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By: Stacy Godfrey, Amy Ladenberger, Santiago Beltran, Kelly Nelson and Pimsuda Prathankiat EMERGING TECHNOLOGIES: By: Stacy Godfrey, Amy Ladenberger, Santiago Beltran, Kelly Nelson and Pimsuda Prathankiat EMERGING TECHNOLOGIES: RFID

Objectives Obtain general knowledge of RFID Recognize types and components of RFID Understand various Objectives Obtain general knowledge of RFID Recognize types and components of RFID Understand various applications Discuss companies use of RFID in case studies Determine why RFID is important to managers and the future Realize the benefits and limitations of RFID technologies 2

What is RFID? ? Radio Frequency Identification (RFID)—describes technologies that use radio waves to What is RFID? ? Radio Frequency Identification (RFID)—describes technologies that use radio waves to automatically identify people or objects. RFID tags can be applied to or incorporated into a product, animal, or person, for the purpose of identification using radio waves. RFID Journal. http: //www. rfidjournal. com/faq/16/49 Viewed March 30, 2008 3

Parts to the RFID System There are three parts to a RFID system: 1. Parts to the RFID System There are three parts to a RFID system: 1. Antenna Provides a means of communication and energy to communicate with RFID tag passes through field of the antenna and the RFID tag detects the activation signal from the antenna causing the RFID tag to transmit the information on the microchip to the transceiver. Permanently affixed to a surface or handheld 2. Transceiver Has a decoder to interpret the data 3. RFID Tag (Transporter) Programmed with information “How RFID Works, ” http: //www. technology. com/ct/Technology-Article. asp? Art. Num=2 Viewed March 31, 2008 4

RFID vs. Bar Codes How is RFID different from Bar Codes? Tag does not RFID vs. Bar Codes How is RFID different from Bar Codes? Tag does not need to be on the surface of the object because they do not need a direct line of sight, tags can be embedded or hidden. Tags are applicable in harsh environments, such as outdoors, around chemicals, moisture and high temperatures. RFID tags can be read at a rate of forty or more tags per second; Bar Codes usually take half a second or more per bar code. RFID tags can be read at distances up to 300 feet; Bar Codes no more than 15 feet. RFID Tags can be re-programmed; Bar Codes do not have the read/write capability “Advantages of RFID Versus Barcodes, ” http: //www. technovelgy. com/ct/Technology-Article. asp? Art. Num=60 Viewed March 31, 2008 Hont, Susy d. “The Cutting Edge of RFID Technology and Applications for Manufacturing and Distribution, ” www. ti. com/rfid/docs/manuals/wht. Papers/manuf_dist. pdf Viewed March 15, 2008 5

RFID vs. Bar Codes Manual Process Bar Code RFID Data Accuracy Least Accurate More RFID vs. Bar Codes Manual Process Bar Code RFID Data Accuracy Least Accurate More Accurate Data Collection Time/Labor Most Time/Labor Some Time/Labor Least Time/Labor Data Input Time/Labor Most Time/Labor Some Time/Labor Least Time/Labor Equipment Costs (tags, readers/scanners) N/A Some More Ability to Track Assets Out of Line of Sight No No Yes Amount of Data Storage on Tag N/A Less More Ability to Exchange Information Two Ways No No Yes Ability to Reprogram Tags N/A No Yes “How RFID Technology Can Enhance your Asset Management Program” www. infor. com-80 -content-whitepapersrfideam. pdf-/? ok=yes. pdf, viewed March 13, 2008. 6

How RFID Works “How RFID Works, ” http: //www. aeanet. org/Government. Affairs/gais_How. RFID_Works. asp How RFID Works “How RFID Works, ” http: //www. aeanet. org/Government. Affairs/gais_How. RFID_Works. asp 7

