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Chapter 10 Growth and Expansion 1790 -1825 I have endeavoured in this Ghostly little Chapter 10 Growth and Expansion 1790 -1825 I have endeavoured in this Ghostly little book, to raise the Ghost of an Idea, which shall not put my readers out of humour with themselves, with each other, with the season, or with me. May it SOLICITOR (Presenting credentials): At this festive season haunt their houses pleasantly, and no one wish to lay it. of the year, Mr. Scrooge, it is more than usually desirable that we Their faithful Friend and Servant, should make some slight provision for the poor and destitute… C. D. December, 1843. SCROOGE: Are there no prisons? No workhouses? SOLICITOR: There are. But under the impression that they scarcely furnish cheer, we are endeavoring to raise a fund to buy the poor some meat and drink, and means of warmth. John Leech, Cheap Clothing, Punchyou down (1845) What shall I put Magazine for? SCROOGE: Nothing! SOLICITOR (Confused): You wish to be anonymous--is that it? Alistair Sims as Scrooge 1951 SCROOGE: I wish to be left alone. I don't make merry myself at Christmas, and I can't afford to make idle people merry. Good afternoon, sir. SOLICITOR (With irritation in his voice): Good afternoon! Charles Dickens John Dickens (Charles father) spent beyond his means and was imprisoned in the Feb. 7, 1812 June 9, 1870 Marshalesa debtor’s prison in London. (aged 58) 1

Chapter 10 Growth and Expansion 1790 -1825 n n “…They labored under no restrictions, Chapter 10 Growth and Expansion 1790 -1825 n n “…They labored under no restrictions, not even Industrial wise ones—ingenuity and invention had full Revolution in play. ” America Poet Steven Vincent Benet (July 22, 1898 – March 13, 1943) 2

A historic narrative seeks to tell a coherent story that has a beginning and A historic narrative seeks to tell a coherent story that has a beginning and an end drawn at some arbitrary point. The narrative is always shaped and shaded by the teller of the story and normally involves a view point from which the narrator relates the tale. n n The listener of a narrative must always bear in mind the Alien #1: The Claw is our master. possibility that, while hopefully, explanative and interesting, the Alien #2: The Claw chooses who will story being told may reduce, compress or manipulate “facts” go and who will stay. and events in such a way as to lead to distortions—either intentionally or unintentionally. The listener must ultimately decide where he would place emphasis and the relative importance of the events mentioned in the narrative. The listener, the reader—the consumer of history—must be aware and active in seeking significance and meaning of events. Reading a great deal of history, written by many different authors, from many different sources both primary and secondary- will help you in your quest to become an intelligent interpreter of history—able to construct your own narrative of what things actually mean. (However, …there are some cautions I would like to offer here…) 3

Man Moving Forward There is Progression: movement from one member of a continuous necessarily Man Moving Forward There is Progression: movement from one member of a continuous necessarily Progress: 1. Movement, as toward a goal 3. Steady improvement, as of a society or civilization: a believer in human progress. series to the next –but not 4

What our Story really deals with is… Change and Continuity Historical chronology is a What our Story really deals with is… Change and Continuity Historical chronology is a distinguishing characteristic of history. Historical chronology differs from other chronologies. For example, the physical sciences include cyclical chronologies (seasons of the year) and repeatable chronologies (experiments that can be reproduced in accordance with a recognized method). Historical chronology is neither cyclical nor repeatable Rather, historical chronology is focused on change over time. Historical chronology marks the passage of time and the passage of people and events of that time. Certainly there are patterns in human experience that reappear across time and space. Understanding these patterns is part of, but not the entirety of understanding historical chronology. Historians seek to understand how and why things change. In order to do this historians must consider that different people and groups participate in and experience the same events in different ways. 1. What has changed? 2. What has remained the same? 3. Who has benefited from this change? And why? 4. Who has not benefited from this change? And why? 5

Turning points n n Some change is so dramatic that historians refer to these Turning points n n Some change is so dramatic that historians refer to these points of new departure as historical turning points. Turning points are characterized by change of such magnitude that the course of individual experiences and societal development begins to follow a new trajectory, shaped by a new set of possibilities and constraints. 6

