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Cardiff Museum Project ‘When We Were Young : Growing up in Cardiff’
The ‘When we were young’ exhibition looks at how children and young peoples experiences of work, school, leisure, their home and family life have changed and how they have remained the same over the last 150 years, told through their own words. The teachers’ pack aims to place the exhibition within the context of 19 th and 20 th century History topics for KS 1 and 2. There is also a strong PSE theme. Included are activities that can be used during a visit to the exhibition as well as suggested follow up work to be completed in school. In addition there are resources and worksheets to support the activities.
Guide to the activities in the exhibition The exhibition contains information and personal stories under the following main headings : School Days Work Play Home life Trouble makers The following activities are available to use in the exhibition. It is suggested that the children be split into small groups for each activity. 1) Object trail: This allows the group to explore the exhibit cases and to decipher clues to identify the correct object. 2) Crime and punishment game: The children compare 19 th century crimes and punishments with modern day ones. 3) The ‘Hoodie or Angel’ sculpture: The children look at different interpretations of young people of today. 4) Playing house jigsaw: The children identify changes and similarities in children’s play. 5) The ‘Pop Alley Bottles’ song The children listen to the song and list games and pastimes mentioned. The children use the song as a stimulus for their own rap about their pastimes. PLEASE NOTE THAT EXTRACT 2 ON THE EXHIBIT IS NOT SUITABLE FOR CHILDREN 6) Handwriting comparison Children can practise writing using a slate and chalk and compare a handwriting style from the past with a modern style.
Object Hunt You will need: 1 set of clues (18 different clues) 1 set of teacher’s answer cards (24 cards-including red herrings) Picture cards How to play: Each child chooses a description card. The children find the object they think matches the description in the display cases and then finds and collects the matching photo card from the teacher. There are some extra picture cards to confuse you! When the children have found their picture card, the teacher checks it against the answer cards. In the group the children discuss and compare their choices. Collect another clue.
Crime and punishment game What do you think the punishment should be? What you need: • • Judge’s costume Judge’s glossary ‘You are accused cards’ ‘I sentence you cards’ Roles: • Judge • Jury How to play The jury have the ‘You are accused’ cards and ‘I sentence you’ cards. The jury decide together which punishment fits which crime. Children take it in turn to be the judge. The judge reads a ‘You are accused card’ and the sentence chosen by the jury and then finds the matching flip over and checks the answer. Repeat using a different jury member each time.
Discussion points: • What have you noticed about the different crimes? • What reasons can you think of for any similarities or differences in the crimes? • What changes have there been in children’s punishments since the 19 th Century? • Which punishments, if any do you think were fair? • If you were able to make the law, what punishments would you make for these crimes?
Hoodie or Angel? Sculpture What you will need: • • Laminated picture/outline of the front of the sculpture Laminated picture/outline of the back of the sculpture Post-it notes Pens/pencils What to do: Position half of the children in front of the statue and half of them behind with the corresponding picture on the floor The children write down phrases/words to express what impression the image they can see gives of young people. Each child sticks their post-it to the picture of the sculpture Allow the children to walk around the sculpture Compare the 2 sets of post-its and ask the children whether they would now change their comments Discussion points Why do you think the artist chose to put wings on the back of the statue? Do you think that an adult would have written different comments from you? If so, how would they be different and why? Can you find any evidence in the exhibition supporting either of these views? How would you represent young people today? How would you represent adults today? Look around the exhibition. Do you think peoples’ view of young people has changed over the years?
Pop Alley Bottles What you need: Paper and pencils Extracts from the song (on cards) What you do: Listen very carefully to Pop Alley Bottles song by The Hennessys (button 3 on the display board) which talks about things they remember from their childhood. Each child writes down 1 thing from the song that they don’t know. Discuss together what you have written and come up with ideas for what they might be (these can be can researched back at school). Then the children write down things from their own experiences. Following the rhyming pattern of the song (see cards), the children compose a short modern-day rap using their own experiences. “We had pop alley bottles and bogey cars Pocket money from old jam jars” “Ginger beer with too much fizz And great big wooden wirelesses”
School Days What were schools like in the past? Today’s children have to go to school, and everyone, no matter if they are rich or poor, can get an education. It wasn’t until 1880 that all children had to go to school, but then only until they were 10. Elementary education was not free for everyone until 1891. Education was not seen as a priority by most working class parents. They needed the wages children could get by working, and many could not afford the school fees. In the past children only learned the three Rs – reading, writing and arithmetic. Girls would spend their time learning to sew and knit, things that would be of practical use when they ran their own households. Discipline was strict and punishments were more physical than children are used to today.