History 1940 -1950 First work exploring RFID by Harry Stockman Followed advances in radio History 1940 -1950 First work exploring RFID by Harry Stockman Followed advances in radio & radar 1950 -1960 Era of exploration, laboratory experiments 1960 -1970 First and most widespread commercial use Electronic article surveillance, Sensormatic 1970 -1980 Explosion of RFID development work Animal and vehicle tracking, factory automation Landt, Jeremy. “Shrouds of Time: The History of RFID” The Association for Automatic Identification and Data Capture Technologies. Ver 1, 2001, pp 1 -11. 8

History 1980 -1990 Commercial implementation enters mainstream Transportation, personnel access, & animals 1990 -2000 History 1980 -1990 Commercial implementation enters mainstream Transportation, personnel access, & animals 1990 -2000 Emergence of Standards Becomes part of everyday life Electronic highway tolling system 2000 Exciting times await in the advancement of RFID Landt, Jeremy. “Shrouds of Time: The History of RFID” The Association for Automatic Identification and Data Capture Technologies. Ver 1, 2001, pp 1 -11. 9

Passive Tags Have no internal power supply, Power supplied by the reader Cost Size Passive Tags Have no internal power supply, Power supplied by the reader Cost Size Less Expensive--Few Cent to a Few Dollars Smaller Power Reader Maintenance None Read Distance A few feet Life Up to 20 years Memory Around 16 K “How RFID Technology Can Enhance your Asset Management Program” www. infor. com-80 -content-whitepapers-rfideam. pdf-/? ok=yes. pdf, viewed March 13, 2008. 10

Active Tags Have their own internal power source, Can have a replaceable battery Cost Active Tags Have their own internal power source, Can have a replaceable battery Cost Size Power More expensive--often $20 or more Larger Provided by Battery Maintenance Read Distance Replacement Required Up to 100 s of feet Life Memory Depends on battery life As high as 512 K “How RFID Technology Can Enhance your Asset Management Program” www. infor. com-80 -content-whitepapers-rfideam. pdf-/? ok=yes. pdf, viewed March 13, 2008. 11

Frequencies Low Frequency (LF) 125 KHz or 134 KHz Shorter read-range and read- rate Frequencies Low Frequency (LF) 125 KHz or 134 KHz Shorter read-range and read- rate Less sensitive to interference High Frequency (HF) 13. 56 MHz Greater read-range & higher read-speed than LF Ultra-High Frequency (UHF) 860 to 930 MHz Same cost as HF Faster Data Transfer Limited read ability Microwave 2. 45 GHz or 5. 8 GHz Highest data read speed Most expensive Limited read range (3 ft) Scan. Source. “RFID Frequencies. ” ww. scansource. com/Europe/upload/RFID_Frequencies. pdf, viewed March 13, 2008. w 12

Tag Attachments Embedded Usually aimed for permanent or long-term implantation, such as animal traceability Tag Attachments Embedded Usually aimed for permanent or long-term implantation, such as animal traceability Attached Designed to be attached on the surface of identified objects with permanent, semi-permanent or temporary attachment means Injected Designed to have little contact or no contact with identified objects and can be easily removed Digested Eastman Kodak has filed two patent applications for monitoring ingestion of medicine http: //www. rfid-asia. info/2006/12/rfid-tag-attachments. htm, viewed March 13, 2008. 13

Types of Readers Agile An agile reader is one that can read tags operating Types of Readers Agile An agile reader is one that can read tags operating at different frequencies or using different methods of communication between the tags and readers. Intelligent has the ability not just to run different protocols, but also to filter data and even run applications Dumb a simple device that might read only one type of tag using one frequency and one protocol RFID Journal. http: //www. rfidjournal. com/faq/19/75, views March 13, 2008. RFID Journal. http: //www. rfidjournal. com/faq/19/76, viewed March 13, 2008. 14

Access control and identification Cards for access to secure areas. Not only verifies identity Access control and identification Cards for access to secure areas. Not only verifies identity but checks if certain requirements to enter have been met. Wristbands to provide access to unattended buildings. Wristbands at hotels and resorts acting as a key and as coupons to access services Shepard, Steven, Radio Frequency Identification, Mc. Graw Hill, New York, 2005. http: //industrial-ebooks. com/EBOOK/RFIDCase. Study. Book. Bin 95. pdf, viewed March 25, 2008 15