Man Moving Forward n n Use of Language, clothes, fire, tools— Paleolithic Period Neolithic Man Moving Forward n n Use of Language, clothes, fire, tools— Paleolithic Period Neolithic Revolution n n Agriculture, urbanization, specialization etc. Industrial Revolution Mass production, interchangeable parts n Standardization and mass consumption n n ? Technological Revolution? AI? , Genetic Engineering? 7

SOCIAL AND CULTURAL CHANGES RESULTING FROM THE INDUSTRIAL REVOLUTION 1790 -1825 Changes in where SOCIAL AND CULTURAL CHANGES RESULTING FROM THE INDUSTRIAL REVOLUTION 1790 -1825 Changes in where people lived Changes in people’s social class Changes in Art and Literature Changes in Education Changes in the family Changes in the roles of men and women Changes in treatment of Native Americans Changes in immigration 8

Chapter 10 INTERCHANGEABLE PARTS Expansion Growth and Section 1 a person who organizes and Chapter 10 INTERCHANGEABLE PARTS Expansion Growth and Section 1 a person who organizes and manages Did You business, any enterprise, especially a Know? usually with in·i·tia·tive n. considerable initiative and risk. Clock makers used the idea of interchangeable parts since the early 1700's. In en·tre·pre·neur: 1790, the French gunsmith Honoré Blanc demonstrated his muskets entirely made from interchangeable parts; the French government didn't like the process (since with this process, anyone could manufacture items, and the government lost control), so it was stopped. The idea of interchangeable parts was nintroduced to American gun manufacturing by Eli Whitney (1765 1825) in Eli Whitney, who ability to begin or 1. The power or to follow free enterprise: invented the cotton through energetically with a plan or task; gin, was not only an the laws of supply and the enterprise and by Capitalism: An determination. in which Business governedeconomic system demand, not restrained inventor. At different by government means of production and distribution are privately or interference, regulation or subsidy. times in his life, he development is also called corporately owned and proportionate free market. was a black smith , a to the accumulation and reinvestment of profits nail maker, and the gained in a free market. country's only maker of ladies' hatpins. 1798. The concept of interchangeable manufacturing parts helped modernize the musket industry (and mass production in general). Whitney made templates for each separate part of the musket (an early gun). The workers then used the template when chiseling the part. Whitney was an American inventor and engineer who also invented the cotton gin. 9

OAT QUESTION: Geography 43. Manufacturing was first developed in which economic region of the OAT QUESTION: Geography 43. Manufacturing was first developed in which economic region of the United States? A. Midwest B. Northeast C. Southeast D. Northwest 10

The United States in 1836 11 The United States in 1836 11

American Population Centers in 1820 12 American Population Centers in 1820 12

I. n n The Growth of Industry (Pages 306 -308) The (Industrial Revolution) began I. n n The Growth of Industry (Pages 306 -308) The (Industrial Revolution) began in the mid 1700 s in Britain. It was a period during which machinery and technology changed how people worked and produced goods. The Industrial Revolution took hold in the United States in New England in the late 1790’s and early 1800’s. 13

New England Textile Centers: 1830 s I. Continued n Rivers and streams provided waterpower New England Textile Centers: 1830 s I. Continued n Rivers and streams provided waterpower to run machinery in factories. n New England was near needed resources, such as coal and iron from Pennsylvania and therefore had an advantage. n New England shipped cotton from the Southern states and sent the finished cloth to markets throughout the nation. n Capitalism played a large part in the development of different industries. The major elements of capitalism are free enterprise, competition, economic freedom, private property and profit, free markets Karl Marx (1818 1883) father of Communism n With the growth of industry came free enterprise. “an organization created capitalism, socialism, communism—economic systems for business ventures; ” n New England had workers to handle the growth of industry. 14

Run Time: [23: 33] 'Capitalism, ' 'communism, ' and 'socialism' are general terms with Run Time: [23: 33] 'Capitalism, ' 'communism, ' and 'socialism' are general terms with as many variations in meaning as there are governments claiming them. Contrast the true meanings of the terms with actual practice to gain perspective on current upheavals around the world. 15

