Скачать презентацию California Hydroelectric Background Information by Lon W House Скачать презентацию California Hydroelectric Background Information by Lon W House

65b514296c415853529de8dfeb58e365.ppt

  • Количество слайдов: 14

California Hydroelectric Background Information by Lon W. House, Ph. D. 530. 676. 8956 June California Hydroelectric Background Information by Lon W. House, Ph. D. 530. 676. 8956 June 5, 2003 California Energy Commission

California Water Overview • 75% of rainfall occurs north of Sacramento • 80% of California Water Overview • 75% of rainfall occurs north of Sacramento • 80% of use of water occurs south of Sacramento • Mediterranean climate: 80% of the precipitation occurs from November to March. • Majority of water use is in summer • About 71, 000 acre-ft of water per year is runoff – flows to ocean - 36% – environmental flows - 28% – agriculture - 28% – urban/industrial - 7% – other - 1%

Legal Overview • California Constitution - water is owned by the state – Water Legal Overview • California Constitution - water is owned by the state – Water Codes, Section 102: “All water within the State is the property of the people of the State” • Rights to use water granted, subject to availability, provided water is put to highest beneficial use • Article X, Section 2: “the water resources of the state be put to beneficial use to the fullest extent of which they are capable … the reasonable and beneficial use thereof in the interest of the people and for the public welfare. ” • Article X, Section 5: “The use of all waters now appropriated … is declared to be a public use, “ • 1914 Water Commission Act - state grants water rights.

Types of Water Rights in California – Pueblo (origin Spanish Law): Est. 1848. Pueblos Types of Water Rights in California – Pueblo (origin Spanish Law): Est. 1848. Pueblos have right to entire watershed. – Riparian (origin English law): Est. 1850. Go with property adjacent to stream. In time of shortage all riparians curtailed proportionally. – Appropriative (origin western United States): Est. 1855. Necessary if storage of water used. In times of shortage allocation based upon seniority (first in time, first in right). – Federal Reserved Est. 1908. Federal reserved lands (parks, reservations, etc. ) have right to sufficient water. – Public Trust (origin Roman law): Est. 1983. Public benefits (fish, recreation, etc. ) of streams preserved.

Area of Origin Laws in California • Area of origin laws refer to legislation Area of Origin Laws in California • Area of origin laws refer to legislation designed to protect areas in which the water falls. Areas which water originates have option to keep and put to reasonable use sufficient supply of water to satisfy areas needs now and in the future. Protects areas of origin who might otherwise have junior rights if appropriate system followed. • County of Origin - Water Code 10500 -10506. 1927. County of origin protections. • Watershed Protection - Water Code 11460 -11465. 1930’s. Watershed protection. • Delta Protection Act - Water Code 12200 -1220. 1959. Delta Water users. • Protected Areas -Water Code 1215 -1222. 1984. Sacramento, Mokelumne, Calaveras, San Joaquin, Mono Lake, Truckee/Walker/Carson, Russian, and Delta area • San Joaquin River- Water Code 12230 -12233. San Joaquin River between Merced River and Delta.

Map of California Hydro Projects Map of California Hydro Projects

River Characteristics – – – – – – Generation (in MW) Runoff Dry Water River Characteristics – – – – – – Generation (in MW) Runoff Dry Water Agency. Generation Utility 1000 Ave. AF % Ave River flow Pit/Fall Feather River Feather -South Fork Oroville-Wyandotte 118 Yuba CWA 396 Bear River Nevada ID 80 American - North/Middle Placer CWA 200 South Fork El Dorado ID 21 Mokelumne East Bay MUD 39 Stanislaus Tri. Dam 96 Merced ID 99 San Joaquin Friant Power 25 Kings Kern River Tule River Kings River 165 768 738 291 12 208 5, 896 4, 526 291 2337 County Min cfs 42% 21% Shasta 120 Butte/Plumas 50 11% 16% Butte Yuba Nevada/Placer 245 7 2, 674 13% 209 736 31% 100 1, 131 14% 4 952 16% 221 1, 753 21% 1, 014 345 1, 647 23% 1, 200 Helms Pumped Storage 12 694 25% 6 135 12% 5 7 Placer El Dorado Amador Tuolumne 38 Merced Fresno/Madera 23 Fresno Kern Tulare 4 22

California Relicensings by River • License expires 7/31/2007 Name Upper American River • 12/31/1995 California Relicensings by River • License expires 7/31/2007 Name Upper American River • 12/31/1995 Angels Creek (Stanislaus) • 5/8/1996 Murphys Angels Creek (Stanislaus) • 2/28/2009 Big Creek No 1 & 2 Big Creek, San Joaquin River • 10/11/2009 De Sabla Butte Creek • 12/31/1995 Pit No 1 Fall, Pit Rivers • 1/31/2007 Feather River • 9/30/2000 Hat Creek No 1 & 2 Hat Creek, Pit River • 3/31/2009 Kelly Ridge 1 & 2 Kelly Ridge Canal • 2/28/2005 Borel Kern River • 4/30/2005 Kern Canyon Kern River • 4/30/1996 Kern River No 1 Kern River • 4/30/1996 Kern River No 3 Kern River • 2/28/2006 Klamath River • 11/30/1986 Lundy Creek • 4/30/1996 Lytle Creek, Santa Ana River • 12/31/2004 Donnells & Beardsley M Fk Stanislaus River • 6/14/2000 Lower Tule M Fork Tule River • 9/28/2004 Middle and South Forks Sacramento River Project MF and SF Sacramento • 4/30/1996 Mill Creek No 2 & 3 Mill Creek, Santa Ana River • 4/30/2009 Santa Ana #3 Santa Ana River • 1/1/1982 Potter Valley Upper Mainstem Eel River • 9/4/2004 Willow Creek

