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Chapter 10: Congress Section 1 Chapter 10: Congress Section 1

Objectives 1. Explain why the Constitution provides for a bicameral Congress. 2. Explain the Objectives 1. Explain why the Constitution provides for a bicameral Congress. 2. Explain the difference between a term and a session of Congress. 3. Describe a situation in which the President may convene or end a session of Congress. Chapter 10, Section 1 Copyright © Pearson Education, Inc. Slide 2

Key Terms • bicameral: a legislature made up of two houses • term: the Key Terms • bicameral: a legislature made up of two houses • term: the two-year period during which the U. S. Congress meets, starting on noon of the 3 rd day of January of each odd-numbered year • session: for the U. S. Congress, the period of time during which Congress assembles and conducts business; there are two sessions in each term • convene: to begin Chapter 10, Section 1 Copyright © Pearson Education, Inc. Slide 3

Key Terms, cont. • adjourn: to suspend operations until the start of the next Key Terms, cont. • adjourn: to suspend operations until the start of the next Congressional session • recess: to temporarily suspend business, such as a session of Congress • prorogue: to end or discontinue; the President has the power to prorogue a session of Congress • special session: a Congressional meeting called to deal with some emergency situation Chapter 10, Section 1 Copyright © Pearson Education, Inc. Slide 4

Introduction • Why does the Constitution establish a bicameral legislature? – Historically, it is Introduction • Why does the Constitution establish a bicameral legislature? – Historically, it is modeled on the two houses of the British Parliament and colonial legislatures. – Practically, two houses were adopted as part of the Great Compromise, which solved the dispute between large and small states at the Constitutional Convention over how they would be represented in the national legislature. – Theoretically, having two house of Congress means that one house can check the powers of the other. Chapter 10, Section 1 Copyright © Pearson Education, Inc. Slide 5

The National Legislature • Congress turns the will of the people into public policy The National Legislature • Congress turns the will of the people into public policy by passing laws. – Pictured here are Senators Arlen Specter (R. , Penn. ) and Patrick Leahy (D. , Vt. ) Chapter 10, Section 1 Copyright © Pearson Education, Inc. Slide 6

The National Legislature, cont. • The Framers on the whole believed that Congress would The National Legislature, cont. • The Framers on the whole believed that Congress would be the most powerful branch of the federal government. • The Constitution spends more space detailing the powers and structure of Congress than any other branch of government. • Yet in U. S. history, Congress has perhaps been less admired by the American people than the presidency. Chapter 10, Section 1 Copyright © Pearson Education, Inc. Slide 7

Congress and Federalism • Federalism involves the division of power between the central government Congress and Federalism • Federalism involves the division of power between the central government and the state governments. • The different roles taken by the members of Congress are examples of federalism in the national government. – Each state sends representatives to Congress who act in the interests of the citizens of that state. – At the same time, these congressional representatives must work together on behalf of all Americans to address issues of national importance. Chapter 10, Section 1 Copyright © Pearson Education, Inc. Slide 8

Representation • Each state is equally represented in the Senate and represented by population Representation • Each state is equally represented in the Senate and represented by population in the House. • Some critics argue that this structure gives too much power to the smallest states. Chapter 10, Section 1 Copyright © Pearson Education, Inc. Slide 9

The Capital Chapter 10, Section 1 Copyright © Pearson Education, Inc. Slide 10 The Capital Chapter 10, Section 1 Copyright © Pearson Education, Inc. Slide 10

Congressional Terms • Beginning in 1789, Congress has met for two-year terms. – Originally Congressional Terms • Beginning in 1789, Congress has met for two-year terms. – Originally congressional terms began and ended in March. This start date was changed to January 3 rd of every odd-numbered year by the 20 th Amendment. Chapter 10, Section 1 Copyright © Pearson Education, Inc. Slide 11

Congressional Sessions • Checkpoint: How many sessions make up each congressional term? – Congress Congressional Sessions • Checkpoint: How many sessions make up each congressional term? – Congress meets and conducts business twice in each term, holding one session each year. – The second session of a term often begins somewhat later than January 3 rd. Chapter 10, Section 1 Copyright © Pearson Education, Inc. Slide 12

Adjourning Congress • During a session, Congress can choose to adjourn, or suspend its Adjourning Congress • During a session, Congress can choose to adjourn, or suspend its operations, until the next session. – Though Congress meets for most of the year, each house typically has a few recesses, or breaks, in a session. – Neither house can officially end a session without the approval of the other house. – The President can end a session of Congress, but only if both houses cannot agree on a date to adjourn. This power has never been used. Chapter 10, Section 1 Copyright © Pearson Education, Inc. Slide 13

