- Количество слайдов: 51
Camellia sinensis: Origins and physical characteristics v Name: Camellia sinensis / Camellia assamica v Origins (biologically speaking & in legend) v Leaf & plant shape v Cultivation regions: flatlands, hillside and mountain top fields v Harvesting times Version date: 3/16/2018 7: 21 AM
Basic names of the tea plant Camellia sinensis var. sinensis Camellia sinensis var. assamica
Origins: Indian study, 1959 P. Maheshwari and S. L. Tandon, “Agriculture and Economic Development in India” Economic Botany Vol. 13, No 3 (Jul-Sep 1959)
Origins: Basic topographic map of East and Southeast Asia
Origins: Basic topographic map of East and Southeast Asia (with early origin area marked in blue)
Origins: 1986 china/Australia article that argues for the likely development of tea in the Yunnan area because of its biodiversity. Li Xiwen and D. Walker “The Plant Geography of Yunnan Province, Southwest China” Journal of Biogeography Vol. 13, No 5 (Sep 1986)
Origins: 2007 multi- country study arguing for a single origin of tea in the northern Myanmar, Yunnan and Sichuan districts. T. Yamamoto, M. Kim and L. R. Juneja Chemistry and Applications of Green Tea (CRC Press, 2007)
Origins: Their map. T. Yamamoto, M. Kim and L. R. Juneja Chemistry and Applications of Green Tea (CRC Press, 2007)
Origins (traditional claims): Shen Nong and his classic on medical plants Shen Nong is a legendary emperor of China, said to live around 2600 B. C. The text referred to in the next two sources, while attributed to him, dates from the Han dynasty (206 BC– 220 AD). That text is Divine Farmer’s Grasses and Roots Classic (Shennong Ben Cao Jing 神農本草經 ).
Origins (traditional claims): Account from a Chinese-based series introducing the culture of China The origin of tea is lost among history and legends. What can be roughly confirmed is that tea originated in the southwest of China. In Yunnan and other places there still exist wild tea trees over 1, 000 years old. It is said that the first man to discover what tea can do is Shen Nong — the father of agriculture and herbal medicine in China. In time immemorial, people knew very little about plants. In order to find out which plants could be eaten and which couldn’t, Shen Nong tasted various kinds of plants to find out their features as food or medicine.
Origins (traditional claims): Account from a Chinese-based series introducing the culture of China Fortunately, Shen Nong had a transparent stomach, which made it possible for him, after he had eaten the plants, to observe the reaction in his stomach caused by them. That is where the famous story of “Shen Nong Tasting a Hundred Plants” came from. One day after walking for a long time, Shen Nong felt tired and thirsty, so he rested under a tree and started a fire to boil water. Suddenly some tree leaves fell into the water hollowware on the fire. Shen Nong drank the water and found it not only sweet and tasteful, but freshening as well. He found his exhaustion all gone, so he finished all the water in the hollowware.
Origins (traditional claims): China cultural series, cont. Another tale is a little different from this one, but more amazing. It is said that Shen Nong tried 72 different kinds of poisonous plants in a day and he lay on the ground, barely alive. At this moment, he noticed several leaves dropping from the tree beside him, giving off gusts of fragrance. What with curiosity and whit habit, Shen Nong put the leaves in his mouth and chewed them. After a little while, he felt well and energetic again. So he picked more leaves to eat and thus cleared all the poison in his body. Whatever way the story goes, tea interested Shen Nong and attracted him to do further research on its characteristics. The ancient Chinese medical book called Shen Nong Herbal, which is attributed to Shen Nong, says that “tea tastes bitter. Drinking it, one can think quicker, sleep less, move lighter, and see clearer. ” That is the earliest book to put down the medical functions of tea.
