Cerebral asymmetry and the specific functions of the

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  Cerebral asymmetry and the specific functions of the right hemishere Anke Bouma Leonardo Da Cerebral asymmetry and the specific functions of the right hemishere Anke Bouma Leonardo Da Vinci Dept. of Clinical and Developmental Psychology Rijks. Universiteit van Groningen

  • General overview of the cerebral asymmetries and the functions of the corpus callosum • General overview of the cerebral asymmetries and the functions of the corpus callosum • Specific functions of the right hemisphere, and consequences for neuropsychological assessment Cerebral asymmetry and the specific functions of the right hemishere

  Cerebral asymmetry Left hemisphere Right hemipshere Corpus callosum RHLH Cerebral asymmetry Left hemisphere Right hemipshere Corpus callosum RHLH

  Cerebral asymmetry “ Brain asymmetry has been observed in animals and humans structurally, functionally, Cerebral asymmetry “ Brain asymmetry has been observed in animals and humans structurally, functionally, and behaviorally. This lateralization is thought to originate from evolutionary, hereditary, developmental, experiential and pathological factors” Toga & Thompson, Nature Reviews Neuroscience,

 Human brain asymmetries • Structural brain asymmetries • Functional brain asymmetries • Perceptual asymmetries • Human brain asymmetries • Structural brain asymmetries • Functional brain asymmetries • Perceptual asymmetries • Motor asymmetries • Neurochemical differences Research methods

 Human brain asymmetries • Pati ents with unilateral lesions • Split-brain pati ent  • Human brain asymmetries • Pati ents with unilateral lesions • Split-brain pati ent • Normal subjects ( age, sex, hand preference ) • Bilateral lesions (e. g. , Alzheimerpati ënten ) • Developmental disorders • Psychiatric patients Clinical relevance

  Structural brain asymmetries  Macroscopical posterioranterior LH RH Counterclockwise torque Sylvian fissure. LH RH Structural brain asymmetries Macroscopical posterioranterior LH RH Counterclockwise torque Sylvian fissure. LH RH WBGebied van Broca Gebied van Wernicke

  Structural brain asymmetries  Microscopical Left hemisphere:  more detailed processing and expression of Structural brain asymmetries Microscopical Left hemisphere: more detailed processing and expression of information Right hemisphere: more focused on connectivity between different brain regions

 Left hemisphere :  dopamine (motor activation)  Right hemisphere :  norepinephrine (alertness, orientation Left hemisphere : dopamine (motor activation) Right hemisphere : norepinephrine (alertness, orientation to new stimuli)Structural brain asymmetries Neurochemical

  Functional brain asymmetry - Not a simple dichotomy - Not a modern phrenology - Functional brain asymmetry — Not a simple dichotomy — Not a modern phrenology — Is not absolute, but relative — Modular brain circuits (neuronal networks) — subprocesses — patterns of activations (intra- and inter-hemispheric connectivities)

  Unilateral lesions of the left hemisphere - primary perceptual and motor disturbances at the Unilateral lesions of the left hemisphere — primary perceptual and motor disturbances at the right side of the body (contralaterally) — aphasia — language-related disorders and verbal disorders (alexia, agraphia, acalculia, verbal memory disorders) — apraxia — disturbances in temporal order / sequencing ‘ conscious awareness’LH

  Unilateral lesions of the right hemisphere - primary perceptual and motor disturbances at the Unilateral lesions of the right hemisphere — primary perceptual and motor disturbances at the left side of the body (contralaterally) — hemi-inattention (neglect); anosognosie and denial — nonverbal information processing and nonverbal memory (faces, visuospatial processes, environmental sounds, music (melodies, but not rhythm; LH involved by experienced musicians) — Semantic, paralinguistic and affective aspects of language (‘context’) — emotions ( ‘somatic markers’ ); m. n. negative emotions RH

  LH patients draw the overall global form of the figure, not on local parts LH patients draw the overall global form of the figure, not on local parts of the figure Example LH-pt RH-pt RH pati ents draw the local parts of the figure, but the overall global form is incorrect Task : drawing. Constrctive apraxia

  Actual social interaction Ekman’s faces varies from anxiety to depression Right hemisphere:  Examples Actual social interaction Ekman’s faces varies from anxiety to depression Right hemisphere: Examples of emotional and social behavior Anxiety in animals

  Functional brain asymmetries 10 - 26 W. W. Norton. Left hemisphere - high spatial Functional brain asymmetries 10 — 26 W. W. Norton. Left hemisphere — high spatial frequency — local processing — analytic, detailed processing Right hemisphere — low spatial frequency — global processing — holististic processing Right hemisphere: stronger ‘connectivity’ between different brain regions than the left hemisphere