Special Sessions • The President can call one or both houses of Congress into Special Sessions • The President can call one or both houses of Congress into a special session to deal with an emergency situation. – Only 27 joint special sessions have been called. The Senate has been called out alone 46 times, while the House has never been called out alone. – Special sessions are rarely called today since Congress meets for most for the year. – The President may threaten to call a special session if Congress has not acted on a measure important to the presidency. Chapter 10, Section 1 Copyright © Pearson Education, Inc. Slide 14

Review • Now that you have learned why the Constitution establishes a bicameral legislature, Review • Now that you have learned why the Constitution establishes a bicameral legislature, go back and answer the Chapter Essential Question. – Whose views should members of Congress represent when voting? Chapter 10, Section 1 Copyright © Pearson Education, Inc. Slide 15

Chapter 10: Congress Section 2 Chapter 10: Congress Section 2

Objectives 1. Explain how House seats are distributed and describe the length of a Objectives 1. Explain how House seats are distributed and describe the length of a term in the House. 2. Explain how House seats reapportioned among the States after each census. 3. Describe a typical congressional election and congressional district 4. Analyze the formal and informal qualifications for election to the House. Chapter 10, Section 1 Copyright © Pearson Education, Inc. Slide 17

Key Terms • apportion: to distribute seats in the House of Representatives among the Key Terms • apportion: to distribute seats in the House of Representatives among the States on the basis of their populations • reapportion: to redistribute the seats in the House every ten years, after each census • off-year election: a Congressional election that takes place in-between presidential elections • single-member district: an election district from which voters elect a single state representative to the House of Representatives Chapter 10, Section 1 Copyright © Pearson Education, Inc. Slide 18

Key Terms, cont. • at-large: an election system in which all candidates are elected Key Terms, cont. • at-large: an election system in which all candidates are elected from the state as a whole, rather than from a single district • gerrymander: drawing the boundaries of an election district so that it gives an advantage to the political party that controls the state legislature • incumbent: the person who currently holds a political office Chapter 10, Section 1 Copyright © Pearson Education, Inc. Slide 19

Introduction • How are the seats in the House distributed and what qualifications must Introduction • How are the seats in the House distributed and what qualifications must members meet? – There are currently 435 seats in the House. – Seats are distributed based on the population of each state, with each state guaranteed at least one representative. – Representatives must be at least 25 years old, have been a U. S. citizen for at least seven years, and reside in the state that they represent. Chapter 10, Section 1 Copyright © Pearson Education, Inc. Slide 20

Size of the House • For many years the number of seats in the Size of the House • For many years the number of seats in the House increased as the country grew in population and new states were added. • The Reapportionment Act of 1929 fixed the size of the House at 435 members. – Congress can change this number if it wishes. Chapter 10, Section 1 Copyright © Pearson Education, Inc. Slide 21

Census • Every 10 years the Census Bureau counts the national population. – The Census • Every 10 years the Census Bureau counts the national population. – The Census figures are then used to decide how many representatives each state will have until the next Census is taken. – Currently, each seat in the House represents about 700, 000 people. Chapter 10, Section 1 Copyright © Pearson Education, Inc. Slide 22

Chapter 10, Section 1 Copyright © Pearson Education, Inc. Slide 23 Chapter 10, Section 1 Copyright © Pearson Education, Inc. Slide 23

Congressional Elections • Representatives, like Rep. John Conyers (D. , Mich. ) pictured here, Congressional Elections • Representatives, like Rep. John Conyers (D. , Mich. ) pictured here, are elected every two years. – There are no limits on how many two-year terms representatives can serve. • Each state holds elections in November of even-numbered years. Chapter 10, Section 1 Copyright © Pearson Education, Inc. Slide 24

Congressional Elections, cont. • Elections held in nonpresidential years are called off-year elections. • Congressional Elections, cont. • Elections held in nonpresidential years are called off-year elections. • Usually the party that holds the presidency loses seats in an off-year election. Chapter 10, Section 1 Copyright © Pearson Education, Inc. Slide 25

Congressional Districts • Representatives are elected from singlemember congressional districts. – The voters in Congressional Districts • Representatives are elected from singlemember congressional districts. – The voters in each district can elect only one representative to the House. – The Westberry v. Sanders Supreme Court ruling in 1964 requires each district in a state to have similar-sized populations. – High population states have more districts than small population states. – Seven states have only one representative, so their district consists of the entire state. Chapter 10, Section 1 Copyright © Pearson Education, Inc. Slide 26