Activity Discuss school today – what sorts of activities take place. What is the school like, what goes on in school? Look at the classroom – what is important in it? (snowball challenge) Take photographs of the most popular answers and film activities. Visit the exhibition to develop ideas and gather information about how school life has changed. Take part in practical activities to show what school was like in the 19 th century eg. handwriting, drill, dressing in costume. Compare classroom photos from different periods with own class photographs. Describe objects identifying those that are the same as today, those different but recognisable and those they don’t know anything about. Using information gathered from the sources describe the scene for someone else – ‘what was the classroom like in ……’ What would someone from the 19 th / early 20 th century find surprising about the present day classroom ? Using information from the exhibition what does it tell us about attitudes to school and how they have changed. Discuss the reasons for any changes. Skills Learning Outcomes Resources O&C Describe the characteristics of modern day school. Identify features of the classroom today. digi blue clips / photographs of own classroom Use evidence to find out about school in the past. Photographs School Days information panel and folder uniforms drill exercise and costumes writing exercise backboard and finger stocks personal stories K&U Make simple deductions from a range of sources and communicate ideas about the past. CA O&C K&U I Sort photographs in chronological order and explain reasons for order using appropriate time related vocabulary. Recognise similarities and differences between school now and then. Use sources to find out about and describe distinctive features of a classroom in the past. Communicate what they know about school now and then. Identify some differences between 2 classrooms at different times. Photographs - 1 -11 Use a range of sources, including recollections of people alive at the time, to gather information and interpret the past. Draw conclusions from different sources. Personal stories -4 -10 Education Laws sheet Personal stories – 1 -6 Education Laws sheet
Children at work What were the lives of children like in the 19 th century? How did things change? In the past some children went to work because they had to, their wages were crucial to the household economy. Many of the jobs that children did in the past are unthinkable now, some worked long hours doing backbreaking work. Victorian working class girls often had to help their families by going out to work. Mostly they did jobs that were seen as women’s work involving caring or cleaning. Changes in society during the 20 th century, like increased wages, the introduction of government benefits and more women going out to work meant that the need for children to bring wages into the home was reduced. Nowadays children might do chores for pocket money and many young people have Saturday jobs so that they can buy extra things for themselves.
Activity Skills Learning Outcomes Resources What do we already know about the lives of children in this period? (KWL/Qu. ADS grid, Post -it challenge) Choose questions to find out more about. HE Communicate ideas about the past. KWL & QUADS grids Identify questions to ask. Visit the exhibition – Using the photographs, information panels and personal stories gather information about the lives of children in the 19 th century. Find 3 statements from the sources to explain the reasons why children were working. K&U O&C Select relevant information from a number of sources. Gain information from sources through asking and answering questions. Photographs Children at Work information panel & folder See also School days Trouble makers Family life Personal stories 7 -10
Activity Skills Learning Outcomes Resources What can be inferred from the sources about working conditions for children? Compile a timeline to show main laws passed to improve working conditions. What do the laws tell us about child labour and attitudes towards children? Did the laws make life easier? Identify 3 most important changes. Suggest reasons for changes. CA Support views by showing evidence from sources. Show an understanding of chronology. Begin to understand characteristic features of the period and suggest what life was like for children. Carry out own research to show increased knowledge and understanding. Identify causes and consequences of changes. Select important points and explain why they are important. Child Labour Laws sheet Compare with present day. Do children still work? What sort of jobs do they do and why. Are there still examples of child labour today? O&C Consider how attitudes to children and childhood have changed over time. Personal stories 7 -12 O&C
Play Away Have toys and the games children play changed over time? In the early 19 th century most working class children had little time to play. Their lives were filled with school, work, religion and helping in the home. As the century progressed children did not need to go out to work as much, so they had more time for fun.
