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Capacity development through policy learning: the experience of ETF Manuela Prina mpr@etf. europa. eu Capacity development through policy learning: the experience of ETF Manuela Prina [email protected] europa. eu

 • • • ETF, what is it? The ETF approach to capacity development • • • ETF, what is it? The ETF approach to capacity development A case from the ‘NQF project in Tajikistan’ 2 words on context and content Results Final notes

The European Training Foundation is an agency of the European Union based in Turin, The European Training Foundation is an agency of the European Union based in Turin, Italy. It was established in 1990. It became operational in 1994 in Turin, Italy. The ETF currently employs approximately 130 staff and has an annual budget of about 18 million €. Madlen Serban is Director of the ETF since 1 July 2009.

29 ETF partner countries Potential candidate countries: Albania, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Kosovo (UNSCR 1244/1999), 29 ETF partner countries Potential candidate countries: Albania, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Kosovo (UNSCR 1244/1999), Montenegro, Serbia ENP South: Algeria, Egypt, Jordan, Lebanon, Morocco, Occupied Palestinian Territory, Syria, Tunisia and Israel ENP East and Russia: Armenia, Azerbaijan, Belarus, Georgia, Republic of Moldova, Ukraine And Russia

What do we do? • to provide information, policy analyses and advice on human What do we do? • to provide information, policy analyses and advice on human capital development issues in the partner countries; • to promote knowledge and analysis of skill needs in national and local labour markets; • to support relevant stakeholders in partner countries in building capacity in human capital development; • to facilitate the exchange of information and experience among donors engaged in human capital development in partner countries; • to support the delivery of Community assistance to partner countries in the field of human capital development; • to disseminate information and encourage networking and the exchange of experience and good practice between the EU and partner countries and amongst partner countries in human capital development issues; • to contribute, at the Commission’s request, to the analysis of the overall effectiveness of training assistance to the partner countries; and • to undertake such other tasks as may be agreed between the Governing Board and the Commission, within the general framework of the regulation.

What is our approach? What is our approach?

Policy Learning • ETF Advisory Forum 2003 ‘Systemic reforms of vocational education and training Policy Learning • ETF Advisory Forum 2003 ‘Systemic reforms of vocational education and training will only be succesful and sustainable if policy development, formulation and implementation are firmly based on broad ownership and embeddness in existing institutions’ (P. Grootings) • Learning paradigms How to get policymakers actively to learn(and hence moving to change) from local and international experiences active learning

The policy learning approach Policy change Context Process - results Actors time Experiences Facilitator The policy learning approach Policy change Context Process - results Actors time Experiences Facilitator - advisor

The pillars • • • Experts meet experts Mutual learning and peer learning Critical The pillars • • • Experts meet experts Mutual learning and peer learning Critical friend Balance process and results Take the time Learn from past

The ‘NQF project in Tajikistan’ The ‘NQF project in Tajikistan’

Ph. D 23 XVII 22 XV 20 XIV 19 XIII 18 XII 17 XI Ph. D 23 XVII 22 XV 20 XIV 19 XIII 18 XII 17 XI 16 X 15 IX 14 VIII 13 VII 12 VI 11 V 10 IV 9 III 8 II 7 I Age Grades Labour market XVI 21 2 words on context Master Bachelor Technical education Vocational education Upper secondary general education Basic education Primary education Bachelor and master’s – tertiary education Technical education – technical school/college Vocational education – vocational school/PTU

WHAT TO LEARN HOW TO LEARN 4 Jobs Job Profiles 4 3 3 Qualification WHAT TO LEARN HOW TO LEARN 4 Jobs Job Profiles 4 3 3 Qualification Profiles Education Curricula 2 1 Qualification structure 2 Students 1 Educational structure

From frameworks to systems Beyond the qualifications frameworks, qualifications systems are about 1. 2. From frameworks to systems Beyond the qualifications frameworks, qualifications systems are about 1. 2. 3. 4. how stakeholders coordinate and manage qualifications, how qualifications are developed and maintained, how they are delivered, how they are assessed and awarded (certificated) Capacities, Resources, Communication Quality Assurance Partnerships Institutions for progress

BOARD OF QUALIFICATIONS © QUALIFICATIONS SERVICE ASSESSMENT / RECOGNITION OF QUALIFICATIONS ESTABLISHMENT AND MAINTENANCE BOARD OF QUALIFICATIONS © QUALIFICATIONS SERVICE ASSESSMENT / RECOGNITION OF QUALIFICATIONS ESTABLISHMENT AND MAINTENANCE OF THE LEGAL BASIS MANAGEMENT OF NQF RESEARCH OF ACTIVITIES ASSESSMENT REGULATIONS ASSESSMENT METHODS ASSESSMENT AND RECOGNITION INSTITUTIONS DESIGNING OF QUALIFICATIONS FRAMEWORK STANDARD SETTING INSTITUTIONS ACQUISITION OF QUALIFICATIONS NATIONAL OCCUPATIONAL STANDARDS AND QUALIFICATIONS CURRICULA OF FORMAL EDUCATION AND TRAINING (VET, HIGHER EDUCATION) INFORMAL AND EXPERIENTAL LEARNING QUALIFICATIONS PROVISION INSTITUTIONS R o m u a l d a s P u s v a s k i s

Contexts Matter q The “comprehensive NQF” is not the solution q Reform is not Contexts Matter q The “comprehensive NQF” is not the solution q Reform is not about finding a global solution that fits everybody’s needs q QF as a tool has to be linked and integrated with wider reforms q All existing QFs are different from each other, so this means that contexts define QFs q First cycle of system reforms takes at least ten years and building up capacities and involvement of stakeholders from the world of work even longer, reforms are without completion

The NQF project in Tajikisan – NOT to develop National Qualification Frameworks, but to The NQF project in Tajikisan – NOT to develop National Qualification Frameworks, but to research and facilitate the VET reform policy debate – strong emphasis on regional cooperation and is based on facilitating policy learning by national stakeholders. – Knowledge sharing with peers from EU and neighbouring countries – Development of a pilot Qualification Framework for the Tourism / Hospitality Sector

The policy learning approach Cooperation – social partnership Tajikstan Process - results Policy makers The policy learning approach Cooperation – social partnership Tajikstan Process - results Policy makers employers time Tourism sector, nationa, regional, EU Facilitator - advisor

The NQF project in Tajikisan – Change in cooperation – Capacity of national stakeholders, The NQF project in Tajikisan – Change in cooperation – Capacity of national stakeholders, now focal points for other international organizations and national projects – Continuity in EU project – Contiunity in National Strategy – Expert community in ETF

Findings from our work • NQFs are tool to kick start processes, bringing stakeholders Findings from our work • NQFs are tool to kick start processes, bringing stakeholders together, building a common understanding and agreed solutions • Not a linear process that is very predictable • Not one model, NQF is highly context and capacity dependent • Capacity building and policy learning are central to our approach • For VET reform processes are more interesting than the products (QFs, outcome descriptors, registers, RPL procedures etc) • Need more understanding of processes – and more support for policy learning and capacity building to create systems that can reform themselves