Gerrymandering • Checkpoint: What is gerrymandering and what are its purpose and result? – Gerrymandering • Checkpoint: What is gerrymandering and what are its purpose and result? – Gerrymandering involves drawing the borders of districts to favor one political party. – Tactics include clustering the opposing party’s voters in a few districts or spreading them out thinly over many districts. – Due to gerrymandering, only a few congressional districts in any election are actually at risk to switch their support from one party to the other. Chapter 10, Section 1 Copyright © Pearson Education, Inc. Slide 27

Chapter 10, Section 1 Copyright © Pearson Education, Inc. Slide 28 Chapter 10, Section 1 Copyright © Pearson Education, Inc. Slide 28

Chapter 10, Section 1 Copyright © Pearson Education, Inc. Slide 29 Chapter 10, Section 1 Copyright © Pearson Education, Inc. Slide 29

Formal Qualifications • Custom requires representatives to live in the districts they represent. • Formal Qualifications • Custom requires representatives to live in the districts they represent. • Representatives must: – Be at least 25 years old – Have been a U. S. citizen for at least 7 years – Be an inhabitant of the state from which he or she is elected. • The House has the power to refuse to seat an elected member, to punish members, and to expel them. Chapter 10, Section 1 Copyright © Pearson Education, Inc. Slide 30

Informal Qualifications • Checkpoint: What “informal qualifications” affect a candidate’s electability? – They include Informal Qualifications • Checkpoint: What “informal qualifications” affect a candidate’s electability? – They include factors such as gender, ethnicity, political experience, name recognition, and party affiliation. – Being an incumbent is a big advantage—more than 90 percent of those seeking reelection to the House win. – Being able to raise money is also a key. In 2008 the average cost of running a winning campaign for a seat in the House was over $1 million. Chapter 10, Section 1 Copyright © Pearson Education, Inc. Slide 31

Paths to Congress • Heath Shuler (D. , NC) had no political experience before Paths to Congress • Heath Shuler (D. , NC) had no political experience before his election to the House in 2006. – Shuler had been an NFL quarterback and owned a real estate business. – He was approached by both parties to run for office. Chapter 10, Section 1 Copyright © Pearson Education, Inc. Slide 32

Paths to Congress, cont. • Ileana Ros-Lehtinen (R. , FL) was the first Cuban Paths to Congress, cont. • Ileana Ros-Lehtinen (R. , FL) was the first Cuban American and Hispanic woman elected to the House in 1989. – She holds a doctorate in education and founded a private elementary school. – She was elected to the Florida State legislature in 1982. Chapter 10, Section 1 Copyright © Pearson Education, Inc. Slide 33

Review • Now that you have learned how the seats in the House are Review • Now that you have learned how the seats in the House are distributed and what qualifications members must meet, go back and answer the Chapter Essential Question. – Whose views should members of Congress represent when voting? Chapter 10, Section 1 Copyright © Pearson Education, Inc. Slide 34

Chapter 10: Congress Section 3 Chapter 10: Congress Section 3

Objectives 1. Compare the size of the Senate to the size of the House Objectives 1. Compare the size of the Senate to the size of the House of Representatives. 2. Describe how senators are elected. 3. Explain how and why a senator’s term differs from a representative’s term. 4. Describe the qualifications for election to the Senate. Chapter 10, Section 1 Copyright © Pearson Education, Inc. Slide 36

Key Terms • continuous body: a political body in which all of the seats Key Terms • continuous body: a political body in which all of the seats are never up for election at the same time • constituency: the people and interests represented by a politician Chapter 10, Section 1 Copyright © Pearson Education, Inc. Slide 37

Introduction • How does the Senate differ from the House? – The Senate has Introduction • How does the Senate differ from the House? – The Senate has only 100 members, two from each state. – Members are elected to six-year terms. – Senators must be at least 30 years old, have been a U. S. citizen for at least nine years, and reside in the state they represent. – Senators are often seen as less subject to public pressure and more concerned about national issues than members of the House. Chapter 10, Section 1 Copyright © Pearson Education, Inc. Slide 38

Structure of the Senate • The size of the Senate changes as new states Structure of the Senate • The size of the Senate changes as new states are admitted to the Union. – The Senate began with 22 members in 1789. • Senators tend to represent a much larger and broader range of citizens than representatives. – Each Senator represents his or her entire state, while only seven representatives are elected at large from their entire state as opposed to a congressional district. Chapter 10, Section 1 Copyright © Pearson Education, Inc. Slide 39

The Millionaires’ Club • Senators were originally elected by state legislatures rather than by The Millionaires’ Club • Senators were originally elected by state legislatures rather than by popular vote. – In the late 1880 s, the Senate was called the Millionaires’ Club because legislatures often elected wealthy political party and business leaders. Chapter 10, Section 1 Copyright © Pearson Education, Inc. Slide 40

