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By: Ms. Susan M. Pojer Horace Greeley HS Chappaqua, NY By: Ms. Susan M. Pojer Horace Greeley HS Chappaqua, NY

The Dreyfus Case, 1894 Capt. Alfred Dreyfus Emile Zola The Dreyfus Case, 1894 Capt. Alfred Dreyfus Emile Zola

Zionism Y GOALS: The spiritual and political renewal of the Jewish people in its Zionism Y GOALS: The spiritual and political renewal of the Jewish people in its ancestral homeland of Palestine. Y Freedom from Western anti-Semitism. Theodore Herzl 1860 -1904

First Zionist Conference, 1897 Y Herzl writes Der Judenstaat, or The Jewish State in First Zionist Conference, 1897 Y Herzl writes Der Judenstaat, or The Jewish State in 1896. Y Met in Basel, Switzerland. Y Creates the First Zionist Congress. Y Becomes an international Jewish organization. Y “Next Year in Jerusalem!”

The Ottoman Empire in WW 1 The Ottoman Empire in WW 1

The Main Players in WW 1 Allied Powers: Central Powers: Nicholas II [Rus] Wilhelm The Main Players in WW 1 Allied Powers: Central Powers: Nicholas II [Rus] Wilhelm II [Ger] George V [Br] Victor Emmanuel II [It] Pres. Poincare [Fr] Enver Pasha [Turkey] Franz Josef [A-H]

The Middle East in 1914 The Middle East in 1914

T. E. Lawrence [1888 -1935] “Lawrence of Arabia, ” The Legend Begins T. E. Lawrence [1888 -1935] “Lawrence of Arabia, ” The Legend Begins

Hussein-Mc. Mahon Letters, 1915. . Britain is prepared to recognize and uphold the independence Hussein-Mc. Mahon Letters, 1915. . Britain is prepared to recognize and uphold the independence of the Arabs in all regions lying within the frontiers proposed by the Sharif of Mecca. . Hussein ibn Ali, Sharif of Mecca

Sykes-Picot Agreement, 1916 Sykes-Picot Agreement, 1916

The Arab Revolt: 1916 -1918 The Arab Revolt: 1916 -1918

The Allied Advance Against the Ottoman Turks Br. General Edmund Allenby The Allied Advance Against the Ottoman Turks Br. General Edmund Allenby

The British & Arab Armies Meet British Forces Lawrence & Faisal’s Forces The British & Arab Armies Meet British Forces Lawrence & Faisal’s Forces

British Promise to the Jews: Balfour Declaration, 1917 Sir Arthur James Balfour Br. Foreign British Promise to the Jews: Balfour Declaration, 1917 Sir Arthur James Balfour Br. Foreign Secretary His Majesty’s Government views with favor the establishment in Palestine of a national home for the Jewish people and will use their best endeavors to facilitate the achievement of this object, it being clearly understood that nothing shall be done which may prejudice the civil and religious rights of existing non-Jewish communities in Palestine…

Turkish Genocide Against the Armenians 1. 5 million: A Portent of Future Horrors to Turkish Genocide Against the Armenians 1. 5 million: A Portent of Future Horrors to Come!

Turkish Genocide Against the Armenians Districts & Vilayets of Western Armenia in Turkey 1914 Turkish Genocide Against the Armenians Districts & Vilayets of Western Armenia in Turkey 1914 1922 Erzerum 215, 000 1, 500 Van 197, 000 500 Kharbert 204, 000 35, 000 Diarbekir 124, 000 3, 000 Bitlis 220, 000 56, 000 Sivas 225, 000 16, 800 Other Armenian-populated Sites in Turkey Western Anatolia 371, 800 27, 000 Cilicia and Northern Syria 309, 000 70, 000 European Turkey 194, 000 163, 000 73, 390 15, 000 Trapizond District Total: 2, 133, 190 387, 800

Prince Faisal at Versailles, 1918 Arab Disappointment! Prince Faisal at Versailles, 1918 Arab Disappointment!

The League of Nations Mandates The League of Nations Mandates

“New” Countries & Ruling Families Emerge! Z Prince Faisal “ruler” of Trans-Jordan. Z Prince “New” Countries & Ruling Families Emerge! Z Prince Faisal “ruler” of Trans-Jordan. Z Prince Abdullah “ruler” of a newly-created Iraq [pasted together from three distinct geographic regions]. Z The House of Saud put on the throne of the newly-created Saudi Arabia. Z The Pahlavi Family put on the throne of a new Iran. Z Mustafa Kemal leads a military/nationalist movement in Turkey.

Treaty of Lausanne, 1923 Modern Turkey Is Born. Treaty of Lausanne, 1923 Modern Turkey Is Born.

Mustafa Kemal “Atatürk” (1881 -1938) Mustafa Kemal “Atatürk” (1881 -1938)

Ataturk’s Reform Program Capital moved from Constantinople to Ankara. Secularism Qur’an in Turkish translation. Ataturk’s Reform Program Capital moved from Constantinople to Ankara. Secularism Qur’an in Turkish translation. Adoption of a republican constitution and a Swiss civil code. Westernization & nationalism: § Compulsory, secular education. § Banning the fez. § Western [Roman] script. § Western clothing. § Women unveiled & given full citizenship and the right to vote.

Oil Discovered in Mesopotamia! S First discovered on Masjid-I Suleiman in Persia in 1908. Oil Discovered in Mesopotamia! S First discovered on Masjid-I Suleiman in Persia in 1908. S Turkish-Petroleum Co. [TPC] founded in 1911 drill for oil in Mosul, Mesopotamia. S Britain signed a secret agreement with the sheikh of Kuwait who, while outwardly pledging allegiance to the Ottoman Sultan in Istanbul, promised exclusive oil rights to the British. S Kuwait became a British protectorate in November, 1914. S In 1927, oil was struck in Kirkuk, Iraq, and the Iraq Petroleum Co. [IPC] was created.

