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by R. Chidambaram Principal Scientific Adviser to the Govt. of India by R. Chidambaram Principal Scientific Adviser to the Govt. of India

The key to national prosperity - - - lies - - - in the The key to national prosperity - - - lies - - - in the effective combination of three factors, technology, raw materials and capital, of which the first is perhaps the most important. - - The Government of India have accordingly decided that the aims of their scientific policy will be: To foster, promote and sustain, by all appropriate means, the cultivation of science, and scientific research in all its aspects; pure, applied and educational. R. Chidambaram

Government enunciates the following objectives- - - To ensure food, agricultural, nutritional, environmental, water, Government enunciates the following objectives- - - To ensure food, agricultural, nutritional, environmental, water, health and energy security of the people on a sustainable basis. ---To encourage research and innovation in areas of relevance for the economy and society, particularly by promoting close and productive interaction between private and public institutions in science and technology. R. Chidambaram

v Policy Issues v Programmes of Central S&T Departments v Attracting Young People to v Policy Issues v Programmes of Central S&T Departments v Attracting Young People to Careers in Science and Retaining them there v Basic Research v Mega-Science Projects v Cross-Disciplinary Technology Areas v Leveraging International Collaboration Inputs v Academia-Industry Interaction (The Committee, chaired by PSA, submitted the Report to Planning Commission in December 2006 and was accepted) R. Chidambaram

A project for developing mechanisms for identifying and mentoring ‘gifted’ children is being taken A project for developing mechanisms for identifying and mentoring ‘gifted’ children is being taken up by my office R. Chidambaram

In the short term, in a developing country, the GDP growth rate is dependent In the short term, in a developing country, the GDP growth rate is dependent more on innovation capacity, and less on scientific strength. But if a high GDP growth rate has to be sustained over a long period, the country must lay a strong foundation for basic research, while retaining the innovation capacity. R. Chidambaram

From Crystallography to Nanotechnology to Cryptology, fields of research are becoming interdisciplinary. At the From Crystallography to Nanotechnology to Cryptology, fields of research are becoming interdisciplinary. At the same time, every discipline is fragmenting; e. g. the language of high energy theorists is incomprehensible to condensed matter experimentalists and vice versa. And most fields of research require complex experimental setups and supercomputers. R. Chidambaram

Ph. D. in Physics, switched to biology at UCSF Contributions include the determination of Ph. D. in Physics, switched to biology at UCSF Contributions include the determination of the structure of the 30 S ribosomal subunit and its complexes with antibiotics, the role of the 30 S subunit in decoding, and the high-resolution (Thermus thermophilus ribosome at 2. 8 Å resolution ) structure of the entire 70 S ribosome complexed with m. RNA and t. RNA. Ribosome is the factory of protein synthesis. Size of full ribosome is ~70 S. Consists of two subunits of approximate sizes 50 S and 30 S. Each subunit contains both proteins and RNA. MW ~ 2. 5 MDa, (2/3 RNA and 1/3 Protein). During protein synthesis, message on m. RNA is read using RNAs. R. Chidambaram

Anatomy of the Ribosome-in-action through X-ray crystallography Most complex structure to have been determined, Anatomy of the Ribosome-in-action through X-ray crystallography Most complex structure to have been determined, 2. 5 MDa Diffraction data collected on synchrotrons Phase problem solved by using Anomalous Scattering from Lanthanides Provides mechanistic details of protein synthesis, antibiotic-function understood at the atomic level, Guidance for antibiotic design. R. Chidambaram

Pho. K, a (559 residue) protein from the bacterium Sphingomonas sp. Strain BSAR-1. Useful Pho. K, a (559 residue) protein from the bacterium Sphingomonas sp. Strain BSAR-1. Useful for bio- precipitation of Uranium Conformation of Pho. K 3 -D structure obtained by solving phase problem using MAD method 3 -D structure useful for engineering desirable catalytic properties Zn atoms at catalytic centre, green contours K. S. Nilgiriwala, S. C. Bihani, A. Das, V. Prashar, M. Kumar, J. -L. Ferrer, S. K. Apte and M. V. Hosur Acta Cryst. (2009). F 65, 917 -919 R. Chidambaram

