growth factor’s signal without the presence of the growth factor They may have an abnormal cell cycle control system Copyright © 2008 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Pearson Benjamin Cummings

>A normal cell is converted to a cancerous cell by a process called transformation A normal cell is converted to a cancerous cell by a process called transformation Cancer cells form tumors, masses of abnormal cells within otherwise normal tissue If abnormal cells remain at the original site, the lump is called a benign tumor Malignant tumors invade surrounding tissues and can metastasize, exporting cancer cells to other parts of the body, where they may form secondary tumors Copyright © 2008 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Pearson Benjamin Cummings

>Fig. 12-20 Tumor A tumor grows from a single cancer cell. Glandular tissue Lymph Fig. 12-20 Tumor A tumor grows from a single cancer cell. Glandular tissue Lymph vessel Blood vessel Metastatic tumor Cancer cell Cancer cells invade neigh- boring tissue. Cancer cells spread to other parts of the body. Cancer cells may survive and establish a new tumor in another part of the body. 1 2 3 4

>Fig. 12-UN1 Telophase and Cytokinesis Anaphase Metaphase Prometaphase Prophase MITOTIC (M) PHASE Cytokinesis Mitosis Fig. 12-UN1 Telophase and Cytokinesis Anaphase Metaphase Prometaphase Prophase MITOTIC (M) PHASE Cytokinesis Mitosis S G1 G2 INTERPHASE

>Fig. 12-UN2 Fig. 12-UN2

>Fig. 12-UN3 Fig. 12-UN3

>Fig. 12-UN4 Fig. 12-UN4

>Fig. 12-UN5 Fig. 12-UN5

>Fig. 12-UN6 Fig. 12-UN6

>You should now be able to: Describe the structural organization of the prokaryotic genome You should now be able to: Describe the structural organization of the prokaryotic genome and the eukaryotic genome List the phases of the cell cycle; describe the sequence of events during each phase List the phases of mitosis and describe the events characteristic of each phase Draw or describe the mitotic spindle, including centrosomes, kinetochore microtubules, nonkinetochore microtubules, and asters Copyright © 2008 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Pearson Benjamin Cummings

>Compare cytokinesis in animals and plants Describe the process of binary fission in bacteria Compare cytokinesis in animals and plants Describe the process of binary fission in bacteria and explain how eukaryotic mitosis may have evolved from binary fission Explain how the abnormal cell division of cancerous cells escapes normal cell cycle controls Distinguish between benign, malignant, and metastatic tumors Copyright © 2008 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Pearson Benjamin Cummings




  • Мы удаляем страницу по первому запросу с достаточным набором данных, указывающих на ваше авторство. Мы также можем оставить страницу, явно указав ваше авторство (страницы полезны всем пользователям рунета и не несут цели нарушения авторских прав). Если такой вариант возможен, пожалуйста, укажите об этом.