The Industrial Revolution could not have taken place without the invention of new n The Industrial Revolution could not have taken place without the invention of new n machines and new technology or the scientific discoveries that made work easier. Britain created machinery and methods that changed the textile industry with inventions such as the spinning jenny, the water frame, photo and the power loom. n Most mills were built near rivers because the new machines ran on waterpower. n In 1785 (James Watt) the steam engine provided power for a cotton mill. In the United States, many new inventions were created. n In 1793 Eli Whitney invented the cotton gin. One worker using the machine could clean cotton as fast as 50 people working by hand. n n The patent law passed in 1790 protected the rights of people who created inventions Eli Whitney failed to profit from his invention because imitations of his machine appeared and his 1794 patent for the cotton gin could not be upheld in court until 1807. Whitney could not stop others from copying and selling his cotton gin design. 16

Eli Whitney's Invention of the Cotton Gin Changed Everything! Cotton Gin’s Impact on American Eli Whitney's Invention of the Cotton Gin Changed Everything! Cotton Gin’s Impact on American Cotton American Production of Raw Cotton, 1790 -1860 (bales) Gin invented 1793 Year 1790 1795 1800 1805 1810 Prod. 3, 135 16, 719 73, 145 146, 290 177, 638 Year 1815 1820 1825 1830 1835 Production 208, 986 334, 378 532, 915 731, 452 1, 060, 711 Year 1840 1845 1850 1855 1860 Production 1, 346, 232 1, 804, 223 2, 133, 851 3, 217, 417 3, 837, 402 Production is measured in equivalent 500 -pound bales, gross weight. Eli Whitney's Invention of the Cotton Gin Changed Everything 17

II. New England Factories n n (Pages 308 -309) Samuel Slater took over a II. New England Factories n n (Pages 308 -309) Samuel Slater took over a cotton mill in Pawtucket, Rhode Island, where he was able to copy the design of a machine invented by Richard Arkwright of Britain that spun cotton threads. Slater memorized the design while in Britain, came to the United States in 1789, and established Slater's Mill. 1814 Lowell's Mill, (Francis Cabot Lowell) another textile plant in Waltham, Massachusetts, was established in 1814. ( Lowell Girls) Lowell introduced, The factory system, or bringing manufacturing steps together under one roof. This was an important part of the Industrial Revolution because it changed the way goods were made and increased efficiency. D. The technology of making interchangeable parts made it possible to produce may types of goods in large quantities. . 19

German printer Friedrich Koenig would be the first to design a nonmanpowered machine—using steam. German printer Friedrich Koenig would be the first to design a nonmanpowered machine—using steam. [ Having moved to London in 1804, Koenig soon met Thomas Bensley and secured financial support for his project in 1807. [Patented in 1810, Koenig had designed a steam press "much like a hand press connected to a steam engine. "[ The first production trial of this model occurred in April 1811. He produced his machine with assistance from German engineer Andreas Friedrich Bauer. It was mass produced beginning in 1814 This rotary press was made by Richard M. Hoe, a prolific New York City inventor of presses and press components in the early 1800 s. Hoe's company began making hand presses in 1822 before switching to the production of faster-printing cylinder presses in 1831. 20

Major Changes Caused by The Industrial Revolution n Change from hand production to machine Major Changes Caused by The Industrial Revolution n Change from hand production to machine production—muscle to water power n Production in Factories n Growth of Cities n Mass Production leading to Lower Costs and Prices example: Pianos and sheet music Stephen Foster This very early example of an American upright piano, fully portable, was perhaps designed for shipboard. Thomas Jefferson owned one of Hawkins's instruments Maker: John Isaac Hawkins, Philadelphia 1801 In 1863, Henri Fourneaux invented the player piano, which plays itself from a piano roll without the need for a pianist. A performance is recorded onto rolls of paper with perforations, and the player piano replays the performance using pneumatic devices. 22

Old Folks At Home Melody Foster’s Strange Talent Stephen Foster, 1851 Way down upon Old Folks At Home Melody Foster’s Strange Talent Stephen Foster, 1851 Way down upon the Swanee River, Far, far away n That's where my heart is turning ever That's where the old folks stay All up and down the whole creation, Sadly I roam You don’t get Lady Gaga until you have Still longing for the old plantation Foster and And for the old folks at home the Industrial Revolution Chorus: All the world is sad and dreary everywhere I roam Oh darkies, how my heart grows weary Far from the old folks at home 2. All 'round the little farm I wandered, At the age of six, Stephen Foster taught himself to play any tune by ear. Stephen’s father just shook Stephen his head and said, “His leisure hours are all devoted to musick for which he possesses a strange talent. ” Foster eventually used his talent to write the words and music for nearly two hundred popular selections. When I was young Then many happy days I squandered, Many the songs I sung When I was playing with my brother, Happy was I Oh, take me to my kind old mother, There let me live and die Chorus: 2. One little hut among the bushes, One that I love Still sadly to my mem'ry rushes, No matter where I rove When shall I see the bees a humming, All 'round the comb When shall I hear the banjo strumming, Down by my good old home n Jeanie with the Light Brown Hair. ” Melody 23

