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Challenges and Solutions for Central and Eastern European Countries Analyses on the National Energy Challenges and Solutions for Central and Eastern European Countries Analyses on the National Energy Efficiency Action Plans IPM 8 - 8 th Inter-Parliamentary Meeting on Renewable Energy and Energy Efficiency Friday, 7 th November 2008, Budapest, Parliament of Hungary Dr. Ralf Schüle Senior Consultant and Project Co-ordinator Wuppertal Institute - RG II: Energy, Transport and Climate Policy

Overview 1 2 3 4 Energy Efficiency Policy in the EU and the Role Overview 1 2 3 4 Energy Efficiency Policy in the EU and the Role of the ESD Framework Conditions for Energy Efficiency Policy in CEE National Energy Efficiency Action Plans as Exercise and Indicator Conclusions for CEE and for the Future Design of Energy Efficiency Policy 7 Nov. 2008 IPM 8, Budapest 1

Overview 1 2 3 4 Energy Efficiency Policy in the EU and the Role Overview 1 2 3 4 Energy Efficiency Policy in the EU and the Role of the ESD Framework Conditions for Energy Efficiency Policy in CEE National Energy Efficiency Action Plans as Exercise and Indicator Conclusions for CEE and for the Future Design of Energy Efficiency Policy 7 Nov. 2008 IPM 8, Budapest 2

Energy Efficiency Policy in the EU and the Role of the ESD Climate Policy Energy Efficiency Policy in the EU and the Role of the ESD Climate Policy Target 1: 20% Reductions in GHG-Emissions vs. 1990 § Effort Sharing Com. ETS-Directive CCS-Directive Target 2: 20% PE-Savings vs. BAU REN-Directive EE Action Plan CHP-Directive ESD-Directive Target 3: 20% of REN Cars-Directive Eu. P-Directive Energy Policy 7 Nov. 2008 Fuel Quality Directive Energy and Climate Package 2008 and futher three strategies by 2020: § ETS and Kyoto. Targets § Energy Efficiency and CHP § Renewable Energies IPM 8, Budapest EPBD-Directive SET-Plan Technology Policy 3

Energy Efficiency Policy in the EU and the Role of the ESD § Energy Energy Efficiency Policy in the EU and the Role of the ESD § Energy Efficiency and Energy Service Directive (ESD) requires MS § § § to adopt aim to achieve an overall national indicative reduction target in end-energy use of 9% by 2016 (. . . for the 9 th year of application. . . ) to submit three (National) Energy Efficiency Action Plans (NEEAPs): 2007, 2011, 2014 Only a few formal requirements are given in the ESD: § § Displaying energy efficiency improvement programmes, energy services, and other measures planned for achieving the target § 7 Nov. 2008 Calculation of national indicative annual energy savings target adopted for 2016 (GWh) and national intermediate indicative annual energy savings target adopted for 2010 (GWh) Measures and strategies complying with the provisions on the exemplary role of the public sector, and the provision of information and advice on end energy efficiency on end users. IPM 8, Budapest 4

Energy Efficiency Policy in the EU and the Role of the ESD § Strenghs Energy Efficiency Policy in the EU and the Role of the ESD § Strenghs of the ESD. . . § „framework directive“ in which regulations of other directives (Eu. P, EPBD), can be embedded § With the publication of NEEAPs, we currently have an illustrative and impressive collection of measures that enables international mutual learning among MS. . . (. . . despite high variation of level of information provided) § 7 Nov. 2008 Forces MS to develop action plans and display strategies and to monitor effects of measures IPM 8, Budapest 5

