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CENTRAL INSTITUTE FOR SUBTROPICAL HORTICULTURE REHMANKHERA, P. O. KAKORI, LUCKNOW-226 101 Telephone: 0522 -2841022 CENTRAL INSTITUTE FOR SUBTROPICAL HORTICULTURE REHMANKHERA, P. O. KAKORI, LUCKNOW-226 101 Telephone: 0522 -2841022 -24; Fax: 0522 -2841025 E. mail: cish. [email protected] com; Website: www. cisklko. org

THE INSTITUTE n The Central Institute for Subtropical Horticulture (CISH) was started as Central THE INSTITUTE n The Central Institute for Subtropical Horticulture (CISH) was started as Central Mango Research Station on September 4, 1972 under the aegis of the Indian Institute of Horticultural Research, Bangalore n The Research Station was upgraded to a full-fledged Institute and named as Central Institute of Horticulture for Northern Plains on June 1, 1984 n Renamed as Central Institute for Subtropical Horticulture (CISH) on June 14, 1995, is serving the nation through different aspects of research on mandated subtropical fruits n Has two experimental farms, one at Rehmankhera (132. 5 ha) approximately 25 km away from the city and the other (13. 2 ha) at Rai Bareli Road, in the city of Lucknow

continued… n Has scientific nursery program, well established orchards, fully equipped laboratories; trainees’ hostel-cum-guest continued… n Has scientific nursery program, well established orchards, fully equipped laboratories; trainees’ hostel-cum-guest house located at R. B. Road Campus n Has in place MOU to facilitate capacity building with Allahabad Agricultural Institute (Deemed University), Allahabad, APS University, Rewa, Babasaheb Bhimrao Ambedkar University, Lucknow, Bundelkhand University, Jhansi, Lucknow University, Lucknow and Integral University, Lucknow; trains students for acquiring M. Sc. and Ph. D. degrees n Recognized by IGNOU, New Delhi as one of the study centers for offering one year Diploma Course on value added products from fruits and vegetables and six months Diploma Certificate in Organic Farming n National Horticulture Mission has identified the Institute as nodal centre for imparting training on rejuvenation of old and unproductive mango orchards and high density planting in guava

MANDATE n n Undertake basic and strategic research to enhance productivity and develop value MANDATE n n Undertake basic and strategic research to enhance productivity and develop value chain for major and minor subtropical fruits Function as national repository of above fruit crops Act as a centre for human resource development and provide consultancy to the stakeholders Develop linkages with national and international agencies to accomplish the above mandates

CISH ORGANOGRAM CISH ORGANOGRAM

MANDATE CROPS Mango (Mangifera indica) Guava (Psidium guajava) Papaya (Carica papaya) Aonla (Embilica officinalis) MANDATE CROPS Mango (Mangifera indica) Guava (Psidium guajava) Papaya (Carica papaya) Aonla (Embilica officinalis) Bael (Aegle marmellos) Banana (Musa spp. ) Litchi (Litchi chinensis)

UNDERUTILIZED FRUIT CROPS Jamun (Syzygium cuminii) Mahua (Bassia latifolia ) Wood Apple (Feronia limonia) UNDERUTILIZED FRUIT CROPS Jamun (Syzygium cuminii) Mahua (Bassia latifolia ) Wood Apple (Feronia limonia) Karonda (Carissa carandas ) Khirnee (Manilkara hexandra) Tamarind (Tamarindus indica) Chironji (Buchanania lanzan )

PRODUCTION OF QUALITY PLANTING MATERIALS Sl. Crop No. 2006 -07 2007 -08 2008 -09 PRODUCTION OF QUALITY PLANTING MATERIALS Sl. Crop No. 2006 -07 2007 -08 2008 -09 2009 -10 2010 -11 2011 -12 1 Mango 2276 20900 14341 13429 7850 7321 2 Guava 1886 50665 55827 62404 57606 82345 3 Aonla 4919 17315 16608 9056 5140 4903 4 Bael 2388 3161 4887 5398 3311 4621 Total 11469 92131 91663 90287 73907 99189