Hydrogen Bond is not as strong and directional as a covalent bond or as Hydrogen Bond is not as strong and directional as a covalent bond or as weak and non-directional as van der Waals interaction. That is why it is so pervasive and so important in organic materials and biological macromolecules. R. Chidambaram

Bent Hydrogen bond model for Ice-Ih: a proposal Pauling’s model which explains the residual Bent Hydrogen bond model for Ice-Ih: a proposal Pauling’s model which explains the residual entropy at OK, retains a linear hydrogen bond, but distorts H-O-H angle. ‘Confirmed’ by neutron diffraction experiment of Peterson Levy(1957) C A B The model proposed by Chidambaram’s model bends the hydrogen bond, but retains H-O-H angle. No change residual entropy, consistent with neutron diffraction data As a result, each half hydrogen of Pauling’s model is split into three positions (A, B, C) around the O—O axis, and separated by about 0. 04Å, a distance too small to be resolved by neutron diffraction methods. R. Chidambaram

Equillibrium dimensions of the water molecule in ice. I. The shaded strip shows values Equillibrium dimensions of the water molecule in ice. I. The shaded strip shows values consistent with the NMR spectrum reported by Kume (1960). Points a and b respectively correspond to proposals by Peterson & Levy (1957) and by Chidambaram (1961) Only point b is consistent with NMR data. R. Chidambaram

Short hydrogen bonds are less bent – explained by modification of LS formula Chidambaram Short hydrogen bonds are less bent – explained by modification of LS formula Chidambaram R. and Sikka S. K. Chem. Phys. Lett. (1968) 2, 162 – 165. R. Chidambaram

Rao, Godwal and Sikka, Physical Review B(1993) Computed and experimental isotherm – f electron Rao, Godwal and Sikka, Physical Review B(1993) Computed and experimental isotherm – f electron metal This is ‘directed basic research. ’ However, the EOS of Pu using the same methods is not publishable due to proliferation concerns. The boundary between ‘academic science’ and strategic science’ is fuzzy. R. Chidambaram

The three-stage Indian nuclear programme is based on the closed nuclear fuel cycle and The three-stage Indian nuclear programme is based on the closed nuclear fuel cycle and thorium utilisation PHWR Nat. U U fueled PHWRs FBTR 300 GWe-Year AHWR Th 42000 GWe-Year Electricity Dep. U Th 155000 GWe-Year Electricity Pu Fueled Fast Breeders Pu U 233 Fueled Reactors Pu Electricity U 233 Power generation primarily by PHWR Expanding power programme Thorium utilisation for 233 inventory Sustainable power programme Building U Building fissile inventory for stage 2 Stage 1 Stage 2 Stage 3 Fuzzy Border between Reactor Physics and Reactor Engineering R. Chidambaram

Closing the Nuclear Fuel Cycle and the Climate Change Threat Nuclear installed capacity with Closing the Nuclear Fuel Cycle and the Climate Change Threat Nuclear installed capacity with open and closed fuel cycle options from Chidambaram, Sinha & Patwardhan, Nuclear Energy Review 2007 Nuclear is now an accepted mitigation technology in the context of the Climate Change Threat. But if it is to be a sustainable mitigation technology, you have to close the nuclear fuel cycle. R. Chidambaram

“Expanded use of nuclear technologies offers immense potential to meet important development needs. In “Expanded use of nuclear technologies offers immense potential to meet important development needs. In fact, to satisfy energy demands and to mitigate threat of climate change – two of the 21 st century’s greatest challenges – there are major opportunities for expansion of nuclear energy in those countries that choose to have it”. from Report on “The Role of the IAEA to 2020 and Beyond”, prepared by an independent Commission at the request of the Director General of the International Atomic Energy Agency – 2008. I was a member R. Chidambaram of this