Energy Efficiency Policy in the EU and the Role of the ESD § . Energy Efficiency Policy in the EU and the Role of the ESD § . . . and weaknesses § Additionality: § ESD does not mention that energy savings counting towards the 9 % target must be in addition to energy savings from autonomous changes § EU Action Plan for Energy Efficiency obviously expects strong contribution from ESD (and other recent Directives): „new policy“ leading to new and additional energy savings compared to autonomous changes and even previous policy § Early action/early savings: § ESD allows that effects of measures initiated in a previous year not earlier than 1995 can be taken into account in the calculation of the annual energy savings. “ (Annex I, ESD) § What is meant: § ‘Early measures’? (e. g. , building code from 2005 and still in force in 2008 - 2016) or § Early energy savings‘? (e. g. , from energy-efficient building constructed in 2005) 7 Nov. 2008 IPM 8, Budapest 6

Overview 1 2 3 4 Energy Efficiency Policy in the EU and the Role Overview 1 2 3 4 Energy Efficiency Policy in the EU and the Role of the ESD Framework Conditions for Energy Efficiency Policy in CEE National Energy Efficiency Action Plans as Exercise and Indicator Conclusions for CEE and for the Future Design of Energy Efficiency Policy 7 Nov. 2008 IPM 8, Budapest 7

Final Energy Consumption in selected MS 1995 -2005 in Mio t OE Source: EUROSTAT Final Energy Consumption in selected MS 1995 -2005 in Mio t OE Source: EUROSTAT 7 Nov. 2008 IPM 8, Budapest 8

Baseline Projections (in ktoe) Source: PRIMES (2006) 7 Nov. 2008 IPM 8, Budapest 9 Baseline Projections (in ktoe) Source: PRIMES (2006) 7 Nov. 2008 IPM 8, Budapest 9

Energy Intensity of Selected MS in 2005 (kgoe per EUR 1 000 of GDP) Energy Intensity of Selected MS in 2005 (kgoe per EUR 1 000 of GDP) Source: EUROSTAT Mc. Kinsey 7 Nov. 2008 IPM 8, Budapest 10

CO 2 -Emissions per Capita (kg per capita) Source: NEEAPs, ESD Potential Study 7 CO 2 -Emissions per Capita (kg per capita) Source: NEEAPs, ESD Potential Study 7 Nov. 2008 IPM 8, Budapest EUROSTAT 11

ESD-Target and Economic Potentials 7 Nov. 2008 IPM 8, Budapest 12 ESD-Target and Economic Potentials 7 Nov. 2008 IPM 8, Budapest 12

1 2 3 4 Energy Efficiency Policy in the EU and the Role of 1 2 3 4 Energy Efficiency Policy in the EU and the Role of the ESD Framework Conditions for Energy Efficiency Policy in CEE National Energy Efficiency Action Plans as Exercise and Indicator Conclusions for CEE and for the Future Design of Energy Efficiency Policy 7 Nov. 2008 IPM 8, Budapest 13

National Energy Efficiency Action Plans in CEE § Plans reflect the significance (and the National Energy Efficiency Action Plans in CEE § Plans reflect the significance (and the respective conditions) of energy efficiency policy in member states: § § 7 Nov. 2008 one group of countries has already gathered large experience with the development, implementation and evaluation of measures, Another group predominantly aims at establishing basic institutional structure and supporting framework conditions IPM 8, Budapest 14

National Energy Efficiency Action Plans in CEE § Different types of policy packages § National Energy Efficiency Action Plans in CEE § Different types of policy packages § 7 Nov. 2008 1. Packages for end-users of energy (private housholds, companies, state authorities. . . ) IPM 8, Budapest 15

National Energy Efficiency Action Plans in CES and NMS § Different types of policy National Energy Efficiency Action Plans in CES and NMS § Different types of policy packages 2. Packages for „supplier“ of services End-Users § Advice and Consultancy e. g initial advice Information e. g. Inform. Campaigns, Labelling, Certificates, Auditing for buildings Institutional Measures e. g. energy agencies 7 Nov. 2008 IPM 8, Budapest Regulation e. g. Energy Standards for Buildings and Appliances Funding and Financing Subsidies for building retrofitting, investments in ee technologies 16