CROP IMPROVEMENT Mango Ambika (Amrapali x Janaradhan Pasand) medium size fruit with slight sinus CROP IMPROVEMENT Mango Ambika (Amrapali x Janaradhan Pasand) medium size fruit with slight sinus and beak broadly pointed apex, smooth and tough skin. Fruit is bright yellow with dark red blush, firm with scanty fibre, TSS is 210 Brix and late in maturity Arunika (Amrapali x Vanraj) attractive red-blushed fruits, high TSS (240 Brix), high carotenoids, firm flesh, regular bearer and dwarf in stature

GUAVA Lalit is guava variety with attractive saffron yellow colour with occasional red blush GUAVA Lalit is guava variety with attractive saffron yellow colour with occasional red blush and are medium sized with an average weight. Flesh of fruit is firm and pink in colour. It has good blend of sugar and acid. It is suitable for both table and processing purposes. The pink colour in the beverage made from its pulp remains stable for more than a year during storage Shweta is a half-sib selection from Apple Colour with attractive fruits. Fruits of this selection are sub-globose with few soft seeds, high TSS (140 Brix) and attractive pink blush. It has good yield potential LALIT

BAEL CISH-B -1 Plants are moderate in height and less spreading. Fruits are oval BAEL CISH-B -1 Plants are moderate in height and less spreading. Fruits are oval or oblong having size of 15 -17 x 39 -41 cm spread, good in taste (35 -40. 50 Brix). The average weight of fruit is 0. 8 -1. 2 Kg. Rind of fruit is thin (0. 10 -0. 12 cm) and weight of fruit is 125 gm per fruit. Fiber and seeds are found in fewer amounts and average yield per tree is 50 -60 Kg CISH-B-1 CISH-B– 2 Plants are semi vigorous and more spreading. Fruits are big in size 14. 8 – 18 x 52 -64 cm having round or oblong shape. The weight of fruit is 1. 82. 7 Kg. Fruits of this variety are good in taste (37 -410 Brix) and having thin rind. Fiber and seeds are less. The average yield per tree is 40 -50 Kg CISH-B-2

Fruit crops diversity n n n The Institute has 24 cvs. of papaya, 9 Fruit crops diversity n n n The Institute has 24 cvs. of papaya, 9 cvs. of Aonla , 28 cvs. of litchi, 40 accessions of Jamun and 30 cvs. of banana in its germplasm collection DUS projects : Mango, Guava, Jamun, Aonla, Bael Other under-utilized fruits: Karonda, Mahua, Chironji

VARIETIES IN PIPELINE n Mango (H-1084) n n Guava (G-1) n n Developed from VARIETIES IN PIPELINE n Mango (H-1084) n n Guava (G-1) n n Developed from a cross between Amrapali and Janardhan Pasand Regular bearing and matures late in the season Attractive peel colour Selection from half- sib population of ‘Apple Color’ High TSS (12 – 150 Brix) Attractive red colouration of peel Jamun (Seedless) n n Fruit Weight ranges between 8 – 10 g Pulp content 96 – 98 per cent TSS ranged from 14 – 150 Brix Total sugar content of 6. 48 per cent

MEDIUM DENSITY PLANTING IN MANGO n n n An important approach for improving productivity; MEDIUM DENSITY PLANTING IN MANGO n n n An important approach for improving productivity; high economic returns System permits maximum utilization of land, water, nutrients and solar energy Conventionally, mango is planted at 10 x 10 m (100 trees / hectare); medium density planting (MDP) accommodates 400 trees per hectare (5 x 5 m) Canopy management involving training and pruning are essential aspects right from orchard establishment; these need to continue through out the life of orchard With integration of fertigation technology, productivity as high as 1415 tons could be achieved as against 7 -8 tons under traditional planting system Fruit drop was found minimum (4. 2 %) under MDP

