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C H A P T E R S 1 9 -2 3 AMERICAN HISTORY
CAUSES OF WWI Nationalism § Devotion to the interest/culture of ones nation § Caused people to want independence Imperialism § European countries creating Empires § Led to competition between France, GB, Germany Militarism § Development of the armed forces as a political tool § Each countries militaries became much stronger
ALLIANCES DIVIDE EUROPE—CAUSE WAR Allies § France, GB, Russia Central Powers § Germany, Austria Hungary, Italy, Turks Archduke Franz Ferdinand § Heir to Austrian throne, killed by a Serbian Nationalist Alliances § Austria Hungary declares war on Serbia § Russia declares war on Austria Hungary § Germany declares war on Russia and France (allies of Russia) § Great Britain declares war on Germany
FIGHTING SLOWS DOWN Trench Warfare § Armies would dig into trenches (usually 3 on each side) § Charges were tried but not successful § Machine guns, grenades, chemical weapons § Lots of death § One battle saw 1. 2 million people die for 7 miles of land § Lasted for 3 years
US THOUGHTS ON THE WAR Opposed § War between Germany and England § First and Second Generation Immigrants did not want to declare war against home country (Germany) For § Some Americans felt a close bond with GB § Didn’t like how Germany was aggressive § Most importantly, we traded A LOT more with the Allies (GB, France) than with Germany
GERMANY MAKES AMERICA MAD Lusitania § British passenger ship that was sunk by German U-Boats, killed over 1, 200 (128 Americans) Zimmerman Note § Telegram from German Prime Minister to Mexico § Attempted to get the Mexicans to declare war on America (Germany would help them get land back) President Woodrow Wilson § Declared war on Germany (April 2 1917) § Made the world safe for Democracy
US TROOPS IN WWI Selective Service Act (draft) § Men had to register with the government, random selection § 200, 000 were initially selected (over 2 million by the end) Convoy System § US Destroyers guarded ships carrying troops and supplies to Europe Breath of Fresh Air § American troops helped lifted the spirit of the Allies who had been fighting for over 2 years in trenches
AMERICAN TROOPS John J Pershing § Leader of the American Forces in WWI § Doughboys—shocked by what they saw New Styles of fighting § Machine Guns, Tanks, Planes, Gasses, Observation Balloons (all made fighting more deadly) Shell Shock § Complete emotional collapse caused by war § Caused by seeing and living in horrible conditions § Trench foot, lice, smell of dead bodies, water, trench mouth § PTSD is what it is called today (still a big deal)
HOW THE WAR WAS WON German Advance § Germans were stopped in their advance by USA/France and GB § Eventually the Allies were able to push German troops back into Germany German Collapsed § Austria-Hungary surrendered, sick of Germany § Germans were too exhausted to fight § Armistice—truce/peace that ends the war
FINAL RESULTS Death Toll § 22 million people died (over half civilians) § 338 billion dollars (price of war) § US Death toll (48, 000 in battle, 62, 000 from disease) US Economy § Benefited b/c government took control of many industries § Increase in production by 20% Propaganda § Communication designed to influence peoples thoughts and actions, used to get support for the war (financial and military)
RESULTS CONT. . Anti-Immigrants § Especially from the countries we were fighting against § Germans lost their jobs, removed German things from American Culture § Hamburger—Liberty Sandwich § Sauerkraut---Liberty Cabbage Great Migration § Large scale movement of Southern Blacks to cities in the North to find jobs § Women also began to work jobs that men had done before
OTHER EVENTS Flu Epidemic § Killed around 500, 000 Americans § Killed over 30 million world wide § Spread throughout the world by soldiers coming home from WWI Woodrow Wilson § US President, came up with 14 points § League of Nations—organization created to settle disputes between countries § Not supported by European countries b/c it did not punish Germany enough
TREATY OF VERSAILLES Treaty of Versailles § Peace treaty that officially ended WWI § 9 new countries § Germany could not have an Army § Germany had to pay 33 billion § Reparations---punishments Results § Germany was very poor § Europe was destroyed § Hitler would begin to rise to power
TERMS Isolationism § Pulling away from world affairs § Popular thought after WWI Communism § Economic and political system based on a single party government ruled by a dictator § Government control political, economical, social § Russia became the USSR Quota System § Set up the maximum number of immigrants that could come from specific countries
TERMS Urban Sprawl § Cities began to grow/spread out in all directions § Transportation allowed for this to happen Warren G Harding § President after Woodrow Wilson § Many scandals, patronage Calvin Coolidge § President after Harding § Favorable business policies, helped spur economic development
IMMIGRATION LIMITATION Quota System Why § Not as much need for unskilled labor after WWI § Fear of immigrants bringing new ideas into America, such as Communism Hate Groups became more popular
CHANGES Automobile § Easier to move back and forth § Houses changed § New business (gas stations, hotels, malls) § Rural families were able to live easier lives Electricity § Household appliances and factories Advertisements § Modern brand names began to spread, companies grew § Credit was made available, allowed people to buy things
