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Описание презентации Cardiovascular diseases Presentation by student Group 201 AET по слайдам
Cardiovascular diseases Presentation by student Group 201 AET Turlybek Fatima
Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is a class of diseases that involve the heart or blood vessels. Cardiovascular disease includes coronary artery diseases (CAD) such as angina and myocardial infarction (commonly known as a heart attack). Other CVDs are stroke, heart failure, hypertensive heart disease, rheumatic heart disease, cardiomyopathy, heart arrhythmia, congenital heart disease, valvular heart disease, carditis, aortic aneurysms, peripheral artery disease, and venous thrombosis.
The underlying mechanisms vary depending on the disease in question. Coronary artery disease, stroke, and peripheral artery disease involve atherosclerosis. This may be caused by high blood pressure, smoking, diabetes, lack of exercise, obesity, high blood cholesterol, poor diet, and excessive alcohol consumption, among others. High blood pressure results in 13% of CVD deaths, while tobacco results in 9%, diabetes 6%, lack of exercise 6% and obesity 5%. Rheumatic heart disease may follow untreated strep throat.
It is estimated that 90% of CVD is preventable. Prevention of atherosclerosis involves improving risk factors through: healthy eating, exercise, avoidance of tobacco smoke and limiting alcohol intake. Treating high blood pressure, blood lipids and diabetes is also beneficial. Treating people who have strep throat with antibiotics can decrease the risk of rheumatic heart disease. The effect of the use of aspirin in people who are otherwise healthy is of unclear benefit. The United States Preventive Services Task Force recommends against its use for prevention in women less than 55 and men less than 45 years old; however, in those who are older it is recommends in some individuals. Treatment of those who have CVD improves outcomes.
MEDICAL AND SOCIAL PROBLEM OF CARDIOVA SCULAR DISEASES IN KAZAKHSTAN Introduction. In the most developed countries cardiovascular diseases (CVD) take the highest rank in the structure of mortality, they are a major cause of disability, and the question of their prevention is medical and social problems.
The aim of the study is analysis of structure, morbidity and mortality rates from cardiovascular diseases in Kazakhstan and particularly in the East Kazakhstan Region, in comparison with worldwide rates. Methods. Descriptive analysis of statistical data on demographics, mortality and morbidity rates in the Kazakhstan population using official information from statistical compilations «Health of the population of Kazakhstan and activities of public health organizations» for 2011 -2013, as well as global data statistics about cardiovascular diseases using databases “Pub. Med”, “Cochrane library”, “Research Gate” system, and the annual reports of the WHO.
Results. Mortality from CVD is 52. 8% of the total mortality of the Kazakhstan population. This is mainly due to Ischemic heart disease and cerebrovascular diseases, which proportion in CVD mortality structure is 47. 7% and 36. 4%, respectively. In 2013 mortality rate from CVD in Kazakhstan was 256. 76 per 100, 000; in the East Kazakhstan Area it was one of the highest in the country — 361. 44 per 100, 000. In the rural areas these figures were significantly lower than in urban areas: 203. 63 per 100, 000; in the East Kazakhstan region — 403. 7. Morbidity rate from CVD was 2463. 1 per 100, 000, for women these rates were 2612. 5 per 100, 000. Incidence rate of hypertension in Kazakhstan was 1172. 5 per 100, 000 (for women — 1352. 3); in the East Kazakhstan region — 1084. 6 per 100, 000 (for women — 1548. 0). The incidence of coronary heart disease was 507. 4 and 519. 8 per 100, 000, respectively. Conclusion : CVD mortality in Kazakhstan is in 3 -4 times higher than in highly developed countries, which needs in implementation the prevention programs.