Origins (traditional claims): Passage from a comprehensive book on tea written by the 15 th Grand Master of Urasenke (one of the major Japanese branches of tea ritual practice): In Chakyô Shôsetsu the Zen prelate Daiten cites the “grand plant of the southern regions” and then follows with a note that tea “emerged in the warm lands of the South. ” Indeed, tropical areas such as India may be the original producers of tea. The tea that comes from the south-eastern part of the Chinese mainland, like that in Japan, has leaves that reach a maximum length of about seven centimeters and a width of about three centimeters. In central and southern China, however, conditions differ. Many plants from the southwestern area of Fujian, Guizhou, Sichuan, and Yunnan into northern Burma and eastern India have leaves as large as thirty centimeters long and fifteen centimeters wide, and one cannot distinguish at a glance whether they are tea or camellia bushes. Photo of a plant in the yard of a tea farm in Taiwan, taken by a student, who was told that this is a tea plant. (2013)
Origins (traditional claims): Urasenke Grand Master, cont. There are theories that tea first emerged in areas such as these. Thus, tea may have come from the state of Assam in India or from a coastal area near the island of Hainan. In the final analysis, however, there is no way to tell whether tea was brought to China or whether it grew there naturally as a wild plant. It may well be that it did occur there, for the Bencao Gangmu claims that the mythical Shennong tasted hundreds of plants in a search for ones of medicinal value. Of these some seven-tenths were poisonous, so he used tea as an antidote. It is also possible that tea came into China together with Buddhism as it moved eastward. In any event, the very first reference to tea in a historical source came in the Former Han dynasty (206 B. C. – A. D. 8), according to Aoki Masaru in Chûka Chasho. The passage in question came from Tongyue, which appeared in 59 B. C. during the reign of Emperor Xuandi. “Tongyue” referred to a deed of purchase of a slave and was the title of a work of fiction by a scholar from Shu names Wang Bao. It detailed the duties of a slave whom Wang Bao
Origins (traditional claims): Urasenke Grand Master, cont. had purchased. The servant was to clean the house, wash dishes, purchase wine, draw water, prepare meals, and set the table. He was also to pull garlic from the garden, cut wood, prepare meat, make soup with tubers, make vinegared salad with fish, steam turtles, prepare tea, and go into the city to buy some called tu. We presume this referred to tea, because the Chinese character closely resembled that for tea and because previous research has suggested that it was synonymous with the character for tea prior to the Tang era.
Origins (traditional claims): Bodhidharma legend, long version Most folks are familiar with the legendary story of the ancient Chinese emperor Shen Nung serendipitously sipping the result of a fallen leaf into his boiling water, thus discovering the first cup of tea. However, this is just one of several legends associated with the origins of tea. In fact, this is one of the tamer tales. My favorite story about the origin of tea, on the other hand, is much more exciting, but probably not good dinner table conversation. The story involves Bodhidharma, a 5 th Century Buddhist monk. His life’s work was to spread Buddhism, particularly a new form he called “Zen, ” into China. To make a good impression on the local Chinese, our friend Bodhidharma decided to meditate by gazing at the wall of a cave nearby the Shaolin Temple. He promised not to talk, eat or sleep for nine years. After a mere seven years, though, the probably-now-malodorous Bodhidharma started snoring. When he awakened from his catnap, it was said, he was so disgusted with himself that he took out his knife and sliced off is eyelids, chucking them to the ground.
Origins (traditional claims): Bodhidharma legend, long version (cont. ) He then tried to get up, but found that his legs had atrophied. And so, unable to move, he passed away sitting upright and meditating into Nirvana (note: on top of being a tea origin tale, this also explains why many statues of the Bodhidharma have no legs). At his side, plants began to grow from the discarded eyelids. For generations after his death, students who followed the teachings of Bodhidharma came to his gravesite and chewed the leaves of this plant to feel invigorated, and (unlike Bodhidharma) stay awake in the endless hours of meditation. The plant, of course, was the tea plant. As a endnote, while wildly entertaining, I do not encourage my readers to think too deeply into this story when drinking a cup of tea. Instead, just clear your mind (try staring at a wall), and enjoy your tea! Bodhidharma by Fugai Ekun, 1568– 1654 Japan, Edo period, 17 th century ink on paper "Icons of the founding Indian patriarch of Zen Buddhism, Bodhidharma (sixth century), were large, full-color images or often, like the painting seen here, quickly rendered, monochrome impressions. Almost all were variations of a few formulaic notions based on purported incidents in the master's life, such as this prolonged meditation in the cave at Shaolin, China. Gujai was an itinerant monk who lived in caves. The penetrating gaze of his subject conveys the immediacy of lived experience. " — Freer Gallery
Origins (traditional claims): Bodhidharma legend about the arrival of tea to China Though the art of brewing tea certainly evolved in China, nobody is sure when it began. Ch’an (Zen) followers humorously credit Bodhidharma with the genesis of tea, but no knowledgeable person takes this seriously. The Indian monk who introduced the Zen form of Buddhism into China around AD 520 is said to have cut off his eyelids so as not to fall asleep during meditation. The legend goes on to say that where they fell a plant all ch’a, with leaves shaped like eyelids, sprang up and provided meditators with a means of staving off sleep. As a matter of fact, tea was drunk several centuries before Bodhidhamra’s time.