ULTRA HIGH DENSITY PLANTING (UHDP ) SYSTEM IN GUAVA n n n Plants spaced ULTRA HIGH DENSITY PLANTING (UHDP ) SYSTEM IN GUAVA n n n Plants spaced at 1 x 2 m accommodates 5000 plants per hectare Plants are topped 2 months of planting in October for emergence of new shoots below cut ends 50 per cent length of each new shoot , pruned again in December-January for induction of more shoots ; good spread is attained by May ; flower buds differentiate Production starts from very first year of planting, 12. 5 tons reaching up to 55 tons per hectare by 6 -7 years Lalit performs very well in UHDP system This technology for meadow orcharding in guava developed at CISH, Lucknow which has spread to different parts of the country especially in Maharashtra, Andhra Pradesh, Jharkhand Uttar Pradesh ; Lalit Guava responds very well

(UHDP ) SYSTEM IN GUAVA Planting distance: 2. 0 x 1. 0 m Growth (UHDP ) SYSTEM IN GUAVA Planting distance: 2. 0 x 1. 0 m Growth after 2 nd pruning Heading back at height of 30 to 40 cm Growth after 3 rd pruning New growths after pruning Flowering after 3 rd pruning

Fruiting in UHDP : Guava 1 st year 2 nd year 3 rd year Fruiting in UHDP : Guava 1 st year 2 nd year 3 rd year 4 th year 5 th year After 5 th year

Comparison between traditional systems and HDP systems of guava growing Attributes Traditional systems Meadow Comparison between traditional systems and HDP systems of guava growing Attributes Traditional systems Meadow systems Bearing After two years From first year Production Overall production is low (1220 t ha-1) Increased overall production (30 -50 t ha-1) Management Difficult to manage due to large size of trees Easy to manage due to small trees Labor requirement More Minimum Production cost Higher cost of production Reduced cost of production Harvesting Difficult Easy Quality Large canopy, poor sunlight penetration and poor quality Small canopy encourages air to circulate and sunlight to penetrate into centre of the tree canopy, good air circulation minimizes disease, sunlight interception contributes to high fruit quality and colour

REJUVENATION OF OLD AND UNPRODUCTIVE MANGO ORCHARDS n n n n n About 35 REJUVENATION OF OLD AND UNPRODUCTIVE MANGO ORCHARDS n n n n n About 35 -40 per cent orchards in mango growing belt are old and unproductive ; many respond to rejuvenation CISH technology on rejuvenation standardized in ‘Dashehari’, involves heading back of branches during December to a level of about 3 meters from ground About three to four main branches emerging and having outward growth are retained; rest are pruned back to their base Main branches are allowed to produce shoots and develop into canopy; thinning of excessive criss-crossing shoots is carried out during May and July to maintain 6 -8 shoots per branch Trees develop healthy and productive canopy after two years and bearing starts Additional income from pruned wood and intercropping with short duration vegetables and ornamental crops are the other advantages Fruit yield increases up to 4 -5 times of the initial status with improved size and quality due to better light penetration into the canopy Application of 2. 5 kg urea, 3 kg Single super phosphate (SSP) and 1. 5 kg Muriate of potash along with 100 kg FYM is recommended for each pruned tree These trees must be irrigated at interval of 15 -20 days starting from end of February till onset of rainy season

REJUVENATION OF OLD AND UNPRODUCTIVE MANGO ORCHARDS REJUVENATION OF OLD AND UNPRODUCTIVE MANGO ORCHARDS

REJUVENATION OF OLD AND UNPRODUCTIVE GUAVA ORCHARDS n n n n Orchards lose their REJUVENATION OF OLD AND UNPRODUCTIVE GUAVA ORCHARDS n n n n Orchards lose their productivity beyond 25 years due to biotic stresses CISH technology on rejuvenation involves heading back of trees to a level of 1. 0 -1. 5 m from ground level Emerging shoots are allowed to grow (40 -50 cm) for 4 -5 months after heading back Shoots are further pruned to 50 per cent of their length to allow emergence of multiple shoots ; these shoots offer fruit bearing surface in the following season ; healthy and productive canopy develops Profuse fruiting and yield increases to about 70 -90 per cent over non-rejuvenated trees is observed in the very first year of operation Additional income from pruned wood and intercropping with short duration vegetables and ornamental crops are the other advantage