Tracking people and objects Children in theme parks Protection of expensive objects Cemeteries and Tracking people and objects Children in theme parks Protection of expensive objects Cemeteries and morgues. Personnel activities inside a facility Inmates identification and tracking Srivastava, Lara, “Radio Frequency Identification: ubiquity for humanity”, Info: The Journal of policy, regulation and strategy for. Telecommunications, information, and media, Vol. 9, Iss. 1, pp 4 -14 16

Ticketing Trains, subways, buses, concerts, amusement parks, fitness facilities, ski resorts. Reduces counterfeit RFID Ticketing Trains, subways, buses, concerts, amusement parks, fitness facilities, ski resorts. Reduces counterfeit RFID tickets used in the Soccer World Cup in Germany in 2006. 4. 8 millions Tickets sold with no counterfeiting problems. The Beijing Olympics in 2008 will have RFID tickets. Shepard, Steven, Radio Frequency Identification, Mc. Graw Hill, New York, 2005. http: //industrial-ebooks. com/EBOOK/RFIDCase. Study. Book. Bin 95. pdf, viewed March 25, 2008 17

Sports and Health Racecar tracking “Champion. Chip” for time tracking Ski Lifts hands free Sports and Health Racecar tracking “Champion. Chip” for time tracking Ski Lifts hands free access Golf balls Srivastava, Lara, “Radio Frequency Identification: ubiquity for humanity”, Info: The Journal of policy, regulation and strategy for. Telecommunications, information, and media, Vol. 9, Iss. 1, pp 4 -14 18

Libraries From barcodes to RFID tags. Faster and automatic checkout and return. Faster inventory Libraries From barcodes to RFID tags. Faster and automatic checkout and return. Faster inventory process. Reduces workplace injuries. No more security strips for books. Singh, J. , Brar N. , and Fong C. , “The state of RFID Applications in libraries”, Information technology and libraries, Vol. 25, Iss. 1, pp 24 -33 19

Production Line Control and Monitoring Car Body Production: Flow of information along the assembly Production Line Control and Monitoring Car Body Production: Flow of information along the assembly line for process verification. Identify vehicles through assembly line prior to the execution of a given assembly task. Shepard, Steven, Radio Frequency Identification, Mc. Graw Hill, New York, 2005. http: //industrial-ebooks. com/EBOOK/RFIDCase. Study. Book. Bin 95. pdf, viewed March 25, 2008 Smith, Alan, “Exploring Radio Frequency identification technology and its impacts on business systems”, Information management & Computer security, Vol. 13, Iss. 1, 2005, pp. 16 -25 20

Production Line Control and Monitoring Parts replenishment in work stations. Real time progress of Production Line Control and Monitoring Parts replenishment in work stations. Real time progress of production process. Shepard, Steven, Radio Frequency Identification, Mc. Graw Hill, New York, 2005. http: //industrial-ebooks. com/EBOOK/RFIDCase. Study. Book. Bin 95. pdf, viewed March 25, 2008 Smith, Alan, “Exploring Radio Frequency identification technology and its impacts on business systems”, Information management & Computer security, Vol. 13, Iss. 1, 2005, pp. 16 -25

Distribution and transportation Receiving and check-in Put away and replenishment Order Filling Shipping Product Distribution and transportation Receiving and check-in Put away and replenishment Order Filling Shipping Product and asset tracking Angeles, Rebecca, “RFID technologies: Supply-Chain applications and implementation issues”, Information Systems Management, Vol. 22, Iss. 1, 2005, pp 51 -66 22