California Relicensings cont. • License expires Name River • 11/23/1975 Mokelumne, N. Fork & California Relicensings cont. • License expires Name River • 11/23/1975 Mokelumne, N. Fork & Bear • 8/31/2003 Vermillion Valley Mono Creek • 10/31/2004 Upper N Fork Feather N Fk Feather River • 9/30/2003 Poe N Fork Feather River • 3/31/1985 Kings River NF Kings River • 4/30/1989 Crane Valley NF Willow Creek (San Joaquin) • 9/30/1982 Rock Creek-Questa North Fork Feather River • 5/8/1996 Upper Utica N F Stanislaus, Silver Creek • 3/27/2007 Kilarc & Cow Creek Old Cow Creek, Cow Creek • 4/30/2004 San Felicia Piru Creek, Santa Clara River • 7/31/2011 Mc. Cloud, Pit 6 & 7 Pit & Mc. Cloud Rivers • 10/31/2003 Pit 3, 4, 5 Pit River • 3/31/2005 Portal Rancheria Creek, Big Creek • 7/31/2007 Chili Bar S Fk American River • 2/23/2002 El Dorado S Fk American River • 2/28/2009 Big Creek 2 A&8 S Fk San Joaquin River • 12/31/2004 Stanislaus spring Gap S Fk Stanislaus River • 4/26/2003 San Gorgonio Creek • 2/28/2009 Big Creek 3 San Joaquin River • 2/28/1999 Big Creek 4 San Joaquin River • 11/30/2007 Mammoth Pool San Joaquin River • 4/30/1996 Santa Ana 1&2 Santa Ana River • 6/26/2004 Lassen Lodge SF Battle Creek • 12/31/2004 Tulloch Stanislaus River • 9/7/2004 Robley Point West Branch Feather River

Demands for Water in California • • Electricity Production Endangered/Threatened Fish Bay Delta/ Cal. Demands for Water in California • • Electricity Production Endangered/Threatened Fish Bay Delta/ Cal. Fed Consumptive Uses of Water

Endangered/Threatened Fish In California • Endangered – Sacramento Split-tail – Sacramento Winter-run Chinook • Endangered/Threatened Fish In California • Endangered – Sacramento Split-tail – Sacramento Winter-run Chinook • Proposed Endangered – Central Valley Spring Chinook • Threatened – Central Valley Steelhead • Proposed Threatened – California Coastal Chinook – Central Valley Fall Chinook – Northern California Steelhead

Necessary Temperatures for Anadromous Fish • • • • • • Chinook Salmon Life Necessary Temperatures for Anadromous Fish • • • • • • Chinook Salmon Life Stage Spawning/ migration Spawning Egg Incubation/ Emergence Fry Rearing Juvenile Rearing Adult Holding American Fall Run Spring Run Steelhead Shad 44. 1 -57. 5 37. 9 -55. 9 46. 0 -52. 0 48. 6 -66. 2 41. 0 -57. 0 40. 0 -57. 0 39. 0 -52. 0 59. 0 -70. 0 41. 0 -57. 9 48. 0 -52. 0 57. 9 -66. 0 44. 6 -57. 2 55. 0 -60. 1 59. 9 -69. 8 45. 1 -58. 3 45. 1 -60. 1 59. 9 -69. 8 <77. 0 Presence In The Rivers Life Stage Spawning/ Migration Spawning Egg Incubation/ Emergence Fry Rearing Juvenile Rearing Adult Holding Chinook Salmon American Fall Run Spring Run Steelhead Shad Sept-Jan Oct-Jan Mar-Jul Aug-Mar Sept-Nov Jan-Apr Oct-Mar Dec-May Apr-Jun Sept-Jan Jan-Apr Mar-Jun Mar-Sept Apr-Jun May-Jul Jan-Jul May-Jul year round May-Nov

California Water Needs Bulletin 160 -98 • Population – 1 out of every eight California Water Needs Bulletin 160 -98 • Population – 1 out of every eight people in the United States lives in California – By 2020 California is expected to add 15 million people, more than the combined population of Arizona, Nevada, Oregon, Idaho, Montana, Wyoming, New Mexico, and Utah; or the equivalent of the State of Texas; or the equivalent of New York City. • Water needs – 1995 level of development • • Urban 8. 8 maf Agricultural 33. 8 maf Environmental 36. 9 maf Shortage: – 1. 6 million acre-ft average year – 5. 1 million acre-ft drought year – 2020 water needs • • Urban 12. 0 maf Agricultural 31. 5 maf Environmental 37. 0 maf Shortage – 2. 4 million acre-ft average year – 6. 2 million acre-ft drought year

Summary • Water system operation in California is a delicate system of balance • Summary • Water system operation in California is a delicate system of balance • There a host of overlapping water rights on California rivers • Climate change will necessitate more surface storage • Increased instream flows deplete the cold water reserves from the upper river reaches, making it very difficult to meet temperature requirements below elevation storage dams • Area of origin water rights haven’t been widely exercised, but are starting to get more interest as rural counties develop