TERMS Prohibition § Manufacturing, sale, and transportation of alcohol was illegal. 18 th Amendment Speakeasies § Underground saloons/bars/nightclubs, were people illegally drank alcohol Bootlegging § Smuggling alcohol across the country § Selling alcohol illegally Al Capone § Gangster from Chicago § Bootlegging business netted over 60 million, rise in organized crimes
TERMS Flapper § Young women who embraced a new sense of fashion, dressed very unconservative Charles Lindbergh § First person to make a nonstop flight across the Atlantic Ocean, became a national hero F. Scott Fitzgerald § Author, wrote This Side of Paradise and the Great Gatsby. Revealed the negative side of life in the 1800 s. Louis Armstrong § Famous trumpet player Harlem Renaissance § Literary and artistic movement that celebrated African American Culture
DIFFERING VIEWS ON LIFE City Life § Fast-paced, larger cities § Less safety, more modern Prohibition § Alcohol was viewed as the cause of social problems § Small town vs. large city § People got sick of the problems enforcing, passed the 19 th Amendment. Religion § Fundamental view (literal) vs. liberal view
SOCIAL CHANGES New Independence for Women § Right to vote § More rights that were equal to men (socially as well) § Worked more—family size was less Roaring 20’s § Nickname given to the 1920 s § Lots of change towards being more modern § Relatively good times throughout America
MEDIA CHANGES Changes within the Media § Radio, Newspapers, Magazines became popular § People became more connected to what is going on in the world and in America. § Helped bring America more together § Celebrities started to appear § Babe Ruth, Charles Lindbergh, Charlie Chaplin
ECONOMIC PROBLEMS Good on the Surface, Bad Underneath § Credit—people began to fall into debt b/c they were relying too much on credit § Dow Jones Industrial Average—tells the strength of the stock market. Rose steadily in the 1920 s § Speculation—people began to buy and sell stocks on little notice, hoping to make a quick profit. Caused people to buy risky things.
BOTTOM FALLS OUT Black Tuesday § October 29 th, 1929 § Day the stock market crashed § Everyone panicked and sold all their shares at once § 16. 4 million dollars were dumped § Eventually it caused investors to lose over 30 billion dollars Great Depression § Time Period between 1929 -1940 § Economy fell apart in America and around the world § Skyrocketing Unemployment (20%), tens of thousands of banks were forced to close
OTHER ISSUES WITH THE DEPRESSION Shantytowns § Towns made up of shacks sprung up everywhere § Due to the number of people that lost their homes § Psychological Depression and Suicide numbers increased dramatically (people leaving their families) Soup Kitchens/Bread Lines § Places that offered free food to homeless people § Many other charities started to appear Dust Bowl § Plains area that was hit by a horrible drought § Impossible to grow anything § All farmers struggled because people couldn’t pay for food
PRESIDENT HOOVER Herbert Hoover § President from 1928 -1932 § Was elected because of the prosperity the country was going through Hoover’s Response to the Great Depression § Did not take much action at all § Felt it was the individual’s responsibility to get themselves out of the Depression § Didn’t want to be President at the end
FRANKLIN ROOSEVELT Roosevelt § Became President after Hoover § Took a much more active approach to trying to fix the problem § Passed a ton of new laws that increased government power in fixing banks, businesses, homes, and putting people back into work New Deal § Roosevelt's Plan to fix the country, occurred within his first 100 days within office
NEW DEAL LEGISLATION AAA § Agricultural Adjustment Act § Raised crop prices for farmers by lowering production, government paid farmers for not farming all of their land § Increased prices but made hungry people mad CCC § Civilian Conservation Corps § Put young men (18 -25) back to work by building roads, planting trees, making parks, really doing anything to keep people busy WPA (Works Progress Administration) § Did the same thing as the CCC § More construction type job
OTHER NEW DEAL THINGS Social Security Act § Gave money to retired workers and their spouses § Unemployment Checks and Disability Payments SEC/FDIC § Securities and Exchange Commission § Tried to regulate banking and investing § Provided insurance to put money back into banks § Attempting to make sure something like this never happens again.
MISC. ISSUES Eleanor Roosevelt § FDR’s Wife § Gave guidance to the President, helped him a lot because FDR was in a wheel chair § Great Humanitarian Fireside Chats § Roosevelt used the radio to talk to the public each week. He told them that everything was going to be ok. Restored confidence in our country Movies § Became very popular during this time, escape from reality § Gone with the Wind, Wizard of Oz
WAS THE NEW DEAL AS SUCCESS? Success § Gave people more jobs § Temporary solution to the problem, better than nothing Failure § Increased government activity in all aspects of life § Caused racial and gender inequality Reality § Our country would not come out of the Great Depression until we entered WWII.
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