In this country founded on freedom of religion, most printed music in the early In this country founded on freedom of religion, most printed music in the early 1800 s was religious in nature, including Amazing Grace and Coronation. n n n Amazing Grace" is a Christian hymn written by English poet and clergyman John Newton (1725– 1807), published in 1779. http: //www. youtube. com/watch? v=DMF_24 c. Qq. T 0 Americans also enjoyed singing old English ballads like Greensleeves and Scottisk folk tunes such as Froggy Went A Courtin' Ten and Nine n OH DEAR ME (THE JUTE MILL SONG) n http: //www. youtube. com/watch? v=i. X EKVTcr. Ms&safety_mode=true&persist_safety_mode=1&safe=active n n n By Mary Brooksbank of Dundee Oh dear me, the mill's gaen fast, The puir wee shifters canna get their rest, Shiftin bobbins, coorse and fine, They fairly mak ye work for your ten and nine. Oh dear me, I wish the day was done, Rinnin up and doon the pass is nae fun. Shiftin, piecin, spinnin, warp, weft and twine, Tae feed and cleed my bairnies affen ten and nine. Oh dear me, the world's ill divided, Them that work the hardest are the least provided, But I maun bide contented, dark days or fine. There's no much pleasure living affen ten and nine. 26

More Changes n Mass Consumerism—Middle Class Grows n Democratization of Workplace— Skilled Labor Replaced More Changes n Mass Consumerism—Middle Class Grows n Democratization of Workplace— Skilled Labor Replaced by Unskilled and Semi Skilled n Job Opportunities for Women, Immigrants and Minorities n Large Scale Immigration 27

III. Agriculture Expands (Page 370) Frenchman Alexis de Tocqueville visits the United States and III. Agriculture Expands (Page 370) Frenchman Alexis de Tocqueville visits the United States and observes a free state and a n In the 1820 s, more than 65 percent of Americans were farmers. slave state. He writes about what he sees: n n The reaper was demonstrated in tests in 1831 and was In the Northeast, farms were small, produce was sold "On the north bank of the Ohio, everything patented by Cyrus Mc. Cormick in 1834. locally. activity, industry; labor is honored; is In the South, cotton production greatly increased with there are no slaves. Pass to the south bank the development of the textile industry of New England the scene changes so suddenly that and Europe. you think yourself on the other side of the n n Enslaved workers planted, tended, and picked the cotton. world; the enterprising spirit is gone. " With the invention of the cotton gin, cotton could be cleaned faster and cheaper than by hand, so farmers raised larger crops. Between 1790 and 1820, cotton production went from 3, 000 to 300, 000 bales a year. In the West, farmers north of the Ohio River raised pork and cash crops such as wheat and corn. Some Southern farmers also moved west to plant cotton. 28

n n “Cyrus Mc. Cormick and Isaac Singer, instituted the installment payment plan, by n n “Cyrus Mc. Cormick and Isaac Singer, instituted the installment payment plan, by which only a small “down payment” plus a promise was necessary to have farm machinery or a sewing machine delivered to your home. “ P. 19 Machines That Built America Roy Burlingame 29

Answers vary but should include: (a) Because of the increased cotton production and the Answers vary but should include: (a) Because of the increased cotton production and the invention of the cotton gin, the South grew. In the (b) West, the population probably also grew due to more settlers moving there for farmland, especially those from the South. In the (c) Northeast, since farms were small, the population was not made up of farmers, but rather town and city dwellers and factory workers. How do you think the growth in agriculture affected the country's population? 30