Industrial Development Academic Institutions are good in ‘Research’; Industry is good in ‘Delivery’. Both Industrial Development Academic Institutions are good in ‘Research’; Industry is good in ‘Delivery’. Both are weak in ‘Development’. This weakness has to be overcome through academia-industry interfaces in specific sectors (e. g. CAR: Collaborative Automotive Research, established by P. S. A. ’s Office) Research Development Delivery Rural Development The weakness is in ‘Delivery’. This has to be overcome through Open Platform Innovation Strategies (e. g. Ru. TAG, established by P. S. A. ’s Office) R. Chidambaram

(The Inevitability of Repetitive Innovation in Rural Technology Development) In my opinion, unless it (The Inevitability of Repetitive Innovation in Rural Technology Development) In my opinion, unless it is something exceptional like ‘dwarf varieties of wheat’ which led to the ‘Green Revolution’, most rural technologies can diffuse only to a short distance – maybe 50 -100 km. The cost of technology transfer can be more than of ‘Re-Innovation’*or even ‘Reinvention’. This may, in fact, be desirable because we can have a large number of rural technology delivery Centres dotted around the country. -------------------------------------------------------- * The term ‘re-innovation’ was coined by Prof. Roy Rothwell (1985) to denote successive incremental modifications to a GENERIC PRODUCT to take advantage of emerging technological or market opportunities. I am using it in a different sense – starting from the same core concept and ending in nearly the same product. R. Chidambaram

Research involves generation of new knowledge and Innovation requires adding economicvalue (or societal benefit Research involves generation of new knowledge and Innovation requires adding economicvalue (or societal benefit or strategic value or a mix of them) to knowledge, not necessarilygenerated by you. We have also to consider. Researchin all its dimensions - Basic Research, (what I call) Directed Basic Research, Applied Research (both pre-competitive and that leading to proprietary product development) – and Innovation, again in all its dimensions– Product Innovation, Process Innovationand Design Innovation. The border between Research and Innovation, when developing cutting-edge technologies, becomes fuzzy. Peter Medawar’s Advice to Young Scientists: “Always work on important problems – important to Science or important to Society” My motto in BARC: “Relevance or Excellence, preferably both” R. Chidambaram

Classification of R&D Work in India: What I considered important then Ø Basic Research Classification of R&D Work in India: What I considered important then Ø Basic Research Ø Mission - Oriented Applied Research & Technology Developmen Ø Country – Specific Applied Research, including for rural development Ø Industry – Oriented Research The borders among them are, of course, fuzzy. from R. Chidambaram, Current Science, 1999 Now I consider ‘Directed Basic Research’ as equally Important Each one of these R&D efforts needs a different metric to measure progress. From my talk at Indian National Science Academy on “Science & Society”, March, 2008

Volume of publications compared to 1981=100 “India’s recent year-by-year growth has begun to increase Volume of publications compared to 1981=100 “India’s recent year-by-year growth has begun to increase sharply compared to wellestablished European and Asian research nations in the G 8” R. Chidambaram JAPAN FRANCE GERMANY WORLD UK INDIA from “Global Research Report – India” Thomson Reuters, UK, October, 2009

There is thermodynamic equilibrium, in the developed countries, between the knowledge that exists in There is thermodynamic equilibrium, in the developed countries, between the knowledge that exists in the academic system and the knowledge that has been transferred to industry – with, of course, the necessary time gap for the transfer of relevant knowledge. “Business Sector in Canada performs 56% of R&D (2007)”: STIC, Canada. The basic research scientists in the developing countries try to keep pace with their counterparts abroad, to be able to publish in “high – impact factor” journals. But the industry in the developing countries was generally a couple of notches below their counterparts in the developed countries in the past. This is what caused a disconnect between the academic and industry systems in India in the past. As India becomes globally competitive in more and more technology sectors, this gap will close and academia-industry interactions will increase. We already see strong symptoms of this in India. R. Chidambaram

v In general, international cooperation in applied research must be leveraged by India to v In general, international cooperation in applied research must be leveraged by India to strengthen its own technology initiatives. Since the collaborating country will do the same, we have a mutually beneficial scenario. v CAR-Fraunhofer interaction in the automotive sector is a good model where both the Indian academic system and the Indian industry/industry associations are involved. From my talk in “Global Industrial R&D Conclave 2009”, organized by CII, 12 th May, 2009 India is changing! R. Chidambaram