Origins (traditional claims): Origin of tea explanation at Stashtea. com The story of tea began in ancient China over 5, 000 years ago. According to legend, Shen Nung, an early emperor was a skilled ruler, creative scientist and patron of the arts. His far-sighted edicts required, among other things, that all drinking water be boiled as a hygienic precaution. One summer day while visiting a distant region of his realm, he and the court stopped to rest. In accordance with his ruling, the servants began to boil water for the court to drink. Dried leaves from the near by bush fell into the boiling water, and a brown liquid was infused into the water. As a scientist, the Emperor was interested in the new liquid, drank some, and found it very refreshing. And so, according to legend, tea was created. (This myth maintains such a practical narrative, that many mythologists believe it may relate closely to the actual events, now lost in ancient history. )
Origins (traditional claims): Still curious? India Tea Association version of the legends: http: //www. indiatea. org/
A side note: Plants with punch "The most famous native South China crop is the tea plant, Camellia sinensis. Its earliest cultivation was in western China around Szechuan, and it probably spread eastward to northern China in the Warring States period, 5 th to 3 rd Century B. C. Thereafter, its cultivation gradually extended to the central and southeastern region, including Anhwei and Fukien provinces. The use of plants as stimulating beverages is common all over the world. But most of these numerous plants are only used in a limited way by the natives. Only three have won world-wide acclaim, namely, tea, coffee, and cocoa. The use of a plant as beverage can be regarded as an achievement in human culture. Most primitive men learn how to ferment starch and sugar to produce alcohol, and thus wine drinking is a very early and wide spread phenomenon. Alcohol has stimulating as well as anaesthetic effects, and can bring quick and violent physiological reactions. In the beginning and during the early development of culture, alcohol undoubtedly played a part in promoting its advancement. It had certain effect on religious, military, and political activities. When a culture reaches a certain level of maturity and advancement, however, it seems there is a need for a milder beverage for use in the regulation and enrichment of life. The ancient Chinese used millet in making wine. Furthermore, wine was used in great quantities. After the Ch'in and Han periods, the use of tea gradually replaced wine as the chief drink. In the West, there is a similar situation. The northern peoples of western Asia and Europe in early times used grape wine as their only drink and also later gradually adopted coffee, similarly of southern origin, as their leading drink. "
Tea shoot (sinensis) — What leaves are harvested? Buds, young leaves and older leaves all have different taste qualities and different chemical profiles. The next leaves (not shown) are “mother leaves” that are left on the plant for its health.
Camellia sinensis, new growth and older, “mother” leaves “Pinch and twist” by hand is the usual harvesting method. Machines harvesting is possible but not for the highest grades of tea.
19 th-century tea-pickers, Japan
Tea harvesting example, China
Tea buds, dried (showing silver property of back-side of bud)
Tea tree (sinensis) — young & pruned This illustration shows how close the tea plant is to the regular camellia plant that we use in gardens so often. (Recall the comment made by Sen quoted on an earlier slide: “one cannot distinguish at a glance whether they are tea or camellia bushes”.
Tea shoot (sinensis)
Tea shoot (sinensis)
Tea shoot (sinensis)
Tea shoot (sinensis)
Tea bush (sinensis) — young This next series of slides shows the various shapes in which tea plants are cultivated for harvesting purposes. Left on its own, it would grow into a tall tea and live hundreds of years.
Tea bush (assamica) — India
Tea tree/bush (assamica) — Africa
Tea bush (sinensis) — Japan, pruned This shape, seen both in China and Japan, was developed for easy manual harvest access to new leaves while walking past the plant. It is an efficient design.
Tea fields, hills — Shizuoka or Uji, Japan This particular shape is because these leaves are machine harvested. The machine has the same curve to it as this bush.
Tea tree (sinensis) — Ancient tree, China
Tea fields, flatland — Darjeeling, India (Darjeeling area also has hillside tea fields. ) This series of slides show tea cultivation fields in increasing high altitude conditions.
Tea fields, flatland — Nantou, Taiwan (Taiwan is known better for its hill, high hill, and mountain tea fields)
Tea fields, hills — Burundi
Tea fields, hills — Shizuoka, Japan This tea bush shape allows targeting harvesting of new growth with a special harvesting machine.
Tea fields, hills — Daehan, Korea
Tea fields, hills — Sri Lanka
Tea fields, hills — Munnar, India Munnar india
Tea fields, hills — Malaysia
Tea fields, high hills: Mt. Jian Mao, China
Tea fields, mountain (1000+ meters) — China
Distribution of commercial growing regions Camellia sinensis var. sinensis CHINA: Guangxi, Guangdong, Yunnan, Anhui, Jiangxi, Zhejiang, Fujian, Hunan, Sichuan, and Guizhou Provinces JAPAN (mostly southern half of Honshu, Shikoku and Kyushu with the most famous districts Shizuoka, Kagoshima and Mie) TIBET INDONESIA Camellia sinensis var. assamica CHINA: Guangxi, Hainan, Guangdong, Yunnan Provinces VIETNAM ASSAM INDIA
Distribution of commercial growing regions
Tea harvest (plucking) times, Shizuoka Japan … the new growth is called a “flush” Different plucking times produce different flavored leaves. The basic idea is that the “first flush” that marks the beginning of the growing season, has the best flavor and the early harvest of that picking season has the best flavor of all.
Lupicia’s plucking and shipping calendar http: //www. lupiciausa. com/v/static/enjoy-tea/tea-calendar. html