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Chapter 1 Beverage Service Industry Bar & Beverage Service with Mixology By: Lorenzo G. Rojo
Definition: Beverage Service Industry – comprises of establishments or businesses that offer primarily beverages, foods and sometimes entertainment and other services. Bars – are establishments or businesses that primarily offer beverages, food and sometimes entertainment and other services to its customers.
History: Ancient Sumeria / Sumer 4000 BC Sumerians were considered the most progressive group of people. Some part of Sumer is the present Iraq.
◦ Sumerians were skilled traders, farmers and craftsmen. ◦ invented the wheel (potter’s wheel), ◦ cuneiform writing system ◦ first astronomers, ◦ arithmetic, ◦ military formations and introduced the basic divisions between infantry, cavalry and archers ◦ first true city states, ◦ intensive agriculture and irrigation.
In the Middle East, one of the problems is the availability of potable water. Sumerians also encountered this problem. In order to solve this problem, they tried to come up with alternative drinking liquid particularly derived from fermented cereal grains. Thus, ale was created which is today’s beer. Some Sumerians produced more ale not only for themselves, but also for others who could not produce their own and this led to the establishment of the forerunner of today’s bar, the tavern.
Taverns – were places serving beverage particularly “ale” and places for social gatherings. ◦ Derived from the Latin term taberna and the Greek taverna, whose original meaning was a shed or workshop. ◦ Taverns have existed in England as early as the 13 th century and were often kept by women usually known as ale-wives. ◦ By the 19 th century in England, the word tavern had evolved, from tavern to public house (pub).
Empire Era 3200 – AD 476 As a proof that taverns continued to exist after the time of Sumerians, a papyrus was discovered from ancient Egypt which contained some warnings that says “do not get drunk in taverns. . . For fear that people repeat words which may have gone out of your mouth without you being aware of having uttered them. ” ◦ An indication that early people already knows the effects of alcohol to the body and mind.
Ancient Greece 1100 BC As time passed by, taverns continued to exist and develops. One of the reasons was due to the increase in the number of people who travelled. Greeks travel for religion, sports or games and to conquer lands. During the time of the Greeks, places for the rich and the poor existed. Establishments serving foods and beverages includes Lesches – serving fine food and drinks for the rich, and Taverns – places for the poor.
Ancient Rome 500 BC – 476 AD During their time, the reasons for travel continued to increase and this was due to the development of transportation particularly on the constructions of roads and bridges. Aqueducts After the Romans succeeded the Greeks, Romans conquered almost all parts of Europe. As more people travelled, the number of places serving food and drinks also increased.
Romans travel for trade, religion, pleasure or relaxation, and for political reasons. In the city of Pompei, 118 bar or taverns were discovered.
Decline and Revival AD 476 – AD 1300 After the fall of the Roman Empire, life went back to its primitive way. Travel and tourism whether for business or pleasure virtually ceased. Decline and Revival (AD 476 – AD 1300), travel and tourism ceased and primarily travel became limited for religious purposes only. The church through its monasteries, took over the job of feeding and housing the travelers. They created xenodocheions or a place to house travelers which means an inn.
Renaissance AD 1350 – AD 1600 Some degree of safety had returned to the roads, one of the critical element in the development of the industry. Trade and travel increased. The middle class became a dominant force in the economic life of Europe. Ale house or taverns reappeared along trade routes.
Early Modern AD 1600 – AD 1800 The development of roads was one of the critical elements in the development of the beverage service industry. the introduction of stagecoaches became the means of transportation. Post houses were built along stagecoach routes and serve as a place for food and drinks and accommodation for the traveler. It was also where tired horses changed for fresh horses to continue a fast travel. Post houses are the equivalent of today’s gasoline stations.
The Industrial Era From 1800 Invention of locomotive Growth of Factory System The industrial revolution started in England around 1800, it was the time when machines were invented. Invented machines were ran by steam and were used for productions and transportation. Development of rail travel which made a great impact in travel. In entire Europe, taverns became a permanent establishment. In England, taverns were known as public houses or pubs, a place for pleasure and worship. Man viewed as part of machines
Other versions of taverns all through out Europe: ◦ Inns – are establishments where travelers can procure food, drink and lodging. ◦ Pubs – are an establishment which serves alcoholic drinks especially beer for consumption on the premises, usually in a homely setting. Pubs are commonly found in Englishspeaking countries, particularly in the United Kingdom, Ireland, Canada, Australia and New Zealand. ◦ Cabarets – are restaurants or nightclubs with a stage for performances and the audience sitting around the tables (often dining or drinking) watching the performance. Today, cabaret is commonly known as a show, often can be seen in entertainment centers or areas like Las Vegas.
American Taverns ◦ Taverns in America were introduced by the British. ◦ The distinction between the British and the American taverns was the inclusion of accommodation and entertainment. ◦ The entertainments in American taverns were in the forms of gambling and prostitution. ◦ The Philippine bars are patterned to American bars or taverns. ◦ 1643 – the beginning of American Beverage Service Industry. ◦ Coles Ordinary – the 1 st American tavern. ◦ Taverns served as a place or rendezvous for revolutionaries before the war.
◦ In Massachusetts 1656, a town without a tavern was penalized, taverns were built near the church. ◦ The reason why taverns were built near the church is because during this time there were still no heaters in buildings that could minimize the cold temperature during winter. So after the worship service, people went to taverns to warm their body by drinking alcoholic beverage at the same time the leaders of community discussed matters of the community.