Stages of rejuvenation in guava Stages of rejuvenation in guava

continued… Heading back of branches of guava tree Newly emerged shoots on beheaded branches continued… Heading back of branches of guava tree Newly emerged shoots on beheaded branches of the tree Full growth after five months of heading back Showing shoot pruning after 5 month of heading back

Rejuvenation technique in guava augmented the farmers’ income. Approximately 3000 ha of orchards have Rejuvenation technique in guava augmented the farmers’ income. Approximately 3000 ha of orchards have been rejuvenated across the country through National Horticulture Mission Prior to rejuvenation After rejuvenation Yield 4 – 9 ton / ha Income 35 – 80 thousand / ha 1. 9 – 2. 35 lakhs / ha* * based 12 – 35 tons / ha* on size, age and proper management of orchard

Management of Irregular bearing in mango Management of irregular bearing using paclobutrazol (cultar) § Management of Irregular bearing in mango Management of irregular bearing using paclobutrazol (cultar) § § Dose per tree : 3. 2 ml / meter canopy diameter Method of paclobutrazol (cultar) use The recommended dose of cultar is dissolved in 10 – 15 litres water and applied in the fertilizer ring, 1. 0 -1. 5 m from the trunk where the feeding roots are present Use of paclobutrazol (cultar) in trees above 25 years of age

§ § Time of application is 90 -100 days before flowering in the month § § Time of application is 90 -100 days before flowering in the month of September. Adequate moisture needs to be maintained for 25 -30 days after application of paclobutrazol Recommonded dose of fertilizers are required to be adopted and application of organic manure is essential. Use of paclobutrazol should be adopted in the Off years Flowering in off year in paclobutrazol (cultar) treated tree Heavy fruiting In Uttar Pradesh paclobutrazol is being used for the management of irregular bearing in more than 350 ha. The yield increased by 25 -40 per cent depending upon the age and variety giving an additional income of Rs. 80, 000 per hectare

INTEGRATED PEST MANAGEMENT IN MANGO Mango hopper (Idioscopus clypealis; I. nitidulus; Amritodus atkinsoni ) INTEGRATED PEST MANAGEMENT IN MANGO Mango hopper (Idioscopus clypealis; I. nitidulus; Amritodus atkinsoni ) n Pruning of overcrowded and overlapping branches n Regular ploughing and removal of weeds n First spray of imidacloprid (0. 005%) when panicles are 8 -10 cm long followed by second spray of thiomethoxam (0. 008%) or profenophos (0. 05%) after fruit set and third need based spray of carbaryl (0. 2%) before maturity

Mealy bug (Drosicha mangiferae) n Ploughing of orchards in November-December n Polyethylene (400 gauge) Mealy bug (Drosicha mangiferae) n Ploughing of orchards in November-December n Polyethylene (400 gauge) banding of tree trunk above 30 cm from ground level and application of 1. 5 per cent chlorpyriphos dust @ 250 g/tree around tree trunk in December n Nymphs if have climbed the tree, spray carbosulfan (0. 05%) or dimethoate (0. 06%) before flowering Fruit fly (Bactrocera dorsalis and B. zonata) n Collection and disposal of infested and fallen fruits n Ploughing of orchards in November-December to expose pupae n Use of methyl eugenol pheromone traps (wooden blocks 5 x 5 x 1 cm soaked in methyl eugenol, malathion and [email protected] 6: 4: 1) are hung in trees during fruiting period from April-August @10 traps per hectare traps should be replenished at 2 months interval

INTEGRATED DISEASE MANAGEMENT INTEGRATED DISEASE MANAGEMENT

INTEGRATED MANAGEMENT OF POSTHARVEST DISEASES OF MANGO n Anthracnose (Colletotrichum gleosporiodes), stem end rot INTEGRATED MANAGEMENT OF POSTHARVEST DISEASES OF MANGO n Anthracnose (Colletotrichum gleosporiodes), stem end rot (Lasiodiplodia theobromae) and Aspergillus rot (Aspergillus niger) are the major post-harvest diseases n Pre-harvest practices are very important to effectively manage postharvest diseases. They include integrated water and nutrient management, integrated pest and disease management and proper harvesting and handling n Two pre-harvest sprays of thiophanate–methyl (0. 1%) at 15 days interval starting from 3 rd week of May to reduce the incidence of postharvest diseases n Harvested fruits, free from bruises, are treated in hot water using electrically operated circulative water bath at 52 ± 10 C for 20 minutes