The 17 th Amendment • Checkpoint: How were senators chosen before and after the The 17 th Amendment • Checkpoint: How were senators chosen before and after the passage of the 17 th Amendment? – In 1913, the 17 th amendment changed the way Senators were elected. – Senators are now elected by popular vote in statewide elections. – Only one senator is elected from a state during any given election. Chapter 10, Section 1 Copyright © Pearson Education, Inc. Slide 41

Senate Terms • There are no limits on how many six-year terms a Senator Senate Terms • There are no limits on how many six-year terms a Senator can serve. • Senate terms are staggered so that one third of them expire every two years. – All the seats in the Senate are never up for election at the same time. • If a senator dies, resigns, or is expelled, they are typically replaced by a person appointed by the governor of their state until a special election can be held. Chapter 10, Section 1 Copyright © Pearson Education, Inc. Slide 42

A Unique Role • Senators are thought of as being more focused on national A Unique Role • Senators are thought of as being more focused on national issues and are more likely to be seen as national political leaders than members of the House. Why? – Due to their longer terms in office, Senators are seen as less susceptible than representatives to the pressures of public opinion – Senators represent larger and more diverse constituencies than representatives in the House, and can champion public policies that appeal to many Americans. Chapter 10, Section 1 Copyright © Pearson Education, Inc. Slide 43

National Recognition • Senators receive more national and home state media exposure than members National Recognition • Senators receive more national and home state media exposure than members of the House, • Senators often use this publicity to help them launch presidential campaigns. Chapter 10, Section 1 Copyright © Pearson Education, Inc. Slide 44

Senators: Policy and Prestige • Senators are Washington celebrities - members of what is Senators: Policy and Prestige • Senators are Washington celebrities - members of what is often called “the world’s most exclusive club. ” • Their names are frequently household words and their activities draw media coverage that allows them to call attention to issues that they deem important. • Many senators use the spotlight to launch presidential campaigns. Chapter 10, Section 1 Copyright © Pearson Education, Inc. Slide 45

Qualifications • Senators must meet a stricter set of requirements for office than members Qualifications • Senators must meet a stricter set of requirements for office than members of the House of Representatives. • The Framers set these requirements, as well as the longer terms in office, because they wanted the Senate to be a more enlightened and responsible legislative body than the House. Chapter 10, Section 1 Senator Edward Kennedy (D. , Mass) Copyright © Pearson Education, Inc. Slide 46

Informal Qualifications • To be electable, senators must also meet informal qualifications. – These Informal Qualifications • To be electable, senators must also meet informal qualifications. – These can include party affiliation, gender, ethnicity, name recognition, and being an incumbent. • Fundraising is also vital for successful senate campaigns. Chapter 10, Section 1 Copyright © Pearson Education, Inc. Slide 47

Senate Discipline • The Senate has the power to discipline its members or refuse Senate Discipline • The Senate has the power to discipline its members or refuse to seat an elected member. – The Senate can expel a member with a two thirds vote or punish them with a majority vote. – The Senate has expelled 15 members, most of them senators who supported secession during the Civil War. – The threat of expulsion or the embarrassment of being publicly denounced by the Ethics Committee has led some senators to resign. Chapter 10, Section 1 Copyright © Pearson Education, Inc. Slide 48

Review • Now that you have learned how the Senate differs from the House, Review • Now that you have learned how the Senate differs from the House, go back and answer the Chapter Essential Question. – Whose views should members of Congress represent when voting? Chapter 10, Section 1 Copyright © Pearson Education, Inc. Slide 49

Chapter 10: Congress Section 4 Chapter 10: Congress Section 4

Objectives 1. Identify the personal and political backgrounds of members of Congress. 2. Describe Objectives 1. Identify the personal and political backgrounds of members of Congress. 2. Describe the duties performed by those who serve in Congress. 3. Describe the compensation and privileges of members of Congress. Chapter 10, Section 1 Copyright © Pearson Education, Inc. Slide 51

Key Terms • delegate: a lawmaker who acts as the agent of the people Key Terms • delegate: a lawmaker who acts as the agent of the people who elected him or her, even if it means going against his or her own views • trustee: a lawmaker who acts based on their personal convictions and judgment • partisan: a lawmaker who acts in accordance with their party platform and party leaders • politico: a lawmaker who tries to combine the approaches of the delegate, trustee, and partisan Chapter 10, Section 1 Copyright © Pearson Education, Inc. Slide 52