Vehicle Identification Fleet management Access to parking lots Railway industry Electronic toll collection Lift Vehicle Identification Fleet management Access to parking lots Railway industry Electronic toll collection Lift truck and guided vehicle identification Gasoline dispensing Smith, Alan, “Exploring Radio Frequency identification technology and its impacts on business systems”, Information management & Computer security, Vol. 13, Iss. 1, 2005, pp. 16 -25 23

Ports Container security Container identification and location Activity tracking Yard Management www. aimglobal. org/technologies/rfid/resources/Port. Ports Container security Container identification and location Activity tracking Yard Management www. aimglobal. org/technologies/rfid/resources/Port. Tech. pdf, viewed April 6, 2008 www. speakingeye. com/index. php? lay=show&ac=article&Id=401359&Ntype=2, viewed April 6, 2008. 24

Baggage handling Replace bar code stick labels with RFID inlay stick labels. Many tags Baggage handling Replace bar code stick labels with RFID inlay stick labels. Many tags can be read at one time. Read-write capability is used to record information along the way as the bag makes its way through the handling system. Shepard, Steven, Radio Frequency Identification, Mc. Graw Hill, New York, 2005. http: //industrial-ebooks. com/EBOOK/RFIDCase. Study. Book. Bin 95. pdf, viewed March 25, 2008 25

Health Care and pharmaceutical industry Surgical equipment Drug Pedigree Blood banks Patient tracking Li Health Care and pharmaceutical industry Surgical equipment Drug Pedigree Blood banks Patient tracking Li S. , Visich J. , Khumawala B. , and Zhang C. , “RFID technology: applications, technical challenges and strategies”, Sensor Review, Vol. 26, Iss. 3, 2006, pp 193 -205 http: //industrial-ebooks. com/EBOOK/RFIDCase. Study. Book. Bin 95. pdf, viewed March 25, 2008 26

Animal Identification Livestock tracking Data critical for the safety of food supply Can also Animal Identification Livestock tracking Data critical for the safety of food supply Can also be used on pets. Ear tags, injectable tags, RFID tattoos Shepard, Steven, Radio Frequency Identification, Mc. Graw Hill, New York, 2005. http: //industrial-ebooks. com/EBOOK/RFIDCase. Study. Book. Bin 95. pdf, viewed March 25, 2008 27

Animal Identification – Somark Innovations ID system based on ink tattoos with chipless RFID Animal Identification – Somark Innovations ID system based on ink tattoos with chipless RFID functionality. Each tattoo has a different pattern that translates into a number when scanned. 3 patents and 14 pending patents More than a hundred potential clients in several countries. www. somarkinnovations. com, viewed March 24, 2008 28

Other Applications Shopping Contactless payment Contactless checkout Museums and art galleries Wyld, David, “RFID Other Applications Shopping Contactless payment Contactless checkout Museums and art galleries Wyld, David, “RFID 101: The next thing for management”, Management Research News, Vol. 29, Iss. 4, pp 154 Srivastava, Lara, “Radio Frequency Identification: ubiquity for humanity”, Info: The Journal of policy, regulation and strategy for. Telecommunications, information, and media, Vol. 9, Iss. 1, pp 4 -14 29

Case Studies Wal-Mart Healthcare Service Industry in Taiwan RFID-based Sushi Management Kaufhof Department Stores Case Studies Wal-Mart Healthcare Service Industry in Taiwan RFID-based Sushi Management Kaufhof Department Stores and Gerry Weber International Florida State University Filing System 30

Wal-Mart 1, 900, 000 employees, $344. 0 billion in revenue 1, 000 Discount Stores, Wal-Mart 1, 900, 000 employees, $344. 0 billion in revenue 1, 000 Discount Stores, 2, 300 Supercenters nationwide RFID Compliance Mandate (2003) has economic strategic implications 600 Suppliers are currently RFID-enabled Goal: Drive sales of suppliers by keeping product on shelf for consumers to buy RFID Trial shows cut product stock-outs by 30% RFID Trial shows 62% increase in efficiency Songini, Marc L. , “Procter & Gamble: Wal-Mart RFID Effort Effective” Computerworld, Feb 26, 2007, p 14. NYJob. Source. com, viewed 03/31/08 31