Contd…. n n Duration of treatment could be reduced to 10 minutes by amending Contd…. n n Duration of treatment could be reduced to 10 minutes by amending the hot water with prochloraz (0. 05%) for ambient and prochloraz (0. 1%) for low temperature (12± 10 C) storage of fruits for 3 weeks After treatment, fruits are air dried and packed in CFB boxes Fruits could be stored without any post-harvest diseases infection under ambient for 8 -10 days while under low temperature conditions for up to 3 weeks This technology has proved very effective in managing the postharvest diseases of Dashehari, Langra, Chausa, Mallika and Amrapali Anthracnose Stem end rot Aspergillus rot

CFB BOXES FOR PACKING OF FRUITS n n n n Mango and guava fruits CFB BOXES FOR PACKING OF FRUITS n n n n Mango and guava fruits are normally packed in wooden boxes weighing 2. 0 -2. 5 kg having 50 -55 nails and high ventilation 14 -20 per cent losses occur in mango during transportation due to impact, compression, vibration, shock and friction Higher ventilation affects the maintenance of ideal environment required inside the box during transportation In this background, telescopic type Corrugated Fiber Board (CFB) boxes of 2. 0 and 4. 0 kg capacities having 0. 5 per cent ventilation were designed and developed CFB boxes are safe, attractive, sturdy and suitable for effective handling and shipping of fresh produce Fruits will have less bruises and effective post-harvest treatments before packaging further minimize the losses during transport Suitable for export of fruits

AONLA DE-STONING MACHINE n n n n Manual removal of stones from aonla fruits AONLA DE-STONING MACHINE n n n n Manual removal of stones from aonla fruits for processing is very difficult due to irregular shape of stone and tight adherence to pulp Manual removal besides being cumbersome, results in fruit splitting into segments and 15 -20 per cent pulp remaining adhered to stone Processing industry needs a mechanical device for de-stoning of Aonla fruits for improving the efficiency of this critical step of segments separation CISH has designed and developed a manually operated machine for de-stoning of Aonla fruits Machine works on the principle of compression and coring; main functional parts include plunger, core and a die Machine has operating capacity of 10 -12 kg Aonla fruits per hour Only about 6 -8 per cent pulp remains adhered to the stones during this operation , leaving the Aonla fruit intact Cost of machine is about Rs. 3000. 00

AONLA DE-STONING MACHINE AONLA DE-STONING MACHINE

UNIFORM RIPENING OF MANGOES WITH ETHREL n n Many times farmers harvest premature fruits UNIFORM RIPENING OF MANGOES WITH ETHREL n n Many times farmers harvest premature fruits to avail the early markets advantage. Such fruits fail to ripen uniformly under normal conditions; a banned chemical , calcium carbide, is used forced ripening posing health and environmental risks Uniform ripening of mango is possible with the use of ethylene Procedure involves dipping of fruits (100 kg) in 100 liters of water containing 62. 5 -187. 5 ml ethrel (ethepon) at 52 ± 20 C for 5 minutes Concentration of ethrel to be used depends upon maturity of fruits, less matured ones requiring higher concentration

n n n Solution prepared once, can be repeatedly used up to four times n n n Solution prepared once, can be repeatedly used up to four times Ethrel treated fruits ripen uniformly with attractive yellow colour without any spoilage within 4 -5 days of treatment Low cost ripening chamber (one ton capacity 7 x 7 x 7 ft) for the purpose of using ethylene gas ( available in 200 ml canister) directly based on this principle, can also be developed for use either by the farmers or retailers or processors