IV. Economic Independence In 1800 the 4 largest cities only contained 180, 000 people IV. Economic Independence In 1800 the 4 largest cities only contained 180, 000 people and (Page 370) were the country’s only cities with more than 10, 000 n Merchants, shopkeepers, and farmers put some of the money they earned back into their businesses to try to earn inhabitants. larger profits. The film begins in 1846 and quickly In 1800, in Boston, streets were still paved with cobblestones Businesses that needed more money had to borrow it from The south façade of the Second Bank banks. The charter for the First Bank of the United States on Library Street Philadelphia and at night old men could still be seen wearing 3 cornered Population of New York expired in 1811. In 1816 Congress chartered the Second hats, knee britches and powered wigs. Year Bank of the United States. It had the power to establish a Native Born Foreign Born Total national currency and to make large loans. 1860 429, 952 383, 717 805, 658 New York’s entire police force which patrolled the city at n 1870 Cities and towns did not look like those today. Buildings 532, 198 419, 094 942, 292 night only had 2 captains, 2 deputies and 72 assistants. were wood or brick. Streets were unpaved. Animals roamed 1880 freely. 727, 629 478, 670 1, 206, 299 From 1820 -1860 urban pop increased 60% a decade. 5 x as 1890 875, 358 639, 943 1, 515, 301 fast as the country as a whole. n Because there were no sewers, the danger of diseases such as 1900 1, 199, 716 850, 884 2, 050, 600 cholera and yellow fever grew. jumps to the early 1860 s n cholera and yellow fever grew. n Fires could spread easily and could be In 1810 New York had 100, 000 people. disastrous. (Great Chicago Fire 1871) n Cities offered many types of shops, jobs, a steady income, and By 1830 New York had 200, 000. cultural opportunities. n Many people left their farms and moved to the cities for the city life. 31

The Industrial Revolution (a) created factories, and people were needed to work them. Because The Industrial Revolution (a) created factories, and people were needed to work them. Because more product was produced, (b) trade increased and cities and towns became centers of this commerce and trade. Some cities and towns grew because they were (c) near rivers that were used for transport as well as for waterpower to run machinery. Some people left their farms (d) for the opportunity that city life offered. n Why did cities and towns grow? 32

Did You Know? The Golden Lamb Inn and Restaurant Ohio’s Oldest opening in 1803 Did You Know? The Golden Lamb Inn and Restaurant Ohio’s Oldest opening in 1803 n The first turnpike, the The privately built Philadelphia and Lancaster Turnpike Road was Lancaster Turnpike, the first important turnpike and the first long-distance brokenstone and gravel surface built in America according to formal painting was built in plans and specifications. The road's construction marked the of organized road improvement after the long 1793, The word turnpike beginning confusion following the American Revolution. period of economic comes from the Middle English of the 1500 s, A turnpike was a revolving frame bearing spikes and serving as a barrier. Turnpikes today use toll booths as barriers. 33

V. n n n Moving West (Pages 314 -317) A. In 1790 most of V. n n n Moving West (Pages 314 -317) A. In 1790 most of the nearly 4 million people of the United States lived east of the Appalachian Mountains and near the Atlantic coast. B. Travel west was difficult. A pioneer family faced many hardships along the way. C. Some people traveled along the rivers, loading all their belongings onto barges. Travel was more comfortable by boat than on bumpy roads. Some difficulties were that n n n traveling upstream, against the flow of the current, was slow and difficult most major rivers flow in a north south not east west direction D. Steamboats provided a faster means of river travel. In 1807 Robert Fulton built the Clermont, a steamboat with a newly designed powerful engine. 34

Extra Credit Reading!! n n Diary of an Early American Boy An extraordinary glimpse Extra Credit Reading!! n n Diary of an Early American Boy An extraordinary glimpse into everyday Early American rural life. . . will delight readers of all ages. " " History in Review. “ One day, a cheap, gaudy packet arrived upward from St. Louis and another downward from Keokuk. Before these n. The Celebrated Jumping Frog of Calaveras County Another possible…. events, the day was glorious with expectancy; after they n transpired, the day was a dead and empty thing. hador even, for you lovers of fine literature… Early 19 th Century Education: The One Room School House Video C-10 Glenco Mark Twain Life of the Mississippi http: //www. literaturepage. com/read/mobydick. html 35

People traveled by horse drawn wagons on roads, barges along the river, and, after People traveled by horse drawn wagons on roads, barges along the river, and, after 1807, steamboats. The steamboat was the fastest but also more costly; river travel was more comfortable, faster and easier than roads, but only when going downstream; and road travel was slow, bumpy, and difficult, but direct. Nevertheless, people were adventurous and desirous of moving west, and the population grew rapidly between 1790 and 1820. Compare and contrast the ways people traveled west. Which was the fastest? The most direct? 36