Wal-Mart Case Study 8 Test Stores 8 Control Stores May-October 2007 Chosen from 1000 Wal-Mart Case Study 8 Test Stores 8 Control Stores May-October 2007 Chosen from 1000 RFID-enabled stores No RFID capabilities 98% of items tagged (At Case level) No tags Auto PI system (Perpetual Inventory- No PI system (Manual count) goods on-hand, count is usually inaccurate due to over or underestimates) Outcome PI inaccuracy decline by 13% Decrease in manual adjustments form 3. 4 to 2. 0 per week Decrease cost and increase efficiency xfgd Average 65% wrong in inventory accuracy Hardgrave, B. “Does RFID Improve Inventory Accuracy? A Preliminary Analysis” University of Arkansas, Information Technology Research Institute, March 2008. 32

Healthcare in Taiwan 5 Hospitals, all early adopters Reasons for Adoption Track paths of Healthcare in Taiwan 5 Hospitals, all early adopters Reasons for Adoption Track paths of infection Improve treatment quality and pt satisfaction Track patients and workers and hospital waste Redesign of hospital SOP to increase patient safety Outcomes Drastic changes in business processes and organization personnel Assessment of applications from both strategic and operational viewpoints-strategic systems improve customer service, operational system improve efficiency of process Best Practices Consider stakeholders outside organization boundaries Refine operational processes Integrate new technology into existing business systems Extend business boundaries and scope Tzeng, S. , Chen, W. , and Pai, F. “Evaluating the business value of RFID: Evidence from five case studies” Int. J. Production Economics, June 2007, pp 601 -613. 33

Commonalities of RFID Applications Taipei Medical University Hospital Taipei Municipal Wan Fang Hospital En Commonalities of RFID Applications Taipei Medical University Hospital Taipei Municipal Wan Fang Hospital En Chu King Hospital Show Chawn Memorial Hospital Koo Foundation Sun Yat-Sen Cancer Center Hospital Size $500 million budget to increase efficiency 740 sick beds total Regional Teaching Hospital with 501 beds Regional Hospital with 717 beds 352 beds, ambulatory, inpatient, and daycare units Project Location-based service RFID system for ER patients observation/ Passive tags RFID intelligent healthcare platform/ Active and passive tags Intelligent digital health network/ Active tags Specialized healthcare system Reasons for Adoption Track paths of infection sources Improve treatment quality and patient satisfaction Help hospital redesign SOP to provide protection for patients Monitor patient T, access control of workers, waste Track spread of infection and prevent outbreaks Date of Adoption 10/2003 01/2004 10/2003 Implementation Corporate with NTU In House Corporate with HP Outsource Outcome Success Some success: Low usage in ER Some success: no wireless use in surgery room Success Tzeng et al. “Evaluating the business value of RFID: Evidence from five case studies” Int. J. Production Economics, June 2007, p 605. 34

RFID-Based Sushi Management Blue C Sushi: small chain of restaurants in Seattle deliver food RFID-Based Sushi Management Blue C Sushi: small chain of restaurants in Seattle deliver food to customers along conveyor belt; $1, 750, 000 annual revenue Reason for Adoption Concerns for the quality and safety of food Understand consumer buying habits Implementation: Microsoft Server technology combined with RFID tags and scanners to monitor time and contents of plates while tracking consumer purchases Outcome Improved customer service Immediate replenishment of food Simplified billing procedure and improved efficiency Ngai, E. , Suk, F. , Lo, S. “Development of an RFID-based sushi management system: The case of a conveyor-belt sushi restaurant” Int. J. Production Economics, February 2006, pp 630 -645. “Sushi Restaurant Enhances Quality Control, Customer Service with RFID” Microsoft Biz. Talk Server Customer Solution Case Study. 35

