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Chapter 1 The Birth of Civilization Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. , Upper Chapter 1 The Birth of Civilization Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. , Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458. All rights reserved.

Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. , Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458. All rights Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. , Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458. All rights reserved.

Early Humans and Their Culture Homo sapiens: emerged about 200, 000 years ago Culture Early Humans and Their Culture Homo sapiens: emerged about 200, 000 years ago Culture Definition: the ways of living built up by a group and passed on from one generation to another Includes: behavior (courtship, child-rearing practices, etc. ); material goods (tools, clothing, shelter, etc. ); ideas, institutions, beliefs Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. , Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458. All rights reserved.

Paleolithic (“Old Stone”) Age: 1, 000– 10, 000 B. C. E. Dates from earliest Paleolithic (“Old Stone”) Age: 1, 000– 10, 000 B. C. E. Dates from earliest use of stone tools Hunter-gatherer societies No agriculture Learned to make and control fire Acquired language Forms of religious and magical belief emerge Probable division of labor by sex Men: hunting, fishing, tool- and weapon-making, fighting Women: childbearing/rearing, gathering nuts/berries/grains, basket weaving, clothing-making Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. , Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458. All rights reserved.

Neolithic (“New Stone”) Age: 10, 000– 3500 B. C. E. Cultivation of agriculture Domestication Neolithic (“New Stone”) Age: 10, 000– 3500 B. C. E. Cultivation of agriculture Domestication of animals Transition from nomadic lifestyle to a more settled agricultural existence Greater control over nature Invention of pottery Population growth Growth of cities Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. , Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458. All rights reserved.

Bronze Age: 3100– 1200 B. C. E. Refers to Near East and eastern Mediterranean Bronze Age: 3100– 1200 B. C. E. Refers to Near East and eastern Mediterranean civilizations Tin + copper = bronze (stronger and more useful) Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. , Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458. All rights reserved.

Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. , Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458. All rights Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. , Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458. All rights reserved.

Iron Age: After 1100 B. C. E. (identified later in the chapter) Discovery in Iron Age: After 1100 B. C. E. (identified later in the chapter) Discovery in northern Anatolia of how to smelt iron Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. , Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458. All rights reserved.

Defining Civilization Urbanization Social change Growth in population Technological and industrial change Bronze metallurgy Defining Civilization Urbanization Social change Growth in population Technological and industrial change Bronze metallurgy Long-distance trade Writing Representational art Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. , Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458. All rights reserved.

Mesopotamian Civilization Tigris and Euphrates Rivers Politically fragmented Sumerian and Semitic languages Akkadian influence Mesopotamian Civilization Tigris and Euphrates Rivers Politically fragmented Sumerian and Semitic languages Akkadian influence Sargon and unification Naram-Sin and the victory stele Babylonian dominance Hammurabi (r. 1792– 1750 B. C. E. ) Law code Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. , Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458. All rights reserved.

Mesopotamian Culture Writing Cuneiform Writing restricted to an educated elite Mathematics Sexagesimal system (base-60) Mesopotamian Culture Writing Cuneiform Writing restricted to an educated elite Mathematics Sexagesimal system (base-60) Astronomy Religion Polytheistic Nature gods Pessimistic view of life and afterlife Slavery Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. , Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458. All rights reserved.

Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. , Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458. All rights Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. , Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458. All rights reserved.

Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. , Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458. All rights Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. , Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458. All rights reserved.

Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. , Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458. All rights Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. , Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458. All rights reserved.

Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. , Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458. All rights Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. , Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458. All rights reserved.

Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. , Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458. All rights Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. , Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458. All rights reserved.

Egyptian Civilization Importance of the Nile River Upper Egypt (south): Nile valley Lower Egypt Egyptian Civilization Importance of the Nile River Upper Egypt (south): Nile valley Lower Egypt (north): Nile delta Unification and trade Security and optimism Extraordinarily long political history Old Kingdom (2700– 2200 B. C. E. ) Pharaoh was a god on earth Pyramids: pharaonic tombs representing power and wealth of Egypt First Intermediate Period (2200– 2052 B. C. E. ) Decentralization and disorder Middle Kingdom (2052– 1630 B. C. E. ) Power of pharaohs more limited Second Intermediate Period (1630– 1550 B. C. E. ) Arrival of the Hyksos New Kingdom (1550– 1075 B. C. E. ) Military expansion and empire Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. , Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458. All rights reserved.

Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. , Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458. All rights Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. , Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458. All rights reserved.

Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. , Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458. All rights Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. , Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458. All rights reserved.

Egyptian Culture Language and literature Hieroglyphics Religion Polytheistic Akhetaten’s monotheism Worship and the afterlife Egyptian Culture Language and literature Hieroglyphics Religion Polytheistic Akhetaten’s monotheism Worship and the afterlife Clear view of afterworld Mummification Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. , Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458. All rights reserved.

Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. , Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458. All rights Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. , Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458. All rights reserved.

Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. , Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458. All rights Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. , Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458. All rights reserved.