VALUE ADDED PRODUCTS RAW MANGO SQUASH (PANNA) n n n n A traditional drink VALUE ADDED PRODUCTS RAW MANGO SQUASH (PANNA) n n n n A traditional drink that could be prepared fresh in homes and consumed; can also be stored under ambient conditions Pulp is extracted after boiling hard green fruits (1 kg) in 1 liter water Different ingredients viz. , common salt (120 g), black salt (80 g), roasted cumin seeds powder (40 g), fresh mint leaves (200 g) and citric acid (65 g) are added Mixture is strained and consumed fresh ; if required to be preserved sodium benzoate (1 g) dissolved in small quantity of water is added To prepare sweet squash, 450 g sugar is added, while for sour squash 450 g water is added Total quantity to be made up to 2 kg by weight with addition of boiled and cooled water Squash is filled into clean and sterilized glass / plastic bottles and sealed; product has shelf-life of about 9 months Served by diluting one part of squash with seven parts of chilled water

MANGO PROUCTS Mango oil less pickle Mango squash Mango leather Osmo air dried mango MANGO PROUCTS Mango oil less pickle Mango squash Mango leather Osmo air dried mango slices

AONLA SEGMENTS–IN-SYRUP n n n n Aonla is a very nutritious fruit; fresh consumption AONLA SEGMENTS–IN-SYRUP n n n n Aonla is a very nutritious fruit; fresh consumption is limited by its astringent taste Aonla murabba, a product well known, has poor nutritional qualities Aonla segments in syrup is a new diversified product Prepared by blanching, separating the segments and dipping them successively in sugar syrup (50 -700 B) containing citric acid and KMS as preservative About 6 days are required for preparation of this product Finally, segments are packed in 720 B syrup in air tight plastic jars Finished product contains 200 mg per 100 g ascorbic acid, much higher than murabba

AONLA PROUCTS Aonla Supari Freeze dried products of Aonla AONLA PROUCTS Aonla Supari Freeze dried products of Aonla

AONLA CIDER n n n A sweet fermented and highly refreshing drink from aonla AONLA CIDER n n n A sweet fermented and highly refreshing drink from aonla having 100 B TSS, 4% alcohol, 0. 4% tannins and 66 mg/100 g ascorbic acid. The cider can be stored for more than one year and its taste improves during storage. Keeping increasing production of aonla and its nutraceutical value in view, aonla cider is a health drink that can fetch both national and international market. Unit cost is Rs. 20/- per bottle of 750 ml capacity

GUAVA CIDER n n n This mild fermented beverage has 130 B total soluble GUAVA CIDER n n n This mild fermented beverage has 130 B total soluble solids, 4. 0 per cent alcohol, 0. 45 per cent acidity and 32. 8 mg per 100 ml ascorbic acid with natural guava flavour. The cider can be stored up to one year under ambient conditions. Guava is one of the richest natural sources of vitamin C and is often called poor man’s apple. Ready to serve guava beverage is quite popular in market. However, unlike apple, its cider is not yet available. Keeping in view the nutritional and sensory qualities of guava cider, it may prove as a potential guava product. Unit cost is Rs. 30/- per bottle of 750 ml capacity

AONLA DIETARY FIBRE ENRICHED BISCUIT n n Fiber, Vitamin- C and antioxidant enriched biscuits AONLA DIETARY FIBRE ENRICHED BISCUIT n n Fiber, Vitamin- C and antioxidant enriched biscuits were developed by incorporation of aonla pomace (a byproduct generated during Aonla juice processing) as one of the ingredients The dietary fiber content of the finished product is about 5 times higher than that of the non-enriched ones Vitamin- C and antioxidant are 15. 6 mg/100 g and 0. 25 g values 100 g, respectively The fiber enriched biscuits will not only provide a distinct flavor but will also help in rectifying the constipation and other ailments. Moreover, it will lead to utilization of aonla processing waste as well

OTHER ACTIVITIES The Institute provides consultancy services and scientific advice to farmers and different OTHER ACTIVITIES The Institute provides consultancy services and scientific advice to farmers and different agencies on following aspects : n n n Technologies for production of mango, guava, papaya, Aonla and Bael Technologies for scientific nursery development and management Capacity building : 1) Production and utilization of subtropical fruits 2) Women empowerment in value addition 3) Women empowerment in mushroom production

n n n Insect pests and diseases management in mango guava, Aonla and Bael n n n Insect pests and diseases management in mango guava, Aonla and Bael Rejuvenation of old and unproductive mango and guava trees Technologies for packaging, storage marketing of mango and guava fruits and Technologies for export of mango fruits Institute also undertakes production and sale of quality planting materials with traceability of different varieties of mango, guava, Aonla and Bael