RFID in Fashion Industry 5 -month joint project Jul-Nov/2003 between retailer (Kaufhof Department Stores-134 RFID in Fashion Industry 5 -month joint project Jul-Nov/2003 between retailer (Kaufhof Department Stores-134 stores, € 3. 8 billion in sales) and supplier (Gerry Weber International- 1, 700 employees, € 400 million in sales) Reason for Adoption: Styles, price, packaging, shelf life (fashion) Multi-tiered supply chain (Manufacturer, Distributors, Retailers) Anti-theft systems Outcome: beneficial for both retailer and supplier exceeding RFID costs Savings in time and labor costs (10 times faster in quality control, 4 times faster management of Allowed for partners to try new services with supply chain partners and consumers As of 2006, 70% use at palette-level Increased data quality New possibilities in service offerings inventory) Lessons learned RFID is extremely reliable and accurate, but may need to be altered at times Recognizing Management and IT challenges determine success Competitive advantage gained when RFID data is used Loebbecke, Claudia, and Palmer, Jonathan W. ”RFID in the Fashion Industry: Kaufhof Department Stores AG and Gerry Weber International AG, Fashion Manufacturer” MIS Quarterly Executive June 2006 pp 69 -79. 36

Florida State University Filing System 41, 000 students, $193 million in external grants (2007) Florida State University Filing System 41, 000 students, $193 million in external grants (2007) First educational institution to adopt 3 M’s RFID 2 -Part Tracking system Reason for Adoption: Missing files disrupted work Approximately 3500 project files and $182, 000 in research grants Compliance guidelines existed for federal state grants System up and running in two days, one for installation, one for training of staff Recovered $25, 000 investment in less than 1 year Cost approximately $233, 000 in looking for files before system was implemented and now is around $145, 000 -62% improvement 37 O’Connor, Mary Catherine. “RFID Brings Order to Chaotic Office” RFID Journal June 12, 2006. www. fsu. edu/about, viewed 03/31/08

 Other Examples Major Industries Healthcare and Pharmaceuticals Asset Tracking Manufacturing and Logistics Postal Other Examples Major Industries Healthcare and Pharmaceuticals Asset Tracking Manufacturing and Logistics Postal and Courier Services Retail Military Air and Passenger Transportation Agriculture Inventory Systems (Boeing 787 Dreamliner) Textile Industry (Griva) Film materials Chemical Products Industry (Dow Chemical Company) Credit Cards and Identification Cards (Visa, Mastercard Pay. Pass, US Passports) Lost Pets Burial/Identification of the dead Cattle Tracking and Identification (Somark’s RFID Ink, Canadian Cattle Identification Agency) www. pffc-online. com. Bevan, James M. “Paper, Film and Foil Converter” RFID Labels. Vol 82, Issue 8. pp 33 -35. , 38

Why general managers should care about RFID Improved productivity and Cost Avoidance Checkout becomes Why general managers should care about RFID Improved productivity and Cost Avoidance Checkout becomes a faster process as stacks of books can be checked out with one scan of a reader without opening or handling the books. Decrease cycle time and Taking costs out. Unlike traditional barcode scanning, RFID is not a serial process, so the business can perform identical tasks more quickly. RFID Business Benefit. http: //www. rfidc. com/docs/introductiontorfid_business. htm, view 03/20/08 39

Why general managers should care about RFID Reduce Rework As RFID scanning has a Why general managers should care about RFID Reduce Rework As RFID scanning has a greater first time pass accuracy this reduces the number of errors that are generated and retries needed. Reduce business risk and control of assets RFID tagging enables better audit and asset control. The ability to track and trace items better means assets can be located more easily. Regulatory compliance can be achieved more effectively. RFID Business Benefit. http: //www. rfidc. com/docs/introductiontorfid_business. htm, last viewed 03/20/08. 40