VI. Canals (Pages 377 -378) 1832, the Ohio and Erie Canal was completed. The VI. Canals (Pages 377 -378) 1832, the Ohio and Erie Canal was completed. The entire canal system was 308 miles (496 km) long with 146 lift locks and a rise of 1206 feet n n Traveling the existing river system would not tie the East with the West, so a New York business and government group planned to link New York City with the Great Lakes region by building a canal. The 363 mile canal, called the Erie Canal, was built by thousands of workers. Early on, steamboats could not use the canal because their powerful engines might damage the embankments. . As a result of the success of the Erie Canal, by 1850 the United States had more than 3, 600 miles Miamicanals. consisted of 301. 49 miles of canal channel and of Erie system boats The was completed at a cost of $8, 062, 680. 07 in 1845. 37

VII. Western Settlement (Page 379) n n Four new states Vermont, Kentucky, Tennessee, and VII. Western Settlement (Page 379) n n Four new states Vermont, Kentucky, Tennessee, and Ohio were admitted to the Union between 1791 and 1803, but only one new state, Louisiana, entered during the next 13 years. After the War of 1812, a second wave of westward expansion began. Between 1816 and 1820 five western states were created: Indiana, Illinois, Mississippi, Alabama, and Missouri. People tended to migrate west as families and settle in communities along the rivers and with others from their home communities. Indiana was settled mainly by people from Kentucky and Tennessee. Michigan's pioneers came mainly from New England. Life in the West included social events such as wrestling and pole jumping for men and quilting and sewing parties for women. Both men and women gathered for corn husking. Life in the West did not have conveniences of Eastern town life. 39

Dueling n n Did You Know? Aaron Burr and Alexander Hamilton were not the Dueling n n Did You Know? Aaron Burr and Alexander Hamilton were not the only leaders in early America to fight a duel. In 1809 Kentucky state legislator and Republican Henry Clay and his Federalist party colleague, Humphrey Marshall, disagreed over an embargo of British made goods. Clay challenged Marshall to a duel. The two men fired three rounds at each other, and both suffered minor wounds. Neither man changed his mind about the embargo. (See History of Dueling) 40

VIII. The Era of Good Feelings (Pages 321 -322) “Such, then, is the happy VIII. The Era of Good Feelings (Pages 321 -322) “Such, then, is the happy Government under which n James Monroe won the 1816 presidential we live--a Government adequate to every purpose election easily. VP He had been involved in for which the social compact is formed; a national politics since the American Revolution. Government elective in all its branches, under which every citizen may by his merit obtain the highest trust recognized by the Constitution…. ” n The Federalist Party was almost nonexistent, James Monroe 1 st Inaugural address 6 th paragraph but its programs gained support. Political differences seemed to disappear during this Era of Good Feelings, and Monroe's presidency also symbolized the era. 41

IX. Sectionalism Grows (Pages 322 -324) n n n As a result of an IX. Sectionalism Grows (Pages 322 -324) n n n As a result of an economic down turn (Panic of 1819) regional differences soon surfaced, and the Era of Good Feelings disappeared. Differences arose over slavery and national policies. . John Calhoun, a planter from South Carolina, was the spokesperson from the South. n n Early on he favored support for internal improvements, developing industries, and a national bank. Later, however he believed that high tariffs raised prices of manufactured goods and protected unqualified businessmen. Daniel Webster was first elected to Congress in 1812 to represent New Hampshire. In later years, he represented Massachusetts in the House and Senate. Becomes a strong advocate of the Union. 43

IX. Continued n n Henry Clay Kentucky, a leader who represented Western states, became IX. Continued n n Henry Clay Kentucky, a leader who represented Western states, became Speaker of the House in 1811. He served as a member of the group who negotiated the Treaty of Ghent to end the War of 1812. Clay became known as the national leader who tried to resolve sectional disputes and conflicts through compromise. The Missouri Compromise (red) interactive map reached in March 1820 tried to preserve the balance between the North and the South. n n n Missouri would be admitted as a slave state Maine, still part of Massachusetts, was to be admitted as a free state slavery was to be banned in the remaining part of the Louisiana Territory north of the 36° 30' N parallel 44