Key Terms, cont. • bills: laws proposed in Congress • floor consideration: the process Key Terms, cont. • bills: laws proposed in Congress • floor consideration: the process of considering and acting upon a proposed measure or bill on the floor of the House or the Senate • oversight function: the process by which Congress, through its executive committees, ensures that executive branch agencies are carrying out the policies that Congress has set by law • franking privilege: benefit that allows Senate and House members to mail letters and other materials postage-free Chapter 10, Section 1 Copyright © Pearson Education, Inc. Slide 53

Introduction • What roles and functions do members of Congress perform? – Members of Introduction • What roles and functions do members of Congress perform? – Members of each house have five major roles. They act as: • • • Legislators Representatives of their constituents Committee members Servants of their constituents Politicians Chapter 10, Section 1 Copyright © Pearson Education, Inc. Slide 54

Overview of Members • Congress is made up mostly of upper-middleclass Americans. – Most Overview of Members • Congress is made up mostly of upper-middleclass Americans. – Most of the 535 members of Congress are married white men aged 50 or older who have college degrees and identify themselves as Christians. – Congress has 88 women, 42 African Americans, 24 Hispanics, eight Asian Americans, one Native American, and one Native Hawaiian. – The typical senator is serving a second term, while the average representative has served four terms. Chapter 10, Section 1 Copyright © Pearson Education, Inc. Slide 55

Ways of Representing • There are four broad ways in which lawmakers choose to Ways of Representing • There are four broad ways in which lawmakers choose to represent the people when they vote. – Delegates • Believe they should vote however their constituents want them to, even if it means going against the delegate’s personal views or those of his or her party. – Trustees • Guided by their personal views on each specific issue, even if it may mean voting differently than their constituents might want Chapter 10, Section 1 Copyright © Pearson Education, Inc. Slide 56

Ways of Representing, cont. – Partisans • Place their loyalty to their political party Ways of Representing, cont. – Partisans • Place their loyalty to their political party first when deciding how to vote. They support the party platform and party leaders. – Politicos • Try to balance the other three approaches—personal views, party loyalty, and the wishes of constituents— when deciding how to vote. • Any of these approaches can place a congressperson in a difficult situation. It is hard to make everyone happy. Chapter 10, Section 1 Copyright © Pearson Education, Inc. Slide 57

Chapter 10, Section 1 Copyright © Pearson Education, Inc. Slide 58 Chapter 10, Section 1 Copyright © Pearson Education, Inc. Slide 58

Committee Members • Members of Congress do much of their work in committees. • Committee Members • Members of Congress do much of their work in committees. • Committee members must decide which bills will die in committee and which ones will move ahead to be voted on. • Committee members also provide oversight of executive branch agencies, making sure that they carry out the public policies set by law. Chapter 10, Section 1 Copyright © Pearson Education, Inc. Slide 59

Serving the People • Members of Congress and their staffs help citizens of their Serving the People • Members of Congress and their staffs help citizens of their districts and states deal with the federal bureaucracy. – There are many kinds of request for aid from constituents. Some involve finding information or submitting it through proper channels, while many requests involve putting in a good word or recommendation on behalf of a constituent. – Failing to fulfill such requests can cost members votes in the next election. Chapter 10, Section 1 Copyright © Pearson Education, Inc. Slide 60

Compensation • Congress sets its own pay. • Today all but a few senators Compensation • Congress sets its own pay. • Today all but a few senators and representatives with special titles make $174, 00 per year. Chapter 10, Section 1 Copyright © Pearson Education, Inc. Slide 61

“Fringe” Benefits • Checkpoint: Name five “fringe benefits” for members of Congress. – Benefits “Fringe” Benefits • Checkpoint: Name five “fringe benefits” for members of Congress. – Benefits include access to inexpensive health care, fine dining, free parking, and generous pensions. – Members receive funds to hire staff and run their rent-free offices. They can mail letters and other materials without postage, print items for free, and produce radio or television tapes at low cost. Chapter 10, Section 1 Copyright © Pearson Education, Inc. Slide 62

Privileges of Membership • Members of Congress cannot be arrested for civil crimes while Privileges of Membership • Members of Congress cannot be arrested for civil crimes while taking part in congressional business. • Members of Congress cannot be charged with libel or slander for anything they say while conducting official business in Congress. – This protects the freedom of discussion and debate in Congress. – Members can still be punished for simply making false accusations against people verbally or in writing. Chapter 10, Section 1 Copyright © Pearson Education, Inc. Slide 63

Review • Now that you have learned what roles and functions members of Congress Review • Now that you have learned what roles and functions members of Congress perform, go back and answer the Chapter Essential Question. – Whose views should members of Congress represent when voting? Chapter 10, Section 1 Copyright © Pearson Education, Inc. Slide 64