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theories_of_crime.ppt

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Date Presenters Topic M Mar 26 Stuart & Brittany Eyewitness Suggestability? (2) Jenna & Crystal EyewitnessDate Presenters Topic M Mar 26 Stuart & Brittany Eyewitness Suggestability? (2) Jenna & Crystal Eyewitness Accuracy (3) Kaleena & Shelley Offences & Mental Illness (4) Diane & John Profiling W Mar 28 Tisha Cobey & Anni Buelles Jury selection process (2) Adam & Roop Violent Offenders: Special Popns (3) Carly & Ashley Risk Assessment & Violence Prediction (4) Alison & Nicole Child Custody M Apr 2 Hayley & Morgan Violent Offenders (2) Scott & Darcie Husbands Who Kill (3) Meghan & Mohammad False Confessions (4) Chelsea & Louise Female Sex Offenders W Apr 4 Barbara Sweeney & Tyler Douglas Interview Techniques (2) Braden & Kaitlyn Child eyewitness? (3) Tyler Lee and Ashleigh Rowley Child eyewitness or interviewing (4) W Apr 11 Kim & Ron Efficacy of Psychometrics (2) (3) (4)

 • Social or cultural forces that exist prior to any criminal act • Structural theories • Social or cultural forces that exist prior to any criminal act • Structural theories • Most people have similar aspirations • Differential opportunity • Rational crime • Subcultural theories • Crime is the product of a deviation from the law • Reaction formation

 • Psychoanalytic theories • Freud: inadequate identification with parents • Compulsive need for punishment to • Psychoanalytic theories • Freud: inadequate identification with parents • Compulsive need for punishment to eliminate guilt • Bowlby: attachment theory • If bond with mother broken the child develops an inability to form functional social relationships

 • Personality defects • Antisocial personality disorder aka psychopathy • Cortical immaturity impairs executive function • Personality defects • Antisocial personality disorder aka psychopathy • Cortical immaturity impairs executive function • Stimulation-seeking • Parental patterns

 • Social Learning Theory • Vicarious learning or modelling 1. Attend 2. Retain 3. Reproduce • Social Learning Theory • Vicarious learning or modelling 1. Attend 2. Retain 3. Reproduce 4. Reinforcement Influences: familial, subcultural, symbolic

 • Constitutional Learning Theory   (Wilson & Herrnstein, 1985) • Ratio of gains and • Constitutional Learning Theory (Wilson & Herrnstein, 1985) • Ratio of gains and losses • Time discounting • Equity theory • Constitutional factors: gender, arousal, impulsivity

 • Somatic typology (Sheldon, 1942) • Endomorph • Mesomorph • Ectomorph • Somatic typology (Sheldon, 1942) • Endomorph • Mesomorph • Ectomorph

Heritability studies Table from p. 119 Are biological parents or adoptive parents criminal? Nos. in parenthesesHeritability studies Table from p. 119 Are biological parents or adoptive parents criminal? Nos. in parentheses are the total number of adopted males for each cell. (Mednick, Gabrielli & Hutchings, 1984) Bio Parent Yes Bio Parent No Adopt Parent Yes 24. 5% Of 143 14. 7% Of 204 Adopt Parent No 20. 0% Of 1226 13. 5% Of

Correlation between criminal convictions of adoptee and biological parents, but not adoptive parents (Mednick, et al.Correlation between criminal convictions of adoptee and biological parents, but not adoptive parents (Mednick, et al. , 1994). . 7 for monozygotic twins; . 4 for dizygotic twins in terms of their criminality vs. non-criminality (Cloninger et al. , 1978)

 • Eysenck (1973) • Extraversion • Psychoticism • Neuroticism • Eysenck (1973) • Extraversion • Psychoticism • Neuroticism