The Large Hadron Collider Model (for International Scientific Collaboration) The world’s largest accelerator has The Large Hadron Collider Model (for International Scientific Collaboration) The world’s largest accelerator has been built in the Centre for European Nuclear Research(CERN) in Geneva. India has contributed more than 25 Million U. S. Dollars – worth hi-tech equipment, like a thousand superconducting sextuple magnets, etc. and advanced control software. Half of this contribution will be put into an ‘India Fund’ which will support Indian scientists who will work with the Accelerator. Indian scientist groups are also participating in the construction of two giant Detector systems – CMS and Alice. This is a good mutually – beneficial model for international scientific collaboration. Today’s India wants collaboration on an “equal-partner” basis, as the LHC collaboration is. Our entry as a full member into the ITER programme is another example of India's 'equal partner' collaboration in a 'mega science' project. R. Chidambaram

The objective of the National Knowledge Network is to bring together all the stakeholders The objective of the National Knowledge Network is to bring together all the stakeholders in Science, Technology, Higher Education, Research and Development, GRID Computing, e-governance with speeds scalable eventually up to the order of 10 s of gigabits per second coupled with extremely low latencies. NKN will interconnect all the research, higher education and scientific institutions in the country, over a period of three years. The joint proposal for the establishment of NKN was initiated by the PSA’s Office and the National Knowledge Commission and then taken up by the Department of IT. The initial phase of the NKN was inaugurated by the President of India on 9 th April, 2009, and the full project has recently been approved by the Cabinet. There additional advantages in connecting NKN to other high speed networks in other countries. R. Chidambaram

Innovation (self. Directed/ Mega. Science) Basic Research Choice of technology Areas (future) “Directed” Basic Innovation (self. Directed/ Mega. Science) Basic Research Choice of technology Areas (future) “Directed” Basic Research Possibilities Precompetitive Applied Research App. Res. & Proprietary Product or Process Development Forming Core Advisory Groups for Enhancing Academia. Industry Interaction (e. g. CAR) adapted from R. Chidambaram, Current Science, 2007

In its execution, and in the requirement of no other deliverables than knowledge generation, In its execution, and in the requirement of no other deliverables than knowledge generation, it is no different from conventional basic research. So the University academics should be comfortable with this kind of research. The selected areas are determined in a national perspective, just like in Technology Foresight. ‘Directed’ Basic Research may be in an area where the knowledge generation would benefit Society in the long term, or it may be in area where the results of the research would benefit Industry or the country’s strategic interests in the long term. R. Chidambaram

In development of all high-technology areas, I have been suggesting a three-step strategy: ü In development of all high-technology areas, I have been suggesting a three-step strategy: ü optimally use Visible Capabilities; ü identify and stimulate Latent capabilities; and ü leverage international collaboration to fill our Knowledge Gaps. We have to establish “Coherent Synergy” (a new phrase I defined many years back in the S&T context) among these steps, with components like human resource development, R&D and academia-industry interaction spanning across each step. In this strategy, we have to ignore the fuzzy borders between disciplines and between the varieties of R&D. R. Chidambaram

(‘Coherent Synergy’ is a new phrase I have defined many years back in the (‘Coherent Synergy’ is a new phrase I have defined many years back in the S&T context!) The S&T System, to contribute maximally to national development, requires a variety of efforts - Human Resource Development, R&D with Prioritization, Academia – Industry Interaction, International collaboration, etc. But there must be: Synergy among the concerned parties in every S&T effort. Synergy implies Cooperative interaction. and Coherence collectively among all the efforts. Coherence implies phase relationship and space-time synchronization Every synergetic S&T effort gives a momentum for development. And momentum is a vector. All the vectors must point in the same direction for coherence. Synergy in any effort, of course, has local coherence; but in ‘Coherent Synergy’, I am talking about global coherence. From R. Chidambaram, Current Science (2007)