All India Coordinated Research Project on Subtropical Fruits All India Coordinated Research Project on Subtropical Fruits

Sl. No. Name of the Centre Establishment (Plan & year) Plan Fruit crops assigned Sl. No. Name of the Centre Establishment (Plan & year) Plan Fruit crops assigned Year 1. IARI, New Delhi IV 1970 Mango, grape 2. IIHR, Bangalore ” 1970 Mango, guava 3. ARI, Pune ” 1970 Grape 4. FRS, Sangareddy ” 1971 Mango, guava, 5. BAC, Sabour ” 1971 Mango, guava, litchi 6. CISH, Lucknow ” 1972 Mango, guava, litchi 7. PAU, Ludhiana ” 1972 Grape, guava 8. GRS, Rajendranagar ” 1975 Grape 9. RFRS, Vengurle V 1975 Mango, guava 10. FRS, Rewa VI 1980 Mango, guava 11. AES, Paria VII 1988 Mango 12. RCA, Udaipur ” 1988 Guava, mango 13. HC&RI, Periyakulam ” 1988 Mango, guava 14. GBPUA&T, Pantnagar ” 1988 Mango, guava, litchi 15. BCKV, Mohanpur ” 1988 Mango, guava, litchi 16. HARP, Ranchi ” 1988 Mango, guava, litchi 17. MPKV, Rahuri ” 1989 Grape, mango, guava 18. NRC for Litchi, Muzaffarpur IX 2001 Litchi 19. NRC for Grapes IX 2001 Grape 20. KNK, Mandsaur XI 2009 Grape

PFDC ACTIVITIES PFDC ACTIVITIES

Technology demonstration in PFDC fields Sl. No Crop Plot Size Technology Demonstrated Yield t/ha Technology demonstration in PFDC fields Sl. No Crop Plot Size Technology Demonstrated Yield t/ha Remarks 1. Tomato 250 sqm greenhous e 300 net house 100 sqm open field condition Protected cultivation GH (Sartaj) -124. 89 Cost benefit : 1. 49 GH (Naveen) – 101. 35 SN (Sartaj) - 61. 57 SN (Naveen) – 42. 11 2. Capsicum 250 sqm greenhous e Protected cultivation 72. 98 Cost benefit : 1 : 3. 7 3. Mango 1. 0 ha Drip +Plastic mulching 0. 25 Income Rs. 16, 000. 00 (0. 25 ha) 4. Bottle guord Okra Cauliflower Brinjal Cabbage 1. 25 ha Intercropping + drip 15. 63 08. 35 20. 22 06. 40 15. 26 Income Rs. 18, 900. 00 (0. 25 ha)

Drip irrigation and polyethylene mulching in mango Drip irrigation and polyethylene mulching in mango

Drip irrigation and polyethylene mulching on Ultra high density planting in guava Drip irrigation and polyethylene mulching on Ultra high density planting in guava

Drip irrigation in Banana Drip irrigation in Banana

Improvement in guava seed germination through polyethylene film Mass multiplication of guava, mango and Improvement in guava seed germination through polyethylene film Mass multiplication of guava, mango and Aonla through wedge grafting

Protected cultivation of Tomato cv. Naveen Cost benefit ratio: - 1 : 1. 49 Protected cultivation of Tomato cv. Naveen Cost benefit ratio: - 1 : 1. 49

Impact of canopy management in cucumber fruiting Pathenocarpic variety ‘Isatis’ yield: 3 -4 kg Impact of canopy management in cucumber fruiting Pathenocarpic variety ‘Isatis’ yield: 3 -4 kg per sqm. (300 -400 t/ha)

Performance of Parthenocarpic Cucumber under Protected cultivation Performance of Parthenocarpic Cucumber under Protected cultivation

Demonstration of Protected cultivation of Capsicum in greenhouse Sweet pepper White Sweet pepper green Demonstration of Protected cultivation of Capsicum in greenhouse Sweet pepper White Sweet pepper green long Aishwarya Choco Cost benefit ratio : 1 : 3. 7