Oil Becomes the New International “Coin of the Realm!” S American oil companies [Texaco Oil Becomes the New International “Coin of the Realm!” S American oil companies [Texaco & Chevron], gain oil concessions in Bahrain in 1929. S In 1933, American oil companies win an oil concession in Saudi Arabia. S ARAMCO [Arab-American Oil Co, ] is created in 1939.

Rezah Khan (1877 -1944) S an Iranian officer, seized control of the govt. in Rezah Khan (1877 -1944) S an Iranian officer, seized control of the govt. in 1921. S declared himself SHAH in 1925. S created the Pahlavi Dynasty. S ruled from 1925 -1941. S initiated some modern reforms. S forced to abdicate his throne by the Allied armies in 1941.

Reforms in Iran S Secularization seizure of religious lands. S Adoption of the French Reforms in Iran S Secularization seizure of religious lands. S Adoption of the French civil code. S Built the Trans-Iranian Railroad. S Improved education.

The Middle East Between the Wars The Middle East Between the Wars

Essential Question: How did Britain’s actions in Palestine after 1918 lay the groundwork for Essential Question: How did Britain’s actions in Palestine after 1918 lay the groundwork for the ongoing conflict between the Jews and the Arabs in the Middle East today?

Palestine Was Part of the Ottoman Empire Palestine Was Part of the Ottoman Empire

Jews & Arabs in Palestine, 1920 × In 1920, there was 1 Jew to Jews & Arabs in Palestine, 1920 × In 1920, there was 1 Jew to every 10 Arabs in Palestine. × By 1947, the ratio was 2 Arabs for every Jew. The Arabs felt that they were loosing control of their “country!”

British Mandate in Palestine Created July, 1922 British Mandate in Palestine Created July, 1922

Jewish Settlements: The Kibbutz System Y First one founded in 1908. Y Communal living. Jewish Settlements: The Kibbutz System Y First one founded in 1908. Y Communal living. Y “Make the Desert Bloom!”

1929 Arab Riots IZBAH AL-YAHUD! [“Slaughter All the Jews!”] Jewish Immigration 1919 1, 806 1929 Arab Riots IZBAH AL-YAHUD! [“Slaughter All the Jews!”] Jewish Immigration 1919 1, 806 1931 4, 075 1920 8, 223 1932 12, 533 1921 8, 294 1933 37, 337 1922 8, 685 1934 45, 267 1923 8, 175 1935 66, 472 1924 13, 892 1936 29, 595 1925 34, 386 1937 10, 629 1926 13, 855 1938 14, 675 1927 3, 034 1939 31, 195 1928 2, 178 1940 10, 643 1929 5, 249 1941 4, 592 1930 4, 944

Palestine Arab Revolt: 1936 -1939 Their Goals: Z An end to Jewish immigration to Palestine Arab Revolt: 1936 -1939 Their Goals: Z An end to Jewish immigration to Palestine. Z An end to the transfer of lands to Jewish owners. Z A new “general representative government. ” The Grand Mufti of Jerusalem, Haj Amin al-Hussani, with Adolf Hitler.

The Peel Commission Partition Plan, 1937 The Peel Commission Partition Plan, 1937

British White Paper of 1939 § Limited Jewish immigration to Palestine to 75, 000 British White Paper of 1939 § Limited Jewish immigration to Palestine to 75, 000 over the next five years. § It ended Jewish land purchases. § Independence for Palestine within 10 years. § It is NOT British policy that Palestine become a Jewish state.

The “Arab Legion” of the British Army During WW 2 The “Arab Legion” of the British Army During WW 2

The “Jewish Brigade” of the British Army During WW 2 The “Jewish Brigade” of the British Army During WW 2

Hitler’s “Final Solution” The Jewish population in each country in 1942. Hitler’s “Final Solution” The Jewish population in each country in 1942.

Nazi Concentration & Extermination Camps Nazi Concentration & Extermination Camps

The Nazi Holocaust N 6, 000, 00 Jews killed by the Nazis [1/2 in The Nazi Holocaust N 6, 000, 00 Jews killed by the Nazis [1/2 in the concentration camps. ]

Aliyah Bet : Illegal Jewish Immigration Aliyah Bet : Illegal Jewish Immigration

Aliyah Bet § Illegal Jewish immigration to Palestine. § The Exodus, 1947. Aliyah Bet § Illegal Jewish immigration to Palestine. § The Exodus, 1947.

Palestine Population in 1946 Palestine Population in 1946

British “Detention” Camps in Cyprus : 1946 -1948 British “Detention” Camps in Cyprus : 1946 -1948

Jewish “Freedom Fighters” (or “Terrorists”? ) Irgun Zvai Leumi [Natl. Military Org. ] Avraham Jewish “Freedom Fighters” (or “Terrorists”? ) Irgun Zvai Leumi [Natl. Military Org. ] Avraham Stern & The Stern Gang

U. N. Partition Plan of 1947 U. N. Partition Plan of 1947

Israel Becomes a Nation: May 14, 1948 Chaim Weizmann, 1 st President David Ben-Gurion, Israel Becomes a Nation: May 14, 1948 Chaim Weizmann, 1 st President David Ben-Gurion, 1 st Prime Minister

War Begins!: May 15, 1948 War Begins!: May 15, 1948

Arab Refugees, 1948 The Palestinian Diaspora begins! Arab Refugees, 1948 The Palestinian Diaspora begins!

Armistice Signed, 1949 Armistice Signed, 1949