  Left and Right Left side of the body • Left hand • Left ear Left and Right Left side of the body • Left hand • Left ear • Left Visual Field (LVF) Right side of the body • Right hand • Right ear • Right visual field (RVF) LH RH R-ear RVF L-ear LV

  Brain asymmetries and the role of the corpus callosum Left hemisphere Right hemispherecorpus callosum Brain asymmetries and the role of the corpus callosum Left hemisphere Right hemispherecorpus callosum — Transfer of information from the LH to the RH, and vice versa — Inhibition of equivalent regions in the other hemisphere, and at the same time increased activation of the surrounding neurons for encoding related or contextual informaton. Language writing reading spatial emotions Inter-hemispheric interaction across the corpus callosum

  Split-brain pati ënten Split-brain pati ënten

  Corpus callosum LH RH Visual system. Motor system Somatosensory system Auditory system Corpus callosum LH RH Visual system. Motor system Somatosensory system Auditory system

  Split-brain pati ënt Left hand Right hand Pre- operative Postoperatively, the right hand performed Split-brain pati ënt Left hand Right hand Pre- operative Postoperatively, the right hand performed poorly due to the disconnection of the LH (right hand) and the RH (spatial functions)

  Visual system Optische radiatie. Colliculus superior. Lateral genuculate nucleus Pulvinar Primaire visuele cortex. Optisch Visual system Optische radiatie. Colliculus superior. Lateral genuculate nucleus Pulvinar Primaire visuele cortex. Optisch chiasma nasaal temporaal 13 13 LVV LVVbycicle Primary visual cortex. Optic radiation. Colliculus superior. Lateral geniculate nucleus Pulvinar Optic chiasm nasal temporal LH

  Visual system Optische radiatie. Colliculus superior. Lateral genuculate nucleus Pulvinar Primaire visuele cortex. Optisch Visual system Optische radiatie. Colliculus superior. Lateral genuculate nucleus Pulvinar Primaire visuele cortex. Optisch chiasma nasaal temporaal 13 13 Fiets. LVV bycicle Primary visual cortex. Optic radiation. Colliculus superior. Lateral geniculate nucleus Pulvinar Optic chiasmnasal temporal RH

  Split-brain pati ent Split-brain pati ent

  Disconnection syndromes in patients with lesions of the corpus callosum (split-brain patients, partial disconnection) Disconnection syndromes in patients with lesions of the corpus callosum (split-brain patients, partial disconnection) • ‘ alien’ hand syndroom (Lh) • unilateraal L-hand anomie • hemi-alexie (LV)

  Perceptual asymmetries • Visual half-field method • Dichotic listening task Perceptual asymmetries • Visual half-field method • Dichotic listening task

  Lear Dichotic listening and hemispheric asymmetry Kimura’s structural model LH RH Results: R-ear Lear Dichotic listening and hemispheric asymmetry Kimura’s structural model LH RH Results: R-ear > L-ear. Presentation time: 500 msec pear stimulus pair Rear Bouma, 1998 7 4 1 3 2 5 LH RH

  Effects of attention on dichotic listening (focused attention task) Left ear Right ear Attended Effects of attention on dichotic listening (focused attention task) Left ear Right ear Attended R-ear condition. Attended L-ear condition L 1 L 2 R 2 R 1 Attended Rear condition: Recall first Rear digits and then Lear digits Attended Lear condition: Recall first Lear digits and then Rear digits LH RH R-ear L- ear

  Dichotic listening: language perception and laterality  Attented R-ear condition automatic processiing = ‘bottom Dichotic listening: language perception and laterality Attented R-ear condition automatic processiing = ‘bottom up’ process. Attented L-ear condition Inhibitory control / EF = ‘top down’ process 7 4 1 3 2 5 LH RH

  Dichotic listening is based on a distributed network of different hemispheric regions  intra-hemispheric Dichotic listening is based on a distributed network of different hemispheric regions intra-hemispheric (temporal, frontal, parietal) inter-hemispheric (corpus callosum)Lear LH RH Rear. CC Attended L-ear condition : = particularly sensitive to disconnectivy