National Energy Efficiency Action Plans in CEE: Types of Measures § Information, Advice and National Energy Efficiency Action Plans in CEE: Types of Measures § Information, Advice and Consultancy § In most NEEAPs, public information campaigns or activities targeting at the information of end-users are annouced. § Poland Romania announces a large information campaign on rational energy consumption in the housing sector § EPBD: Audits and Building Certification (BUL, PL, ROM, LIT) in the housing sector § ESD: Smart Metering in collaboration with ESCOs (BUL) § Eu. P: Labelling of household appliances and lighting (CZ, HU, PL, ROM) § Innovative approach: § Ireland: Power of One campaign (broad array of comminication channels and sectors covered) § Austria: klima: aktiv Initiative (link to loan programmes) § 7 Nov. 2008 Innovative approach: linking mandatory advice with funding (Germany) IPM 8, Budapest 17

National Energy Efficiency Action Plans in CEE: Types of Measures § Regulation: § § National Energy Efficiency Action Plans in CEE: Types of Measures § Regulation: § § EPBD: Minimum requirements of old and new buldings (BUL, CZ, HU, PL) § Mandatory introduction of energy management in large energy users (HU, PL) § Guarantee of maximum and minimum indoor temperature in the residential sector (BUL) § 7 Nov. 2008 Eu. P: Standards of boilers and technical appliances (BUL, PL) Innovative approach: dynamisation of standards (for building regulations, top runner) IPM 8, Budapest 18

National Energy Efficiency Action Plans in CEE: Types of Measures § Funding and Financing National Energy Efficiency Action Plans in CEE: Types of Measures § Funding and Financing § Most of CEC have already implemented (or will implement) energy efficiency (credit) funds in the residential, industry, service sector: e. g. BUL, HU, POL, ROM) § Additional funding § through compensation funds: REECL credit line (BUL) § through EU Structural fond (HU/PHARE) § through GEF/UNDP energy efficiency programme (PL/Krakow), ROM § Innovative Measure: § Combination of funding with quality assurance and advice § Tax rebates for companies having committed to reduction targets (e. g. in a LTA) 7 Nov. 2008 IPM 8, Budapest 19

National Energy Efficiency Action Plans in CEE: Types of Measures § Education and Quality National Energy Efficiency Action Plans in CEE: Types of Measures § Education and Quality Assurance: § Only a few CEC and MNS mention education and quality assurance of „suppliers“ of services explicitly § Example: § Checking of boilers (CZ), § Information campaign on training and education (PL) § Training of municipalities (HU) § 7 Nov. 2008 Innovative approach: Funding only when certified advisors and consultants have guaranteed the quality of the measure, e. g. the installation of a Solar Thermal Heater (City of Hamburg) IPM 8, Budapest 20

National Energy Efficiency Action Plans in CEE: Types of Measures § Industry Networks and National Energy Efficiency Action Plans in CEE: Types of Measures § Industry Networks and Voluntary Agreements: § Underrepresented in CEC and NMS § Examples: § EE consultation network (HU), § VA on Audits (HU), § System of voluntary undertaktings (PL) § White Certificate Scheme (Poland) § § Innovative approach: Tax Rebates given in companies having joined the LTA (Finland), White Certificates Scheme Market-based approaches and services: § Underrepresented in NEEAPs § Establishing regulatory framework for contracting, offering of contracting seminars (ROM) 7 Nov. 2008 IPM 8, Budapest 21

National Energy Efficiency Action Plans in CEE 7 Nov. 2008 IPM 8, Budapest 22 National Energy Efficiency Action Plans in CEE 7 Nov. 2008 IPM 8, Budapest 22

National Energy Efficiency Action Plans in CEE: Types of Measures § Industry Networks and National Energy Efficiency Action Plans in CEE: Types of Measures § Industry Networks and Voluntary Agreements: § Underrepresented in CEC and NMS § Examples: § EE consultation network (HU), § VA on Audits (HU), § System of voluntary undertaktings (PL) § Innovative approach: § White Certificate Scheme (Poland) § Tax Rebates given in companies having joined the LTA (Finland), White Certificates Scheme § Market-based approaches and services: § Underrepresented in NEEAPs § Establishing regulatory framewok for contracting, offering of contracting seminars (ROM) 7 Nov. 2008 IPM 8, Budapest 23