Why general managers should care about RFID Improved utilization of resource Information obtained by Why general managers should care about RFID Improved utilization of resource Information obtained by RFID scanning can be used to improve planning. Processes can be improved, time can be saved, assets can be utilized better. Increase revenues By eliminating uncertainty companies will suffer less “out of stock” situations and obtain greater item availability, reducing lost sales and increasing choice leading to more sales. RFID Business Benefit http: //www. rfidc. com/docs/introductiontorfid_business. html, viewed 03/20/08. 41

Why general managers should care about RFID Exception management The contribution information captured by Why general managers should care about RFID Exception management The contribution information captured by RFID offers to IT applications will allow managers in companies to be alerted when compensatory business decisions need to be taken. RFID Business Benefit http: //www. rfidc. com/docs/introductiontorfid_business. htm, Viewed 03/20/08. 42

Problems with RFID Technical problem with RFID Problem with RFID standard. RFID has been Problems with RFID Technical problem with RFID Problem with RFID standard. RFID has been used in different ways by different manufacturers. The frequencies used for RFID in the USA are currently incompatible with those of Europe or Japan. This can cause problems for companies. Moreover, consumer have problems with RFID standard. For example, Exxon Mobil’s Speed. Pass system is a proprietary RFID system; if another company wanted to use the convenient Speed. Pass, they have to pay to access it. If every company had their own Speed. Pass system, a consumer would need to carry many different devices with them. Problems with RFID. http: //www. technovelgy. com/ct/Technology-Article. asp? Art. Num=20, viewed 3/26/2008. 43

Problems with RFID systems can be easily disrupted Since RFID systems make use of Problems with RFID systems can be easily disrupted Since RFID systems make use of the electromagnetic spectrum, they are relatively easy to jam using energy at the right frequency. This problem could be disastrous in business where RFID is increasingly used, like hospitals or in the military in the field. Problems with RFID. http: //www. technovelgy. com/ct/Technology-Article. asp? Art. Num=20, viewed 3/26/2008. 44

Problems with RFID reader collision Reader collision occurs when the signals from two or Problems with RFID reader collision Reader collision occurs when the signals from two or more reader overlap. The tag is unable to respond to simultaneous queries. RFID tag collision occurs when many tags are present in a small area; but since the read time is very fast, it is easier for vendors to develop systems that ensure that tags respond one at a time. Problems with RFID. http: //www. technovelgy. com/ct/Technology-Article. asp? Art. Num=20, viewed 3/26/2008. 45

Problems with RFID Cancer risk Veterinary and toxicology studies spanning the last ten years Problems with RFID Cancer risk Veterinary and toxicology studies spanning the last ten years surfaced indicating that RFID chips induced malignant tumors in laboratory animals. However, there are some controversies. Veri. Chip Corp. maintains that the chips are completely safe and that they were unaware of the studies. Radio-frequency identification. http: //en. wikipedia. org/wiki/RFID, viewed 3/26/2008. Logo of the anti-RFID campaign by German privacy group Foe. Bu. D 46

Problems with RFID Security and privacy problems with RFID Loss of privacy How would Problems with RFID Security and privacy problems with RFID Loss of privacy How would you like it if, one day your realized your underwear was reporting on your whereabouts? Tag can be read at a distance, it become possible to gather sensitive data about individual without consent. For example, an RFID tag can be read after the item leaves the supply chain, this allows anyone to see the contents of your purse as pocket as you walk down the street. Problems with RFID. http: //www. technovelgy. com/ct/Technology-Article. asp? Art. Num=20, viewed 3/26/2008. 47

Security and privacy problems with RFID tags with unique serial numbers could be linked Security and privacy problems with RFID tags with unique serial numbers could be linked to an individual credit card number. At present, each individual item has its own number. When the item is scanned for purchase and is paid for, the RFID tag number for a particular item can be associated with a credit card number. Problems with RFID. http: //www technovelgy. com/ct/Technology-Article. asp? Atrium=20, viewed 3/26/2008. 48