  Age effects in dichotic listening 407080 60 50 90 100 60 -70 yrs 70 Age effects in dichotic listening 40%70%80% 60% 50% 90% 100% 60 -70 yrs 70 -80 yrs 80 -90 yrs Att R-ear Unatt R-ear Att L-ear Unatt L-ear% co rre ct re sp o n se s (a) corpus callosum dysfunction (b) RH-dysfunction (‘hemi-aging’) (c) attentional deficits (EF: inhibitory control dysfunctions) Bouma,

  Dichotic listening in Alzheimer’s Disease  205060 40 30 70 80 L-ear co rre Dichotic listening in Alzheimer’s Disease 20%50%60% 40% 30% 70% 80% L-ear% co rre ct resp o n se s Effects enhanced in Alzheimer patients (a) corpus callosum dysfunction (b) RH-dysfunction (‘hemi-aging’) (c) attentional deficits (EF: inhibitory control dysfunctions) R-ear L-ear R-ear 90% 10% ATT-LE ATT-RE Bouma, 1998 Alzheimer Controls

  Methods of cerebral asymmetry Methods of cerebral asymmatry play an important role in measuring: Methods of cerebral asymmetry Methods of cerebral asymmatry play an important role in measuring: • inter-hemispheric connectivity (corpus callosum) • intra-hemispheric connectiviy Corpus callosum LH RH RH > LH

  Clinical applications in neuropsychological assessment  -  pati ents with unilaterale lesions - Clinical applications in neuropsychological assessment — pati ents with unilaterale lesions — aging and dementia (e. g. , Alzheimer pati ënten) — patients with (partial) lesions of the corpus callosum — patients with multiple sclerose — psychiatric pati ents — developmental disorders

  Left-right asymmetries - Handedness - Footedness - Head turning - Eye preference - Ear Left-right asymmetries — Handedness — Footedness — Head turning — Eye preference — Ear preference — Facial expression — Cradling

  Handedness questionnaire  (Van Strien & Bouma) Writing hand (social pressure? ) 1. drawing Handedness questionnaire (Van Strien & Bouma) Writing hand (social pressure? ) 1. drawing left / right / both 2, tooth-brush left / right / both 3. bottle opener left / right / both 4. throwing ball left / right / both 5. hammer left / right / both 6. (tennis)racket left / right / both 7. cutting robe with knife left / right / both 8. stirring with spoon left / right / both 9 rubbing out left / right / both 10. Striking a match left / right / both Scoring -1 / +1 / 0 (range – 10, + 10)

  Handedness and language dominance Broca’s law of contralateral dominance : (until mid-20 th century): Handedness and language dominance Broca’s law of contralateral dominance : (until mid-20 th century): — In right-handers, the left hemisphere is dominant for language and the use of the preferred hand — In left-handers the right hemisphere is dominant Broca’s law is not supported by the data!

  Handedness and language dominance - extreme left-handedness :  25 -  ambidexter : Handedness and language dominance — extreme left-handedness : 25% — ambidexter : 15% — extreme right-hander : 5%Likelihood of right-hemisphere dominance (%) Formula : 15% — handedness score (-10 to + 10)

  Left-handedness - prevalence In the Netherlands, but also in other countries - females 9. Left-handedness — prevalence In the Netherlands, but also in other countries — females 9. 6% — males : 11. 8% CBS (1985)

  Left-handedness a) genetic models  (‘ nature ’ )  b) developmental factors Left-handedness a) genetic models (‘ nature ’ ) b) developmental factors (‘ nurture ’ ) — prenatal environment (hormonal factors: testosterone; stress) — developmental disorders (e. g. , neural tube defects, stuttering, dyslexia, schizophrenia, autism) — birth stress (e. g. , premature birth, respiratory problems) — low birth weight c) cultural influence (e. g. , cultural pressure; costs of left-handedness) d) evolutionary factors (benefits of left-handedness)

  Sex differences in cerebral asymmetries Male advantage:  • visuospatial skills -  mental Sex differences in cerebral asymmetries Male advantage: • visuospatial skills — mental rotation — perceptual closure — embedded figures • mathematical reasoning • target directed motor skills Females advantage: • verbal skills — verbal fluency — speed of articulation — grammar — earlier language acquisition • perceptual speed • fine motor skills and rapid sequential movements

  Sex differences in cerebral asymmetry Cerebral asymmetries tend to be smaller in females than Sex differences in cerebral asymmetry Cerebral asymmetries tend to be smaller in females than in males, presumably related to stronger inter-hemispheric connectivitiy Higher level of testosterone during development of the brain : leads to — reduced inter-hemispheric connectivity and — increased cerebral asymmetries

  Functions of the right hemisphere: neuropsychological assessment Functions of the right hemisphere: neuropsychological assessment