National Energy Efficiency Action Plans in CEE: General Remarks on Sectors § Buildings/Residential Sector National Energy Efficiency Action Plans in CEE: General Remarks on Sectors § Buildings/Residential Sector § Regulatory approach (according to EU Directives) § Focus on establishing a funding structure § Focus on multi-family houses § Social aspects (energy poverty)? § Industry and Service Sector § Focus on establishing a funding structure § Networks and voluntary agreement § Transport Sector § „weakest part in the chain“ § Transport sector not adequately addressed § Focus on improving the transport infrastructure § „soft measures“ (Information etc. ) 7 Nov. 2008 IPM 8, Budapest 24

1 2 3 4 Energy Efficiency Policy in the EU and the Role of 1 2 3 4 Energy Efficiency Policy in the EU and the Role of the ESD Framework Conditions for Energy Efficiency Policy in CEC and NMS National Energy Efficiency Action Plans as Exercise and Indicator Conclusions for CEE and for the Future Design of Energy Efficiency Policy 7 Nov. 2008 IPM 8, Budapest 25

Conclusions § Main methodological problem in NEEAPs: Assessing the relationship between potentials, targets calculated Conclusions § Main methodological problem in NEEAPs: Assessing the relationship between potentials, targets calculated and measures assessed ex ante or ex post Calculation of Energy Savings Targets ? Assessments of Effects of Measures by BU ond/or TD Methodologies 7 Nov. 2008 Energy Savings Potentials in Sectors (national studies, sectoral studies, ESD Potential Study) IPM 8, Budapest 26

Conclusions § From diversity to harmonisation § è è Harmonisation of evaluation methods (EMEEES) Conclusions § From diversity to harmonisation § è è Harmonisation of evaluation methods (EMEEES) MS need support from the EC and partners in other MS to establishish capacities Harmonisation of NEEAPs (template) for 2011 § From plan to implementation § § § 7 Nov. 2008 MS to implement/monitor and improve EEI measures displayed in the NEEAPs Stakeholders and actors in MS can evaluate and control the state of implementation Further measures are required to achieve energy savings beyond baseline § Savings achieved by natural development (e. g. NEEAP CZ) need to be excluded in NEEAPs II IPM 8, Budapest 27

Conclusions § Overcoming obstacles: § Power relations in market creation § In which sense Conclusions § Overcoming obstacles: § Power relations in market creation § In which sense are stakeholders in energy (supply) sector „open“ for energy efficiency issues? § In what sense can structures, institutions and markets focusing on energy efficiency can be established? § Developing the Potentials § § § 7 Nov. 2008 Innovative measures: § Dynamisation of standards (e. g. front runner principle, combined with subsidies, progressive building standards for new and existing buildings etc. ) § Introduce performance based standards and measures (measuring the „real“ savings) Strengthen labelling and marketing approaches Energy efficiency as part of the Energy Security Strategy in the EU and in MS. IPM 8, Budapest 28

Vision § Ford T § § § prototype of innovation Innovative was automatised mode Vision § Ford T § § § prototype of innovation Innovative was automatised mode of manufacturing its parts and the organisation of the production process the key of the success: promise of unlimited mobility and the promise of the automobilisation of the world. § Efficiency 2020 § Equivalent vision for energy and resource efficiency is needed, NEEAPs are a first small step to develop such a vision throughout Europe. 7 Nov. 2008 IPM 8, Budapest 29

Thank you for your attention! Dr. Ralf Schüle Wuppertal Institute for Climate, Environment and Thank you for your attention! Dr. Ralf Schüle Wuppertal Institute for Climate, Environment and Energy ++49/(0)202/2492 -110 ralf. [email protected] org 7 Nov. 2008 IPM 8, Budapest