X. The American System (Pages 324 -325) n n n ` Henry Clay proposed X. The American System (Pages 324 -325) n n n ` Henry Clay proposed a program called the American System in 1824. He felt that all regions of the nation would benefit from his program: n a protective tariff n a program of internal improvements, especially building roads National Road begins 1811 and eventually extends to Vandalia, Illinois and canals to stimulate trade n a national bank to promote one national currency and to lend money to build industry Not everyone agreed. Thomas Jefferson thought that the American System favored the wealthy manufacturing classes of New England. The Supreme Court heard several cases that involved sectional and states' rights issues. n Mc. Culloch v. Maryland in 1819 involved the issue of whether or not the state of Maryland had the right to impose a tax on the Second Bank of the United States, a federal institution. n In the case Gibbons v. Ogden, the Supreme Court said that states could not enact legislation that would interfere with congressional power over interstate commerce. 46

Clay believed that his program would benefit all regions of the country. Explanation: He Clay believed that his program would benefit all regions of the country. Explanation: He thought the protective tariff would protect American industry and also provide the government with money to build roads and canals. Strong businesses could use their profits to buy more agricultural goods from the South and ship the goods north along the new roads and canals. Both court rulings strengthened the national government. Explaination: States were banned from imposing a tax on federal institutions in Mc. Culloch v. Maryland, and states could not enact legislation to interfere with interstate commerce regulated by the federal government as in Gibbons v. Ogden. How was nationalism displayed in Clay's American System and in the rulings of the Supreme Court? 47

XI. Foreign Affairs n n (Pages 325 -326) President Monroe signed two agreements to XI. Foreign Affairs n n (Pages 325 -326) President Monroe signed two agreements to resolve long standing disputes with Britain. The first was the (Richard Rush) (Sir Charles Bagot) Rush Bagot (Richard Rush) (Sir Charles Bagot) Treaty, (red) signed in 1817 (provided for the disarmament the Great Lakes). The second was the Convention of 1818, in which the official boundary of the northern Louisiana Territory was set at the 49 th parallel and became a demilitarized zone, one without armed forces. America also was given the right to settle in the Oregon Territory When General Andrew Jackson invaded Spanish East Florida in April 1818 and took control of two Spanish forts, he went beyond his orders to stop Seminole raids on American territory. The Spanish minister to the United States, Luis de Onis, protested and Secretary of War John Calhoun said that Jackson should be court martialed. Secretary of State John Quincy Adams disagreed. A sign of Spain’s weakness the United States military strength was the Adams Onis Treaty signed in 1819, negotiated by John Quincy Adams in which Spain gave East Florida to the United States and gave up claims to West Florida. 48

Should include: Perhaps Spain did not want to get involved in a war with Should include: Perhaps Spain did not want to get involved in a war with the United States. It also had rebellions going on in Mexico and independence movements in South and Central America. Why do you think Spain agreed to give up territory it owned in North America to the United States? 49

XII. Latin American Republics (Pages 326 -327) n n Spain faced challenges within its XII. Latin American Republics (Pages 326 -327) n n Spain faced challenges within its empire in North America. In 1810 Miguel Hidalgo led a rebellion in Mexico calling for racial equality and redistribution of land. The Spanish defeated his forces and executed him. In 1824 Mexico gained its independ ence but not the social or economic changes. Simon Bolivar, the "Liberator, " led an independence movement in the northern region of South America. Venezuela, Colombia, Panama, Bolivia, and Ecuador won inde pendence Jose de San . Martin led an independence movement in the southern region in which Chile and Peru won their independence. Map of the Hispanic American revolution n By 1824 Spain liberated most of South America. What remained of Royalist reaction Independentist territory the Spanish Empire consisted of Cuba, Puerto Rico, and some Independentist territory Caribbean islands. Spain under French invasion Spain under Liberal revolution n The Monroe Doctrine, issued on December 2, 1823, served to protect North America from increased European involvement. 50

Why was the Monroe Doctrine an important part of American foreign policy? It showed Why was the Monroe Doctrine an important part of American foreign policy? It showed other nations that America would not stand by and allow new European colonization in North America was protective of the entire North American region. 51

Pick one essay to prepare for the chapter test. Why was the Erie Canal Pick one essay to prepare for the chapter test. Why was the Erie Canal so important to the United States? n What is sectionalism and how does it hurt the United States? n Why did the United State’s Industrial Revolution appear first in New England? n 52