Future of RFID will replace barcode. RFID is a great tool for the supply Future of RFID will replace barcode. RFID is a great tool for the supply chain and companies wishing to better track their products and inventory. As a result, it will definitely become a requirement for all suppliers to use RFID tags when the tag become affordable. RFID’s price will reduces With mass production, their price eventually reduces to perhaps a cent. RFID gets smaller and edible…. and bigger. http: //future. fifth. org/rfid/index. html, viewed 03/26/08. 49

Future of RFID chips are no bigger than grains of sand. Future of RFID. Future of RFID chips are no bigger than grains of sand. Future of RFID. http: //future. fifth. org/rfid/index. html, viewed 03/26/08. 50

Future of RFID Every item in house will eventually come from the store with Future of RFID Every item in house will eventually come from the store with a tiny, almost invisible RFID tag attached. Example. Medical alert bracelet : It's a Medical Alert Bracelet which keeps the person wearing it informed about their online medical history and gets in touch with assistance in case of any emergency. http: //www. rfid-weblog. com, viewed 03/31/08. 51

Future of RFID Every item in house will eventually come from the store with Future of RFID Every item in house will eventually come from the store with a tiny, almost invisible RFID tag attached. Example. Lady Bag : it uses RFID tags to keep a track on items inside it and icons pertaining to missing items appear on the LED screen on the outside of the bag. It even gives a hint of our emotional side with emoticons displaying whether you are happy, sad, angry or http: //www. rfid-weblog. com, viewed 03/31/08. nervous. 52

Future of RFID Most of the retailers and restaurants will use RFID to track Future of RFID Most of the retailers and restaurants will use RFID to track condition of goods. Ex. Retailers install sensors with RFID tags in order to monitor food temperature during foods’ shipment to prevent spoilage or The store can identify individual foods that are going to spoil. Pintokona which is a restaurant in Japan is putting RFID technology to use in order to ensure that only the most fresh fish is served to its esteemed customers. RFID: Radio Frequency identification a look into the future http: //www. ils. unc. edu/~cbarthol/inls 187/Future%20 Forecast/futureforecast. htm viewed 03/26/08. 53

The RFID software, hardware and services market size in 2010 ( Worldwide) North America The RFID software, hardware and services market size in 2010 ( Worldwide) North America is expected to have a market share of $2. 7 billion, compared to $2. 0 billion for EMEA and a combined share of $1. 4 billion from Asia Pacific and the rest of the world making up the remainder of the total RFID market in 2010. North America to lead RFID market : http: //www. rfid-weblog. com/archives/north_america_to_lead_rfid_market. html, viewed April 10 , 2008 54

History of RFID spending and expectation $26 Billion RFID Industry by 2015: http: //www. History of RFID spending and expectation $26 Billion RFID Industry by 2015: http: //www. rfid-weblog. com/50226711/26_billion_rfid_industry_by_2015. php, viewed April 10 2008 RFID market to reach $7. 26 Bn in 2008 New RFID Market Analysis: http: //www. idtechex. com/products/en/articles/00000169. asp , view April 10, 2008 American barcode and RFID q&A: http: //www. abrfid. com/rfid/articles/questions-answers. aspx viewed April 10, 2008 , 55

Future of RFID Public perception Of RFID would probably seem less alien and intrusive Future of RFID Public perception Of RFID would probably seem less alien and intrusive since RFID Tags were tailored to different functions and industries. Two data-points suggest that RFID may undergo from Renaissance to contemporary biological metaphors in the next few years. I. II. Hitachi has announced development of what it's calling "RFID powder, " RFID tags "measuring 0. 05 x 0. 05 mm" and 5 microns thick, "which they aim to begin marketing in 2 to 3 years The second data-point is a patent filing by Kodak for an edible-- and more important, digestible-- RFID tag. (The patent describes it as a "System to monitor the ingestion of medicines") RFID gets smaller and edible…. and bigger http: //future. fifth. org/rfid/index. html, viewed 03/26/08. 56

Questions? ? ? 57 Questions? ? ? 57

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