Activity Skills Learning Outcome What toys and games are popular today? Conduct a survey to find out the most popular toys and games. Write about experiences of play today. O&C Describe the characteristics of a selection of modern toys. Write and answer questions about play today. Present work to class. CA Describe the characteristics of a selection of old toys. At the exhibition – Explore the artefacts using the Object Trail game. Recognise similarities and differences between old and new toys. Watch and discuss video clip of children playing. Listen to song ‘ Pop Alley Bottles’ and list games etc. Which are familiar and which are not? Resources Object trail Object Folder & personal stories Play area Audio and video clips O&C Why have particular toys been chosen for the exhibit? Have these types of toys always been popular? Make a timeline of games and crazes. What would they choose from the exhibit to put in their own museum? Justify choices. Set up own museum with 3 D chronological display, label objects and write a guidebook. I Read accounts of play and listen to the song ‘ Pop Alley Bottles. ’ Find out about the games mentioned in the song and stories. Make up a rap using modern day games and toys. O&C CA Ask and answer questions using a range of sources. Identify an interpretation of history. Sort and sequence objects in different ways. Show an understanding of chronology Communicate findings in a variety of ways. Photographs – 1, 2, 11 Personal stories -13 -19 Toys Appreciate how personal memories can be used to find out about the past. Carry out own research and present findings. List of games Personal stories -13 -19
Activity Skills Learning Outcomes Resources Have attitudes to and types of play changed ? Compare own accounts with those from the exhibition. What differences are there? What reasons are there to suggest why things might have changed? K&U Appreciate how personal memories can be used to find out about the past. Make comparisons between the past and present. Make simple deductions from sources. Photographs – 12 -15 Personal stories 13 -24, 26 Look at a local playground or park. What facilities are there? What was it like in the past? How much has changed or is similar? Identify degree of change. Suggest reasons for changes. HE Ask and answer questions using pictorial sources. Compare and contrast playground facilities now and in the past. Reach conclusions about the importance of changes and support with evidence. Photographs – 12 -15 Personal stories 23, 25, 28
Changes in daily life of children in 20 th century Do today’s children have it easy or was childhood more fun in the past? Playing outside with friends is a big part of growing up. The types of games and how far away children are allowed to play have changed over time. In the recent past children would often disappear for the day with their friends to play and explore. Many children did not go much further than their own town, holidays were almost unheard of so going further afield was a great treat. Events like street parties, youth club outings or the annual Whitsun treat trips caused great excitement.
Activity Skills Learning outcomes Resources How has life for children changed post war? (KWL / Qu. ADS grid, Post-it challenge) K&U Suggest what life was like for children in the past. Identify questions to ask. KWL & QUADS grids Visit the exhibition Using information from the exhibition investigate what life was like for children. How does it compare with life today. O&C Show understanding of chronology. Understand how personal memories can be used to find out about the past. Support views by showing evidence from sources. Information panels and folders Photographs Personal stories Object trail Were children’s lives different? Identify significant changes. Suggest reasons for these changes. Has anything stayed the same? Prepare a questionnaire for someone growing up in the earlier decades of the 20 th century. CA Begin to understand characteristic features of the period. Identify causes and consequences of change. Personal stories 13 -26, 33 -35 What was it like to be a child in …. Is life better now or then? Find supporting evidence from any of the sources. HE I How reliable is evidence from personal stories? Present information showing knowledge and understanding of the period. Make comparisons between lifestyles now and in the past. Communicate ideas about the past. To appreciate that people have points of view about events in the past. Personal stories 11 -26, 33 -35
Trouble Makers? Being naughty is part of growing up. Children and young people have to test the boundaries sometimes so they learn right from wrong and the consequences of their actions. Some children have crossed the line and become involved with crime. When we are young we sometimes meet or see older people that have a real influence on us. They are our role models.
Activity Skills Learning outcomes Resources At the exhibition – Use the Crime and Punishment game to compare modern day crime and punishment with that in the 19 th century. K&U CA Select relevant information from a number of sources. Crime and punishment flip overs Trouble Makers? information panel See also Children at Work School Days Family life HE Consider what life was like for children in the past and how attitudes to children have changed over time. Identify questions still need to ask and how will find the answers. Flip-overs ( see list of useful websites) Using all areas of the exhibition is there any other information which may help in understanding why children might have committed crimes? What kinds of crimes and punishments were common in the 19 th century? Use the internet to find out more. Make 3 statements about children’s crimes in the 19 th century. Make 3 statements about punishments in the 19 th century Compare with present day. Make simple comparisons between past and present.
Activity Skills Learning Outcomes Resources At the exhibition – Hoodie or angel ? Discuss attitudes to young people. What message is the sculpture portraying? Examine different opinions about young people using role play / debate. O&C I O&C Hoodie Sculpturs Communicate findings in a variety of ways. Use a range of sources including interpretations and representations to investigate topic. Take part in a debate. Create own artistic representations of young people. Communicate ideas and emotions through work in art and craft. How do young people view adults? Create own representations. Begin to express own views and ideas. Role models – what makes a good role model? Who are current role models and why? (Hotseating) O&C Communicate ideas through work in a range of mediums including drama and art. Provide own opinions. Personal stories 27 -32