Early American Taverns: Queens Head or Fraunces Tavern, 54 Pearl st cor Broad st NYC Green Dragon Tavern, 11 Marshall St Boston, MA 02108 ◦ ◦ Hancock Tavern Green Dragon Raleigh Tavern Queens Head or Fraunces Tavern Raleigh Tavern, Colonial Williamsburg Hancock Tavern, 668 Hancock Street, Quincy, MA 02170
In 1850 – taverns became large scale inns and later it became hotels. They were designed like a palace but open for public use.
In 1920 – Prohibition Law or 18 th Amendment Law was passed – this made manufacturing, selling, and importation of alcoholic beverage in America illegal.
The Prohibition Law caused large numbers of establishments stopped to operate, people lost their jobs and the government lost a large amount of revenue from the taxes generated from those establishments, and made known as a major cause of The Great American Depression.
Speakeasies – places that sold illegal liquors for the rich Americans and blind pigs for the poor. Moonshines – term used for illegal liquors produced during night time. Bootleggers – illegal suppliers of illegal liquors. They were known as bootleggers because they started to smuggle illegal alcoholic beverages in flask by concealing it in their boots. Bathtub Gin – Gin made in the bathtub, because the preferred style of bottle didn't fit in the kitchen sink. Rumrunners – alcohol smugglers
On 1933, the 21 st Amendment was passed to repeal the Prohibition Law.
Dramshop Law or Third Party Liability Law – this law shifted the liability for damages in the drunken driven incident from the driver who caused the accident to the server or the place that served the drink to the driver. Dram – means small drink Shop – the place that serves the drinks.
P-Noy signs law vs drunk driving By Delon Porcalla (The Philippine Star) May 31, 2013 President Aquino has signed into law a measure that would penalize drivers found to be driving under the influence of liquor or prohibited drugs with up to three months in prison and a fine of P 80, 000. Republic Act 10586 or the “Anti-Drunk and Drugged Driving Act of 2013” also imposes harsher penalties in cases of drunk or drugged drivers getting involved in accidents, especially if there are casualties. There will be a maximum fine of P 200, 000 for physical injuries incurred in accidents, and P 500, 000 if such collision resulted in somebody’s death.
Aside from these, the Land Transportation Office shall confiscate and suspend for 12 months the license of a non-professional driver for the first conviction. On second conviction the license would be perpetually revoked. For professional drivers, their license would be confiscated and perpetually revoked for the first conviction, which shall be the basis to disqualify the driver from “being granted any kind of driver’s license thereafter. ” Refusal to comply with mandatory tests for field sobriety and drug tests will result in confiscation and automatic revocation of license, aside from “other penalties provided and/or other pertinent laws. ”
The owner and/or operator of the offending vehicle, in case of vehicles for hire, will be just as “directly and principally (held) liable together with the offender for the fine and the award against the offender for civil damages. ” However, the operator of the vehicles for rent may be exculpated if he “has exercised extraordinary diligence in the selection and supervision of his drivers in general and the offending driver in particular. ” “Section 7 now mandates the mandatory alcohol and chemical testing of drivers involved in motor vehicular accidents, so that will now be a staple, ” Valte told a news briefing in Malacanang, adding that a breathalyzer would be used to verify alcohol or drug consumption.
Development of Beverage Industry in the Philippines San Miguel Corporation History ◦ 1890 – founded by Don Enrique Maria Barreto de Ycaza in San Miguel district in Manila, the La Fabrica de Cerveza de San Miguel, the first brewery in South East Asia. ◦ 1913 – it became a corporation and began exporting beer in Guam, Hong Kong and Shanghai. ◦ 1922 – the year which started producing soft drinks at the Royal Soft Drinks Plant.
1925 – the year that started producing ice cream at the Magnolia ice Cream Plant. 1927 – the year that started bottling of Coca Cola in the Philippines. 1938 – entered the glass industry, supplying the company’s bottling needs. 1963 – San Miguel Brewery was renamed San Miguel Corporation; the largest food, beverage and packaging company in the Philippines.
Board of Directors, SMG Corp. Eduardo M. Cojuangco, Jr. Chairman and CEO Ramon S. Ang, President and COO Estelito P. Mendoza, Member of the Board Inigo Zobel, Member of the Board Winston F. Garcia, Member of the Board Menardo R. Jimenez , Member of the Board Leo S. Alvez, Member of the Board Egmidio de Silva Jose , Member of the Board Pacifico M. Fajardo , Member of the Board Jesusa Victoria Hernandez-Bautista, Member of the Board Hector L. Hofileña , Member of the Board Carmelo L. Santiago , Member of the Board Roberto V. Ongpin, Member of the Board Mirzan Mahathir, Member of the Board Alexander J. Poblador , Member of the Board
Today’s Beverage Service Industry Beverage-only Bar / Entertainment Combination Disco bars Nightclubs Internet café or cyber café Videoke bars Sports bars/ pool bars Comedy bars KTV bars Gay bars
Food and Beverage Combination ◦ Bar and Restaurant ◦ Tea houses / Tea Rooms ◦ Taverns ◦ Public House / Pubs ◦ Brew pubs / Micro Breweries ◦ Service Bars
Hotel Beverage Operation ◦ Lobby Bar ◦ Coffee Shop ◦ Cocktail Lounge / Piano Bar ◦ Restaurant Bar / Service Bar ◦ Disco Bar / Night Club ◦ Videoke Bar ◦ Poolside Bar / Pool Bar ◦ Pool / Sports Bar ◦ Banquet Bar Open Bar Set up Limited Bar Set up ◦ Mini Bar
Airline Beverage Service Cruise and Passenger Ship Beverage Service Rail Beverage Service Coffee Shops / Coffee Houses / Café Beer Garden