Intercropping of brinjal in bearing guava orchard with normal spacing Intercropping of brinjal in bearing guava orchard with normal spacing

Intercropping of Cauliflower in young mango orchard Intercropping of Cauliflower in young mango orchard

Intercropping of Cabbage in young mango orchard Intercropping of Cabbage in young mango orchard

Technology demonstration in PFDC fields Sl. No Crop Plot Size Technology Demonstrated Yield t/ha Technology demonstration in PFDC fields Sl. No Crop Plot Size Technology Demonstrated Yield t/ha GH (Sartaj) 124. 89 GH (Naveen) – 101. 35 SN (Sartaj) 61. 57 SN (Naveen) – 42. 11 Remarks 1. Tomato 250 sqm greenhous e 300 net house 100 sqm open field condition Protected cultivation Cost benefit : 1. 49 2. Capsicum 250 sqm greenhous e Protected cultivation 72. 98 Cost benefit : 1 : 3. 7 3. Mango 1. 0 ha Drip +Plastic mulching 0. 25 Income Rs. 16, 000. 00 (0. 25 ha) 4. Bottle guord Okra Cauliflower Brinjal Cabbage 1. 25 ha Intercropping + drip 15. 63 08. 35 20. 22 06. 40 15. 26 Income Rs. 18, 900. 00 (0. 25 ha)

CORE ISSUES OF PFDC TRAININGS The impact was tremendous which resulted into shift towards CORE ISSUES OF PFDC TRAININGS The impact was tremendous which resulted into shift towards Plasticulture technologies. Following technologies were transferred to improve the capacity of horticulture officers, extension functionaries, farmers, KVK workers, etc. The technologies were also promoted through print and electronic media, extension literatures, etc. , n Technique of wedge grafting (Rapid multiplication) utilizing polyethylene caps for mass multiplication of guava, mango, Aonla and Bael through out the year n Rejuvenation of old and unproductive orchards of guava, Aonla and mango to restore the production potential n High density and UHDP systems embodying canopy management of fruit crops for better tree architecture right from the initial stage of planting n Greenhouse technology including promotion of cultivation of high value crops viz. tomato, capsicum, cucurbits, etc. during off-season for high profitability n Promotion of micro / drip irrigation systems in horticultural crops and its popularization amongst the farmers for optimum use of water resources n Utility of plastic mulching in horticultural crops for improving water productivity and reducing weeds n Promotion of vegetable crops as an intercrops in newly established fruit orchards for enhancing land use ; factor productivity and additional monetary incomes

Training programme at Jhansi , Uttar Pradesh Training programme at Mahoba , Uttar Pradesh Training programme at Jhansi , Uttar Pradesh Training programme at Mahoba , Uttar Pradesh

CISH Participation in Technology Mission Integrated Development of Horticulture in North Eastern States, Sikkim, CISH Participation in Technology Mission Integrated Development of Horticulture in North Eastern States, Sikkim, Jammu & Kashmir, Himachal Pradesh and Uttarakhand (MM-I) Trainings and demonstrations to the extension functionaries and the farmers on nursery management and on-farm production of organic inputs viz; NADEP, vermi and microbe mediated composts, bio-enhancers and bio-pesticides using locally available organic wastes and materials States covered (2002 - 2012) Mizoram, Sikkim, Tripura, Nagaland, Manipur, Arunachal Pradesh, Assam, and Meghalaya Total No of Trainees 1324

Supply of Quality Planting Materials for establishment of mother blocks (under MM-I) Crop State Supply of Quality Planting Materials for establishment of mother blocks (under MM-I) Crop State Total No of Plants Mango, Assam, Mizoram and 5100 Guava and Sikkim Aonla

Impacts Learning Index : In capacity building programmes of officers / farmers on organic Impacts Learning Index : In capacity building programmes of officers / farmers on organic farming and nursery management of subtropical fruits, training learning index was 0. 6 -0. 7 (60 -70%)

NHB SPONSORED PROJECT NHB SPONSORED PROJECT