Egyptian Society Women could own and control property, sue for divorce, and had equal Egyptian Society Women could own and control property, sue for divorce, and had equal legal protection Hatshepsut: powerful female pharaoh Slaves Became common during Middle Kingdom Black Africans and Asians Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. , Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458. All rights reserved.

Ancient Near Eastern Empires Hittites (1500– 1200 B. C. E. ) Indo-European people occupying Ancient Near Eastern Empires Hittites (1500– 1200 B. C. E. ) Indo-European people occupying Asia Minor Spoke language related to Greek and Sanskrit Clashed with Egyptians at Kadesh, 1285 B. C. E. Kassites & Mitannians Kassites: Babylonia Mitannians: northern Syria and Mesopotamia Both conquering minorities, absorbed the cultures of their subjects Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. , Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458. All rights reserved.

Ancient Near Eastern Empires (cont. ) Assyrians Semitic-speaking peoples in Assur, northern Mesopotamia Major Ancient Near Eastern Empires (cont. ) Assyrians Semitic-speaking peoples in Assur, northern Mesopotamia Major expansion, 1000– 665 B. C. E. Conquered Mesopotamia, southern Asia Minor, Syria, Palestine, Egypt Large, well-disciplined army; highly structured empire Civil war and collapse at hands of Medes and Babylonians Neo-Babylonians Occupied much of former Assyrian empire Nebuchadnezzar and wonders of Babylon Conquered by Persians, 539 B. C. E. Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. , Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458. All rights reserved.

Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. , Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458. All rights Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. , Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458. All rights reserved.

The Persian Empire Arose in area of present-day Iran Two main groups: Medes and The Persian Empire Arose in area of present-day Iran Two main groups: Medes and Persians Cyrus the Great (Cyrus II, r. 559– 530 B. C. E. ) United Medes and Persians Captured Asia Minor, Babylonia Pursued policies of toleration Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. , Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458. All rights reserved.

The Persian Empire (cont. ) Cambyses: son of Cyrus, conquered Egypt Darius the Great The Persian Empire (cont. ) Cambyses: son of Cyrus, conquered Egypt Darius the Great (r. 521– 486 B. C. E. ) Brought empire to its greatest extent Extended east to northern India, west to the edge of Greece, south to Egypt Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. , Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458. All rights reserved.

Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. , Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458. All rights Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. , Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458. All rights reserved.

Persian Government Hereditary monarchy with divine sanction Sophisticated bureaucracy, semiautonomous provinces (satrapies), efficient postal Persian Government Hereditary monarchy with divine sanction Sophisticated bureaucracy, semiautonomous provinces (satrapies), efficient postal service, excellent roads Adopted Aramaic as language of government and commerce Core army of Medes and Persians greatly expanded with subject armies when necessary Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. , Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458. All rights reserved.

Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. , Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458. All rights Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. , Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458. All rights reserved.

Persian Religion Original forms Roots in Vedic religion brought to India by Aryan peoples Persian Religion Original forms Roots in Vedic religion brought to India by Aryan peoples ca. 1500 B. C. E. Animal sacrifices, reverence for fire Polytheistic, with Ahura Mazda (“Wise Lord”) as chief god Zoroastrianism Reforms of Zarathushtra (Zoroaster in Greek), ca. 1000 B. C. E. Made Ahura Mazda only god Life as eternal battle between good and evil Chief Persian religion by 6 th century B. C. E. Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. , Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458. All rights reserved.

Palestine Birthplace of Judaism, Christianity, and Islam Canaanites First inhabitants Farmers and seafarers Phoenicians Palestine Birthplace of Judaism, Christianity, and Islam Canaanites First inhabitants Farmers and seafarers Phoenicians Descendants of Canaanites Seafarers with colonies across Mediterranean Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. , Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458. All rights reserved.

Palestine (cont. ) Israelites Main historical source: Hebrew Bible Conquered Canaan, 13 th c. Palestine (cont. ) Israelites Main historical source: Hebrew Bible Conquered Canaan, 13 th c. B. C. E. Kingdom peaked under kings David and Solomon, 10 th c. B. C. E. Then split: Israel (north) and Judah (south) Israel conquered by Assyrians, Judah by Neo. Babylonians (“Babylonian exile”) Monotheistic religion with powerful ethical element Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. , Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458. All rights reserved.

Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. , Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458. All rights Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. , Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458. All rights reserved.

Mideastern Cultures: General Outlook Nature Irregular, unpredictable, subject to divine whims Human existence is Mideastern Cultures: General Outlook Nature Irregular, unpredictable, subject to divine whims Human existence is therefore precarious Only possible recourse is to magic Gods, law, justice Gods bound by no law or morality Humans subject to destruction at any time Tried to win gods over with prayers and sacrifices Hebrew innovation: God capable of wrath and destruction but open to persuasion and bound by morality Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. , Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458. All rights reserved.

Greek Intellectual Revolution 6 th c. B. C. E. : First purely rational inquiries Greek Intellectual Revolution 6 th c. B. C. E. : First purely rational inquiries into natural world Initiated both philosophy and science First attempts to diagnose and cure disease without reference to supernatural forces Conceptions of law and justice as coming from man Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. , Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458. All rights reserved.